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Gut microbiome

Yunjian Zhang, Shuizhen Zhou, Yuanfeng Zhou, Lifei Yu, Linmei Zhang, Yi Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and composition of intestinal microbiota in children with refractory epilepsy after ketogenic diet (KD) therapy and to explore the bacterial biomarkers related to clinical efficacy. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 20 patients (14 males, 6 females) treated with KD. Clinical efficacy, electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, and laboratory tests were evaluated, and fecal specimens were obtained prior to and 6 months after therapy...
June 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Niko Paalanne, Aleksi Husso, Jarmo Salo, Oskari Pieviläinen, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Koivusaari, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Tytti Pokka, Sampo Mattila, Juha Jyrkäs, Ari Turpeinen, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Terhi Tapiainen
As urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens originate from the gut, we hypothesized that the gut environment reflected by intestinal microbiome influences the risk of UTI. Our prospective case-control study compared the intestinal microbiomes of 37 children with a febrile UTI with those of 69 healthy children. We sequenced the regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and used the LefSe algorithm to calculate the size of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect. We measured fecal lactoferrin and iron concentrations and quantitative PCR for Escherichia coli...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Claudia Leong, Jillian J Haszard, Blair Lawley, Anna Otal, Rachael W Taylor, Ewa A Szymlek-Gay, Elizabeth A Fleming, Lisa Daniels, Louise J Fangupo, Gerald W Tannock, Anne-Louise M Heath
The introduction of 'solids' (i.e. complementary foods) to the milk-only diet of early infancy affects the development of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 'baby-led' approach to complementary feeding, that encourages early introduction of an adult type diet, results in alterations to gut microbiota composition compared to traditional spoon-feeding. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study randomized 206 infants to BLISS (a modified version of Baby-Led Weaning (BLW): introduction of solids at 6 months of age, followed by self-feeding of family foods) or Control (traditional spoon-feeding of purées) groups...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Anna Stedman, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Sandrine Lesellier, Deanna Dalley, Mark Chambers, Jorge Gutierrez-Merino
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is the most serious endemic disease affecting livestock in the UK. The European badger (Meles meles) is the most important wildlife reservoir of bTB transmission to cattle, making eradication particularly difficult. In this respect, oral vaccination with the attenuated M. bovis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been suggested as a wide-scale intervention to reduce bTB infection in badgers. However, experimental studies show variable protection...
July 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Yuanhui Ma, John R Yates
Measuring the immediate changes in cells that arise from changing environmental conditions is crucial to understanding the underlying mechanisms involved. These changes can be measured with metabolic stable isotope fully-labeled proteomes, but requires looking for changes in the midst of a large background. In addition, labeling efficiency can be an issue in primary and fully differentiated cells. Area covered: Azidohomoalanine (AHA), an analog of methionine, can be accepted by cellular translational machinery and incorporated into newly synthesized proteins (NSPs)...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Rebekka Thøgersen, Josué L Castro-Mejía, Ulrik Kraemer Sundekilde, Lars H Hansen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Hanne Christine Bertram
SCOPE: Processed meat intake is associated with a potential increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. In contrast, dietary fiber consumption has been found to lower CRC risk, possibly via mechanisms involving the gut microbiota (GM) and its metabolites. This study investigated the effect of inulin enrichment of a common pork sausage product on GM composition and activity in healthy rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet based on either an inulin-enriched sausauge (n = 12), a corresponding control sausage without enrichment (n = 12) or a standard chow diet (n = 6) during a four-week intervention...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Zikai Hao, Leyuan Li, Yuming Fu, Hong Liu
Understanding the dynamics of human gut microbiota in space is crucial in maintaining astronaut health. Long-duration and deep-space manned exploration will require the in situ regeneration of resources, which would be achieved by an artificial ecosystem, such as a bioregenerative life-support system (BLSS). Potential response of human gut microbiota to particular lifestyle and dietary structure experienced in a BLSS remains unclear. Here, we report how a BLSS impacts the gut microbiota during a 105-day study that took place in the Chinese Lunar Palace 1 (LP1)...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, Athanasios Michos
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescents exhibit abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence, and impaired glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is aggravated by the existing osteosarcopenia not only in obese but also in overweight youth. Biochemical inflammation, derived from glucose metabolism dysregulation, in combination with increased stress levels lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, also known as ROS, which seem to afflict the integrity of the gastrointestinal wall, gut mucosa, and commensal, intestinal gut microflora...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Sun Min Lee, Nayoung Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Ryoung Hee Nam, Kichul Yoon, Dong Ho Lee
Background: Gut microbiota contributes to intestinal and immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Distribution of the gut microbiota differs according to the location in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the microbiota properties change with age, evidence for the regional difference of gut microbiota has been restricted to the young. The aim of this study is to compare the gut microbiota between terminal ileum and cecum of old rats. Methods: We analyzed gut microbiome of luminal contents from ileum and cecum of 74-week-old and 2-year-old rats (corresponding to 60-year and 80-year-old of human age) by metagenome sequencing of 16S rRNA...
June 2018: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Jordan E Axelrad, Benjamin Lebwohl, Edward Cuaresma, Ken Cadwell, Peter H R Green, Daniel E Freedberg
Background: Gut colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is associated with poor outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of VRE colonization on subsequent acquisition of enteric pathogens. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to an ICU from 2012 to 2017 who were screened for VRE colonization and subsequently underwent stool testing with a gastrointestinal pathogen PCR panel (GI PCR) with or without PCR testing for Clostridium difficile ...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Kristina Buder-Bakhaya, Jessica C Hassel
Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) with anti-CTLA-4 and/or anti-PD-1 antibodies is standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Anti-PD-1 (pembrolizumab, nivolumab) and anti-PD-L1 antibodies (atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab) have been approved for treatment of several other advanced malignancies, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); renal cell, and urothelial carcinoma; head and neck cancer; gastric, hepatocellular, and Merkel-cell carcinoma; and classical Hodgkin lymphoma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chathur Acharya, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Hepatic encephalopathy is a state of brain dysfunction resulting from decompensation of cirrhosis. The mortality and morbidity associated with the overt form of hepatic encephalopathy are high, and even the covert form associates with poor outcomes and poor quality of life. We know that the dysfunction is not just an acute insult to the brain but rather results in long-standing cognitive issues that get worse with each episode of HE. Hence, there is an urgency to accurately diagnose these conditions, start appropriate therapy, and to maintain remission...
July 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Hui Ling Lee, Haosheng Shen, In Young Hwang, Hua Ling, Wen Shan Yew, Yung Seng Lee, Matthew Wook Chang
Microbial communities and their collective genomes form the gut microbiome, of which bacteria are the major contributor. Through their secreted metabolites, bacteria interact with the host, influencing human health and physiology. Perturbation of the microbiota and metabolome has been associated with various diseases and metabolic conditions. As knowledge on fundamental host-microbiome interactions and genetic engineering tools becomes readily available, targeted manipulation of the gut microbiome for therapeutic applications gains favourable attention...
July 12, 2018: Genes
Helen L Barrett, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Shelley A Wilkinson, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The composition of the gut microbiota can be influenced by dietary composition. In pregnancy, the maternal gut microbiome has associations with maternal and infant metabolic status. There is little known regarding the impact of a vegetarian diet in pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota. This study explored the gut microbiota profile in women who were vegetarian or omnivorous in early gestation. Women were selected from participants in the Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes (SPRING) randomised controlled trial...
July 12, 2018: Nutrients
Pamela Ferretti, Edoardo Pasolli, Adrian Tett, Francesco Asnicar, Valentina Gorfer, Sabina Fedi, Federica Armanini, Duy Tin Truong, Serena Manara, Moreno Zolfo, Francesco Beghini, Roberto Bertorelli, Veronica De Sanctis, Ilaria Bariletti, Rosarita Canto, Rosanna Clementi, Marina Cologna, Tiziana Crifò, Giuseppina Cusumano, Stefania Gottardi, Claudia Innamorati, Caterina Masè, Daniela Postai, Daniela Savoi, Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Rosaria Anzalone, Alice Viappiani, Moran Yassour, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik Xavier, Carmen Maria Collado, Omry Koren, Saverio Tateo, Massimo Soffiati, Anna Pedrotti, Marco Ventura, Curtis Huttenhower, Peer Bork, Nicola Segata
The acquisition and development of the infant microbiome are key to establishing a healthy host-microbiome symbiosis. The maternal microbial reservoir is thought to play a crucial role in this process. However, the source and transmission routes of the infant pioneering microbes are poorly understood. To address this, we longitudinally sampled the microbiome of 25 mother-infant pairs across multiple body sites from birth up to 4 months postpartum. Strain-level metagenomic profiling showed a rapid influx of microbes at birth followed by strong selection during the first few days of life...
July 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Alexandra Zimmermann, Lukas Tittmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Lioba Baving, Annegret Fischer
ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention problems. Due to recent findings of microbial involvement in other psychiatric disorders like autism and depression, a role of the gut microbiota in ADHD pathogenesis is assumed but has not yet been investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of 14 male ADHD patients (mean age: 11.9 yrs.) and 17 male controls (mean age: 13.1 yrs.) was examined via next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers...
2018: PloS One
J Elijah Powell, Daren Eiri, Nancy A Moran, Juliana Rangel
As the sole reproductive female in a honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony, the queen's health is critical to colony productivity and longevity. Beekeeping operations typically rely on the commercial mass production of queens for colony multiplication, which involves manipulating and isolating the queens by confining them in cages during early development. Using common queen-rearing techniques, this study shows that segregating newly eclosed queens from their worker attendants for 72 hours using queen protector cages has a significant impact on the total amount of gut bacteria carried by those queens compared to queens that have unrestricted access to attendants upon eclosion...
2018: PloS One
Livia Archibugi, Marianna Signoretti, Gabriele Capurso
Many risk factors for pancreatic cancer are related with microbiome alteration. In the past few years, the human microbiome and its relation with the immune system have been linked with carcinogenesis of different organs distant from the gut, including the pancreas. Patterns of oral microbiome associated with periodontitis are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, possibly because of the increased systemic inflammatory response, or to the capacity of some specific bacteria to alter the host immune response, making it more favorable to cancer cells...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Christian A Devaux, Didier Raoult
If the transmission of biological information from one generation to the next is based on DNA, most heritable phenotypic traits such as chronic metabolic diseases, are not linked to genetic variation in DNA sequences. Non-genetic heritability might have several causes including epigenetic, parental effect, adaptive social learning, and influence of the ecological environment. Distinguishing among these causes is crucial to resolve major phenotypic enigmas. Strong evidence indicates that changes in DNA expression through various epigenetic mechanisms can be linked to parent-offspring resemblance in terms of sensitivity to metabolic diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anna Parra-Llorca, María Gormaz, Cristina Alcántara, María Cernada, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Máximo Vento, Maria C Collado
Preterm microbial colonization is affected by gestational age, antibiotic treatment, type of birth, but also by type of feeding. Breast milk has been acknowledged as the gold standard for human nutrition. In preterm infants breast milk has been associated with improved growth and cognitive development and a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. In the absence of their mother's own milk (MOM), pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) could be the best available alternative due to its similarity to the former...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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