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Gut microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333342/is-there-a-link-between-aging-and-microbiome-diversity-in-exceptional-mammalian-longevity
#1
Graham M Hughes, John Leech, Sébastien J Puechmaille, Jose V Lopez, Emma C Teeling
A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333111/diet-gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-prevention-a-review-of-potential-mechanisms-and-promising-targets-for-future-research
#2
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331497/dietary-antioxidant-micronutrients-alter-mucosal-inflammatory-risk-in-a-murine-model-of-genetic-and-microbial-susceptibility
#3
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330189/targeted-synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-gene-cluster-encoding-nad-p-h-dependent-3%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-and-12%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-from-eggerthella-cag-298-a-gut-metagenomic-sequence
#4
Sean M Mythen, Saravanan Devendran, Celia Méndez-García, Isaac Cann, Jason M Ridlon
Gut metagenomic sequences provide a rich source of microbial genes, the majority of which are annotated by homology or unknown. Genes and gene pathways that encode enzymes catalyzing biotransformation of host bile acids are important to identify in gut metagenomic sequences due to the importance of bile acids on gut microbiome structure and host physiology. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) are pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes with stereo-specificity and regio-specificity for bile acid and steroid hydroxyl groups...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330187/acquisition-of-a-novel-sulfur-oxidizing-symbiont-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-inanidrilus-exumae
#5
C Bergin, C Wentrup, N Brewig, A Blazejak, C Erséus, O Giere, M Schmid, P De Wit, N Dubilier
Gutless phallodrilines are marine annelid worms without a mouth or gut, which live in an obligate association with multiple bacterial endosymbionts that supply them with nutrition. In this study, we discovered an unusual symbiont community in the gutless phallodriline Inanidrilus exumae that differs markedly from the microbiome of all other 22 examined host species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that I. exumae harboured co-occurring gamma-, alpha- and deltaproteobacterial symbionts, while all other known host species harbour gamma- and either alpha- or deltaproteobacterial symbionts...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329346/evaluation-of-bloodstream-infections-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-gut-microbiota-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#6
Bryan T Nycz, Samuel R Dominguez, Deborah Friedman, Joanne M Hilden, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank
Bloodstream infections (BSI) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in pediatric oncology/hematology/bone marrow transplant (BMT) populations are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations between altered microbiome composition and the occurrence of BSI and CDI in a cohort of pediatric oncology patients. Stool samples were collected from all patients admitted to the pediatric oncology floor from Oct.-Dec. 2012. Bacterial profiles from patient stools were determined by bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326142/gut-bacteria-shape-response-to-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#7
(no author information available yet)
The composition of patients' gut microbiomes influences whether they will respond to anti-PD-1 therapy, according to a trio of recently published studies. One of the studies also found that using antibiotics can reduce treatment efficacy, presumably by killing important species of gut bacteria. Now researchers are investigating how these findings can be used to increase the proportion of patients who respond to checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
January 11, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#8
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325027/pathogens-microbiome-and-the-host-emergence-of-the-ecological-koch-s-postulates
#9
Pascale Vonaesch, Mark Anderson, Philippe J Sansonetti
Even though tremendous progress has been made in the last decades to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis, dysbiosis and disease, we are only at the beginning of understanding the complexity of the gut ecosystem and the underlying interaction networks. We are also only starting to unravel the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to overcome the barriers imposed by the microbiota and host to exploit the system to their own benefit. Recent work in these domains clearly indicates that the 'traditional Koch's postulate', which state that a given pathogen leads to a distinct disease, are not valid for all 'infectious' diseases, but that a more complete and complex interpretation of the Koch's postulate is needed in order to understand and explain them...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324977/maternal-metabolic-immune-and-microbial-systems-in-late-pregnancy-vary-with-malnutrition-in-mice
#10
Kristin L Connor, Christel Chehoud, Adam Altrichter, Luisa Chan, Todd Z DeSantis, Stephen J Lye
Malnutrition is a global threat to pregnancy health and impacts offspring development. Establishing an optimal pregnancy environment requires the coordination of maternal metabolic and immune pathways, which converge at the gut. Diet, metabolic and immune dysfunctions have been associated with gut dysbiosis in the non-pregnant individual. In pregnancy, these states are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and offspring development. However, the impact of malnutrition on maternal gut microbes, and their relationships with maternal metabolic and immune status, has been largely underexplored...
January 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322681/gut-microbiome-contributes-to-impairment-of-immunity-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-by-alteration-of-butyrate-and-propionate-producers
#11
Abhijit Maji, Richa Misra, Darshan B Dhakan, Vipin Gupta, Nitish K Mahato, Rituja Saxena, Parul Mittal, Nitin Thukral, Eshan Sharma, Anoop Singh, Richa Virmani, Mohita Gaur, Harshvardhan Singh, Yasha Hasija, Gunjan Arora, Anurag Agrawal, Anil Chaudhry, Jitendra P Khurana, Vineet K Sharma, Rup Lal, Yogendra Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily associated with decline in immune health status. As gut microbiome (GM) is implicated in the regulation of host immunity and metabolism, here we investigate GM alteration in TB patients by 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The study group constituted of patients with pulmonary TB and their healthy household contacts as controls (HCs). Significant alteration of microbial taxonomic and functional capacity was observed in patients with active TB as compared to the HCs...
January 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321519/maturation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-risk-of-asthma-in-childhood
#12
Jakob Stokholm, Martin J Blaser, Jonathan Thorsen, Morten A Rasmussen, Johannes Waage, Rebecca K Vinding, Ann-Marie M Schoos, Asja Kunøe, Nadia R Fink, Bo L Chawes, Klaus Bønnelykke, Asker D Brejnrod, Martin S Mortensen, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Søren J Sørensen, Hans Bisgaard
The composition of the human gut microbiome matures within the first years of life. It has been hypothesized that microbial compositions in this period can cause immune dysregulations and potentially cause asthma. Here we show, by associating gut microbial composition from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing during the first year of life with subsequent risk of asthma in 690 participants, that 1-year-old children with an immature microbial composition have an increased risk of asthma at age 5 years. This association is only apparent among children born to asthmatic mothers, suggesting that lacking microbial stimulation during the first year of life can trigger their inherited asthma risk...
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320965/alterations-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-patients
#13
Fuya Zhao, Jing Feng, Jun Li, Lei Zhao, Yang Liu, Huinan Chen, Ye Jin, Biqiang Zhu, Yunwei Wei
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease in which both genetic predisposition and environmental factors serve as disease triggers. Many studies have indicated that alterations in the gut microbiota are important environmental factors in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We systematically performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiota in HT patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We first conducted a cross-sectional study of 28 HT patients and 16 matched healthy controls...
January 10, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318631/early-life-gut-microbiome-and-egg-allergy
#14
Mina Fazlollahi, Yoojin Chun, Alexander Grishin, Robert A Wood, A Wesley Burks, Peter Dawson, Stacie M Jones, Donald Y M Leung, Hugh A Sampson, Scott H Sicherer, Supinda Bunyavanich
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. METHODS: We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multi-center Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected and clinical evaluation, egg specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318340/evaluating-protocols-for-porcine-faecal-microbiome-recollection-storage-and-dna-extraction-from-the-farm-to-the-lab
#15
Anixa Muiños-Bühl, Oscar González-Recio, María Muñoz, Cristina Óvilo, Juan García-Casco, Ana I Fernández
There is a growing interest in understanding the role of the gut microbiome on productive and meat quality-related traits in livestock species in order to develop new useful tools for improving pig production systems and industry. Faecal samples are analysed as a proxy of gut microbiota and here the selection of suitable protocols for faecal sampling and DNA isolation is a critical first step in order to obtain reliable results, even more to compare results obtained from different studies. The aim of the current study was to establish in a cost-effective way, using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis technique, a protocol for porcine faecal sampling and storage at farm and slaughterhouse and to determine the most efficient microbiota DNA isolation kit among those most widely used...
January 9, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318023/microbiome-and-asthma
#16
REVIEW
Milena Sokolowska, Remo Frei, Nonhlanhla Lunjani, Cezmi A Akdis, Liam O'Mahony
The mucosal immune system is in constant communication with the vast diversity of microbes present on body surfaces. The discovery of novel molecular mechanisms, which mediate host-microbe communication, have highlighted the important roles played by microbes in influencing mucosal immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, ILCs, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, NKT cells and B cells can all be influenced by the microbiome. Many of the mechanisms being described are bacterial strain- or metabolite-specific...
2018: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317592/gut-microbiome-populations-are-associated-with-structure-specific-changes-in-white-matter-architecture
#17
Irene M Ong, Jose G Gonzalez, Sean J McIlwain, Emily A Sawin, Andrew J Schoen, Nagesh Adluru, Andrew L Alexander, John-Paul J Yu
Altered gut microbiome populations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder and mood disorders. In animal models, modulation of gut microbiome populations via dietary manipulation influences brain function and behavior and has been shown to ameliorate behavioral symptoms. With striking differences in microbiome-driven behavior, we explored whether these behavioral changes are also accompanied by corresponding changes in neural tissue microstructure...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317508/spatiotemporally-heterogeneous-population-dynamics-of-gut-bacteria-inferred-from-fecal-time-series-data
#18
Hidetoshi Inamine, Stephen P Ellner, Peter D Newell, Yuan Luo, Nicolas Buchon, Angela E Douglas
A priority in gut microbiome research is to develop methods to investigate ecological processes shaping microbial populations in the host from readily accessible data, such as fecal samples. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can be inferred from the proportion of ingested microorganisms that is egested and their egestion time distribution, by using general mathematical models that link within-host processes to statistics from fecal time series. We apply this framework to Drosophila melanogaster and its gut bacterium Acetobacter tropicalis Specifically, we investigate changes in their interactions following ingestion of a food bolus containing bacteria in a set of treatments varying the following key parameters: the density of exogenous bacteria ingested by the flies (low/high) and the association status of the host (axenic or monoassociated with A...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#19
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316555/intestinal-dysbiosis-secondary-to-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#20
Yuji Naito, Kaori Kashiwagi, Tomohisa Takagi, Akira Andoh, Ryo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use. SUMMARY: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Meta-analyses showed that PPI use is a potential risk for the development of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, as well as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and adverse outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease...
January 6, 2018: Digestion
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