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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741519/cancer-prevention-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Barbara K Dunn, Barnett S Kramer
In this review, we address selected areas that are central to the state-of-the-art of cancer prevention science. The emphasis on prevention as a viable and critical approach to decreasing cancer mortality has gained traction in recent years, evidenced by its inclusion in the US Vice President's Cancer Initiative (also termed 'Moonshot'). Cancer prevention occurs by arresting, slowing down, or reversing the carcinogenic process before invasion into surrounding tissue or by avoiding or blocking causative exposure...
December 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741269/prevention-of-hpv-related-oral-cancer-by-dentists-assessing-the-opinion-of-dutch-dental-students
#2
Marcella R Poelman, Henk S Brand, Thymour Forouzanfar, Ellen M Daley, Derk H Jan Jager
The aim of this study is to assess dental students' opinions of the dentists' role in primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancer using a cross-sectional web-based survey. A questionnaire, containing questions about knowledge of HPV and oral cancer, confidence in head and neck examination and role of the dentist in preventing HPV-related oral cancer, was sent to all students of the Academic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (n = 912). One hundred and twenty-six (n = 126) students completed the questionnaire...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740383/enhanced-immunization-via-dissolving-microneedle-array-based-delivery-system-incorporating-subunit-vaccine-and-saponin-adjuvant
#3
Ji-Hui Zhao, Qi-Bo Zhang, Bao Liu, Xiang-Hua Piao, Yu-Lu Yan, Xiao-Ge Hu, Kuan Zhou, Yong-Tai Zhang, Nian-Ping Feng
PURPOSE: To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA) was combined with platycodin (PD), a saponin adjuvant. To reduce the toxicity of PD, OVA, and adjuvant were loaded together into liposomes before being incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. METHODS: OVA- and PD-loaded liposomes (OVA-PD-Lipos) were prepared using the film dispersion method. Their uptake behavior, toxicity to mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs), and hemolytic activity to rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739368/andrographolide-induces-oxidative-stress-dependent-cell-death-in-unicellular-protozoan-parasite-trypanosoma-brucei
#4
Malabika Banerjee, Debaprasad Parai, Pranab Dhar, Manab Roy, Rajib Barik, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Samir Kumar Mukherjee
African sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease in humans and livestock caused by Trypanosoma brucei throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Absence of appropriate vaccines and prevalence of drug resistance proclaim that a new way of therapeutic interventions is essential against African trypanosomiasis. In the present study, we have looked into the effect of andrographolide (andro), a diterpenoid lactone from Andrographis paiculata on Trypanosoma brucei PRA 380. Although andro has been recognized as a promosing anti-cancer drug, its usefulness against Trypanosoma spp remained unexplored...
July 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739221/structure-and-computation-in-immunoreagent-design-from-diagnostics-to-vaccines
#5
REVIEW
Louise Gourlay, Claudio Peri, Martino Bolognesi, Giorgio Colombo
Novel immunological tools for efficient diagnosis and treatment of emerging infections are urgently required. Advances in the diagnostic and vaccine development fields are continuously progressing, with reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology (SV) methods for antigen identification and structure-based antigen (re)design playing increasingly relevant roles. SV, in particular, is predicted to be the front-runner in the future development of diagnostics and vaccines targeting challenging diseases such as AIDS and cancer...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738674/complex-consisting-of-%C3%AE-glucan-and-antigenic-peptides-with-cleavage-site-for-glutathione-and-aminopeptidases-induces-potent-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes
#6
Shinichi Mochizuki, Hiromi Morishita, Kazuo Sakurai
The efficient induction of antigen-specific immune responses requires not only promotion of the uptake of antigens and adjuvant molecules into antigen-presenting cells, but also control of their intracellular behavior. We previously demonstrated that the β-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) can form complexes with CpG oligonucleotides with attached dA40 (CpG-dA/SPG), which can accumulate in macrophages in the draining inguinal lymph nodes and induce strong immune responses. In this study, we prepared various conjugates comprising antigenic peptide (OVA257-264) and dA40, and made complexes with SPG...
July 24, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738364/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#7
Jordi Almirall, Mateu Serra-Prat, Ignasi Bolíbar, Valentina Balasso
We performed a systematic review of the literature to establish conclusive evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies) the primary outcome of which was to assess risk factors for CAP in both hospitalized and ambulatory adult patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were selected. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale specific for cohort and case-control designs was used for quality assessment. Twenty-nine studies (20 case-control, 8 cohort, and 1 cross-sectional) were selected, with 44...
July 25, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736197/characterization-of-an-escherichia-coli-derived-human-papillomavirus-type-16-and-18-bivalent-vaccine
#8
Ying Gu, Minxi Wei, Daning Wang, Zhihai Li, Minghui Xie, Huirong Pan, Ting Wu, Jun Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 account for approximately 70% of cervical cancer worldwide. Neutralizing HPV prophylactic vaccines offer significant benefit, as they block HPV infection and prevent subsequent disease. However, the three licensed HPV vaccines that cover these two genotypes were produced in eukaryotic cells, which is expensive, particularly for low-income countries where HPV is highest. Here, we report a new HPV16 and -18 bivalent candidate vaccine produced from Escherichia coli. We used two strategies of N-terminal truncation of HPV L1 proteins and soluble non-fusion expression to generate HPV16 and HPV18 L1-only virus-like particles (VLPs) in a scalable process...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736158/nanoliposomes-carrying-her2-neu-derived-peptide-ae36-with-cpg-odn-exhibit-therapeutic-and-prophylactic-activities-in-a-mice-tubo-model-of-breast-cancer
#9
Nastaran Barati, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Atefeh Razazan, Fatemeh Mosaffa, Ali Badiee, Atefeh Arab, Zahra Gholizadeh, Javad Behravan, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
This study was designed to prepare and characterize nanoliposomal vaccine formulation encapsulating AE36 HER2/neu-derived peptide with or without CpG and evaluate the immunologic and therapeutic responses of that in BALB/c mice model of Her2 overexpressing breast cancer. AE36 was encapsulated in liposomes composed of DOTAP, DOPE and Cholesterol (DDC) or DD with. The formulations could induce both CD8+ and CD4+ responses and stimulate production of cytokines which was detected by Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot) kits, cytotoxicity test and intracellular cytokine assay by flow cytometry...
July 20, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734176/cancer-immunotherapy-moving-forward-with-peptide-t-cell-vaccines
#10
REVIEW
Takumi Kumai, Aaron Fan, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Recent advances in cancer immunology, such as the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have validated immune cells as potential key players for effective cancer treatment. The efficacy of these therapies seems to be codependent on a tumor-reactive T lymphocyte response. For many years, numerous attempts and strategies in developing vaccines to generate tumor-reactive T cells have yielded poor results in the clinic due to suboptimal immunogenicity and the inability to overcome an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734013/cervical-cancer-in-africa-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-and-asia-regional-inequalities-and-changing-trends
#11
S Vaccarella, M Laversanne, J Ferlay, F Bray
The vast majority (86% or 453,000 cases) of the global burden of cervical cancer occurs in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia, where one in nine new cancer cases are of the cervix. Although the disease has become rare in high-resource settings (e.g. in North America, parts of Europe, Japan) that have historically invested in effective screening programmes, the patterns and trends are variable elsewhere. While favourable incidence trends have been recorded in many populations in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean in the past decades, rising rates have been observed in sub-Saharan African countries, where high quality incidence series are available...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733985/lalf32-51-e7-a-hpv-16-therapeutic-vaccine-candidate-forms-protein-body-like-structures-when-expressed-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#12
Romana J R Yanez, Renate Lamprecht, Milaid Granadillo, Isis Torrens, Elsa Arcalís, Eva Stöger, Edward P Rybicki, Inga I Hitzeroth
High-risk Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer, and while there are good prophylactic vaccines on the market, these are ineffective against established infections, creating a clear need for therapeutic vaccines. The HPV E7 protein is one of the essential oncoproteins for the onset and maintenance of malignancy, and is therefore an ideal therapeutic vaccine target. We fused the HPV-16 E7 protein to the Limulus polyphemus anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (LALF32-51 ), a small hydrophobic peptide that can penetrate cell membranes and that has immunomodulatory properties...
July 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733696/vaccination-against-influenza-at-a-european-pediatric-cancer-center-immunization-rates-and-attitudes-among-staff-patients-and-their-families
#13
Aleksandra Pettke, Sophie Jocham, Andreas Wiener, Andreas Löcken, Judith Groenefeld, Martina Ahlmann, Andreas H Groll
BACKGROUND: Influenza is an important cause of infectious morbidity in pediatric cancer patients. We conducted a single-center survey to explore adherence and attitudes towards the recommended annual influenza vaccination. METHODS: Self-administered, standardized questionnaires were distributed to 143 staff members and 264 families. Items analyzed included demographic data, knowledge about influenza, history of prior influenza infections and vaccinations, routes of information and education, and attitudes towards the recommended influenza...
July 21, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732279/turbocharging-vaccines-emerging-adjuvants-for-dendritic-cell-based-therapeutic-cancer-vaccines
#14
REVIEW
Mansi Saxena, Nina Bhardwaj
Development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been hindered by the many pro-tumorigenic mechanisms at play in cancer patients that serve to suppress both antigen presenting cells and T cells. In face of these obstacles, cancer vaccines are most likely to promote anti-tumorigenic immune responses only when formulated with strong adjuvants, and in combination with new immune interventions designed to reverse immune suppression and exhaustion of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs) are often termed 'nature's adjuvant' due to their exceptional capacity for initiating both innate and adaptive immune responses...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730914/the-health-economic-studies-of-hpv-vaccination-in-southeast-asian-countries-a-systematic-review
#15
Didik Setiawan, Monika Puri Oktora, Raymond Hutubessy, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Maarten J Postma
The cervical cancer-related burden is an important problem in Southeast Asian (SEA) countries. However, only 3 out of 11 countries implement the comprehensive prevention program. Areas covered: This is a retrospective review from all relevant studies until 2015 from two main databases, MEDLINE/Pubmed and Embase in order to provide an evidence on the health economics of HPV vaccination in the region. Expert commentary: The implementation of HPV vaccination will generate substantial health and economic benefit in SEA countries since the number of cervical cancer cases in this region are generally high...
July 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730704/the-athena-hpv-study-underrepresents-other-high-risk-hpv-genotypes-when-compared-with-a-diverse-new-york-city-population
#16
G Ramos Rivera, S N Khader, S Lajara, K Schlesinger, D Y Goldstein, R C Naeem, M J Suhrland, A S Fox
OBJECTIVE: Persistent infection with oncogenic high risk HPV (hrHPV) types causes virtually all cases of cervical cancer. HPV 16 and 18 have been targeted for individual genotyping and vaccination because of their presence in 71% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide. Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York serves a population known for ethnic and racial diversity. Given this diversity it is possible that HPV genotypes not individually detected by current testing are causing significant disease...
July 21, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730615/vulvar-cancer-in-high-income-countries-increasing-burden-of-disease
#17
Yoon-Jung Kang, Megan Smith, Ellen Barlow, Kate Coffey, Neville Hacker, Karen Canfell
The aim of this study was to assess trends in the age-specific incidence of vulvar cancer in 13 high-income countries satisfying a priori conditions regarding the availability of cancer registry data over a 20 year period; these were Canada, USA, 9 European countries, Australia and Japan. Five-yearly incidence and population at risk were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents for the years 1988-1992 (Volume 7) to 2003-2007 (Volume 10). The 5-yearly average percent change (AvPC) over the 20-year period and standardised rate ratios (SRRs) for 2003-2007 vs...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730317/assessment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-antibody-titers-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#18
Najwa Yahya Fayea, Shaimaa Mohamed Kandil, Khadijah Boujettif, Ashraf Elsayed Fouda
Pediatric patients suffering from cancer are at risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its related complications even though it is considered a vaccine preventable disease. Little is known of the effects of chemotherapy, and even less is known regarding the impact of HBV booster on HBV antibody titers. It is the purpose of this study to investigate and measure the prevalence of the antihepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb) in childhood cancer survivors after completion of their chemotherapy treatment and to further evaluate survivors' response to a single booster dose of HBV vaccine...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729358/targeting-c-type-lectin-receptors-a-high-carbohydrate-diet-for-dendritic-cells-to-improve-cancer-vaccines
#19
REVIEW
Dieke van Dinther, Dorian A Stolk, Rieneke van de Ven, Yvette van Kooyk, Tanja D de Gruijl, Joke M M den Haan
There is a growing understanding of why certain patients do or do not respond to checkpoint inhibition therapy. This opens new opportunities to reconsider and redevelop vaccine strategies to prime an anticancer immune response. Combination of such vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors will both provide the fuel and release the brake for an efficient anticancer response. Here, we discuss vaccine strategies that use C-type lectin receptor (CLR) targeting of APCs, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. APCs are a necessity for the priming of antigen-specific cytotoxic and helper T cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726109/the-study-of-immunogenicity-of-the-antigenic-protein-of-high-risk-oncogenic-type-of-the-human-papillomavirus-hpv16-l1-produced-in-the-plant-expression-system-on-the-base-of-transgenic-tomato
#20
R K Salyaev, N I Rekoslavskaya, A S Stolbikov, A V Tretyakova
The immunogenicity of plant-made peroral vaccine against cervical cancer was studied in mice during 342 days after vaccination with the material of tomato fruits genetically transformed with HPV16 L1 Ώ 5'UTR TMV. The immune response was found on day 4 after vaccination in blood serum of vaccinated mice. On days 90-100, the rise to maximum value of the level of antibodies to HPV16 L1 was in the range of 500 ng of the standard antibodies to HPV16 L1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, United States). This level of antibodies was retained until the end of the study...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
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