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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156688/frequency-of-expression-and-generation-of-t-cell-responses-against-antigens-on-multiple-myeloma-cells-in-patients-included-in-the-gmmg-mm5-trial
#1
Michael Schmitt, Angela G Hückelhoven, Michael Hundemer, Anita Schmitt, Susanne Lipp, Martina Emde, Hans Salwender, Mathias Hänel, Katja Weisel, Uta Bertsch, Jan Dürig, Anthony D Ho, Igor Wolfgang Blau, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Anja Seckinger, Dirk Hose
Background: Raising T-cell response against antigens either expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells (e.g. HM1.24) or aberrantly on myeloma cells only (e.g. cancer testis antigens, CTA) by vaccination is a potential treatment approach for multiple myeloma. Results: Expression by GEP is found for HM1.24 in all, HMMR in 318/458 (69.4%), MAGE-A3 in 209/458 (45.6%), NY-ESO-1/2 in 40/458 (8.7%), and WT-1 in 4/458 (0.8%) of samples with the pattern being confirmed by RNA-sequencing...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#2
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155844/hypoxia-and-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-downregulate-antigen-presenting-mhc-class-i-molecules-limiting-tumor-cell-recognition-by-t-cells
#3
Shalini Sethumadhavan, Murillo Silva, Phaethon Philbrook, Thao Nguyen, Stephen M Hatfield, Akio Ohta, Michail V Sitkovsky
Human cancers are known to downregulate Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I expression thereby escaping recognition and rejection by anti-tumor T cells. Here we report that oxygen tension in the tumor microenvironment (TME) serves as an extrinsic cue that regulates antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules. In support of this view, hypoxia is shown to negatively regulate MHC expression in a HIF-dependent manner as evidenced by (i) lower MHC expression in the hypoxic TME in vivo and in hypoxic 3-dimensional (3D) but not 2-dimensional (2D) tumor cell cultures in vitro; (ii) decreased MHC in human renal cell carcinomas with constitutive expression of HIF due to genetic loss of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) function as compared with isogenically paired cells with restored VHL function, and iii) increased MHC in tumor cells with siRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155666/cdc-activities-for-improving-implementation-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-cervical-cancer-screening-and-surveillance-worldwide
#4
Virginia Senkomago, Denise Duran, Anagha Loharikar, Terri B Hyde, Lauri E Markowitz, Elizabeth R Unger, Mona Saraiya
Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152681/trichothecenes-immunomodulatory-effects-mechanisms-and-anti-cancer-potential
#5
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Eugenie Nepovimova, Anca Miron, Qianying Liu, Yun Wang, Dongxiao Su, Hualin Yang, Li Li, Kamil Kuca
Paradoxically, trichothecenes have both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory effects. The underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored. Early studies show that dose, exposure timing, and the time at which immune function is assessed influence whether trichothecenes act in an immunosuppressive or immunostimulatory fashion. Recent studies suggest that the immunomodulatory function of trichothecenes is also actively shaped by competing cell-survival and death-signaling pathways. Autophagy may also promote trichothecene immunosuppression, although the mechanism may be complicated...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151581/human-pbmc-transferred-murine-mhc-class-i-ii-deficient-nog-mice-enable-long-term-evaluation-of-human-immune-responses
#6
Tomonori Yaguchi, Asuka Kobayashi, Takashi Inozume, Kenji Morii, Haruna Nagumo, Hiroshi Nishio, Takashi Iwata, Yuyo Ka, Ikumi Katano, Ryoji Ito, Mamoru Ito, Yutaka Kawakami
Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human peripheral blood cells are promising tools for in vivo analysis of human patient individual immune responses. However, when human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are transferred into NOG (NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2rg(null)) mice, severe graft versus host disease (GVHD) hinders long term detailed analysis. Administration of human PBMCs into newly developed murine MHC class I- and class II-deficient NOG (NOG-dKO; NOG- Iab, B2m-double-knockout) mice showed sufficient engraftment of human immune cells with little sign of GVHD...
November 20, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150567/amplifying-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-by-cd11c-specific-loss-of-socs1-increases-innate-immunity-to-infection-while-decreasing-adaptive-immunity
#7
Alejandro F Alice, Gwen Kramer, Shelly Bambina, Jason R Baird, Keith S Bahjat, Michael J Gough, Marka R Crittenden
Although prophylactic vaccines provide protective humoral immunity against infectious agents, vaccines that elicit potent CD8 T cell responses are valuable tools to shape and drive cellular immunity against cancer and intracellular infection. In particular, IFN-γ-polarized cytotoxic CD8 T cell immunity is considered optimal for protective immunity against intracellular Ags. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 is a cross-functional negative regulator of TLR and cytokine receptor signaling via degradation of the receptor-signaling complex...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149907/mapping-evidence-on-the-distribution-of-human-papillomavirus-related-cancers-in-sub-saharan-africa-scoping-review-protocol
#8
Bridget K M Lekoane, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa...
November 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149434/enhancement-of-therapeutic-dna-vaccine-potency-by-melatonin-through-inhibiting-vegf-expression-and-induction-of-antitumor-immunity-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#9
Sanaz Baghban Rahimi, Alireza Mohebbi, Gelareh Vakilzadeh, Peyvand Biglari, Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Seyed Reza Mohebi, Sadegh Shirian, Ali Gorji, Amir Ghaemi
To be effective, therapeutic cancer vaccines should stimulate both an effective cell-mediated and a robust cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response against human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells to treat the pre-existing tumors and prevent potential future tumors. In this study, the therapeutic experiments were designed in order to evaluate antitumor effect against the syngeneic TC-1 tumor model. The anti-tumor efficacy of a HPV-16 E7 DNA vaccine adjuvanted with melatonin (MLT) was evaluated in a C57BL/6 mouse tumor model by measuring tumor growth post vaccination and the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, analyzing the specific lymphocyte proliferation responses in control and vaccinated mice by MTT assay...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147623/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-play-a-key-role-in-the-efficacy-of-cancer-vaccines
#10
C Granier, C Blanc, S Karaki, T Tran, H Roussel, E Tartour
Resident memory CD8(+)T cells (TRM) usually defined by the CD103 marker represent a new subset of long-lived memory T cells that remain in the tissues. We directly demonstrate their specific role in cancer vaccine-induced tumor regression. In human, they also seem to play a major role in tumor immunosurveillance.
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147609/tumor-immunology-meets%C3%A2-immunology-modified-cancer-cells-as-professional-apc-for-priming-na%C3%A3-ve-tumor-specific-cd4-t-cells
#11
REVIEW
Farah Bou Nasser Eddine, Elise Ramia, Giovanna Tosi, Greta Forlani, Roberto S Accolla
Although recent therapeutic approaches have revitalized the enthusiasm of the immunological way to combat cancer, still the comprehension of immunity against tumors is largely incomplete. Due to their specific function, CD8+ T cells with cytolytic activity (CTL) have attracted the attention of most investigators because CTL are considered the main effectors against tumor cells. Nevertheless, CTL activity and persistence is largely dependent on the action of CD4+ T helper cells (TH). Thus establishment of tumor-specific TH cell response is key to the optimal response against cancer...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146945/maraba-virus-vectored-cancer-vaccines-represent-a-safe-and-novel-therapeutic-option-for-cats
#12
Jeff Hummel, Dorothee Bienzle, Annette Morrison, Michelle Cieplak, Kyle Stephenson, Josepha DeLay, J Paul Woods, Brian D Lichty, Byram W Bridle
Direct killing of malignant cells combined with induction of tumour-specific immune responses makes oncolytic vaccines attractive for cancer therapy. We previously developed a heterologous cancer immunization strategy that utilized a replication-defective adenovirus-vectored primary vaccine encoding a tumour antigen followed by boosting with a replication-competent Maraba virus expressing the same antigen. To assess the safety of oncolytic Maraba virus-based booster vaccines and inform the design of clinical trials, we conducted translational studies in cats, which have immune systems that are similar to people and spontaneously develop cancers of comparable types and etiologies...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146881/beta-adrenergic-signaling-impairs-anti-tumor-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-b-cell-lymphoma-immunotherapy
#13
Michael D Nissen, Erica K Sloan, Stephen R Mattarollo
Beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) signaling regulates many physiological processes, including immune system responses. There is growing evidence also for betaAR-induced modulation of cancer growth and metastasis. In the Eu-myc mouse model of B-cell lymphoma, we investigated the effects of chronically elevated betaAR signaling on lymphoma progression and anti-tumor immunity, as well as the impact on cancer immunotherapy. Chronic treatment with the non-selective beta-agonist isoprenaline promoted lymphoma development in a manner dependent on signaling within the hematopoietic compartment...
November 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146441/combining-immunotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jason M Redman, James L Gulley, Ravi A Madan
Sipuleucel-T, a therapeutic dendritic-cell vaccine, was Food and Drug Administration-approved for prostate cancer in 2010. No new immunotherapies for prostate cancer have been approved since. However, novel agents and combination approaches offer great promise for improving outcomes for prostate cancer patients. Here we review the latest developments in immunotherapy for prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T has demonstrated a survival advantage of 4.1 months in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. PSA-TRICOM (PROSTVAC), a prostate-specific antigen-targeted vaccine platform, showed evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy in early-phase clinical trials, and results from a phase III trial in advanced disease are pending...
December 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145268/seroconverting-nonresponder-of-high-dose-intramuscular-hbv-vaccine-with-intradermal-hbv-vaccine-a-case-report
#15
Manjusha Das, Vishwas Vanar, Daniel K Martin, Saqib Walayat, Jaymon Patel, Maaz B Badshah, Nikhil R Kalva, Watcoun-Nchinda Pisoh, Sonu Dhillon
INTRODUCTION: Liver disease is a leading cause of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the United States. Patients with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection have accelerated liver disease, higher rates of cirrhosis, and liver cancer, and markedly increased liver-related mortality. The CDC and US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend hepatitis B vaccination for all HIV-infected individuals. Unfortunately, HIV-infected patients have a worse response rate after standard HBV vaccination...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144754/immunogenic-cell-death-amplified-by-co-localized-adjuvant-delivery-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Yuchen Fan, Rui Kuai, Yao Xu, Lukasz J Ochyl, Darrell J Irvine, James Moon
Despite their potential, conventional whole-cell cancer vaccines prepared by freeze-thawing or irradiation have shown limited therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. Recent studies have shown that cancer cells treated with certain chemotherapeutics, such as mitoxantrone, can undergo immunogenic cell death (ICD) and initiate anti-tumor immune responses. However, it remains unclear how ICD can be exploited for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we present a new biomaterial-based strategy for converting immunogenically dying tumor cells into a powerful platform for cancer vaccination and demonstrate their immunogenicity in murine models of melanoma and colon carcinoma...
November 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144546/presence-of-infection-and-analysis-of-hpv-subtypes-in-girls-younger-than-9-years-old-attended-at-a-referral-service-in-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#17
Mariana Penha De Nadai Sartori, Lidiane Pignaton Agostini, Thaís Tristão Tovar, Raquel Silva Dos Reis, Raquel Spinassé Dettogni, Eldamária de Vargas Wolfgramm Dos Santos, Antônio Chambô Filho, Iúri Drumond Louro
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus is found in adults and adolescents and is associated with genital warts and cervical cancer. However, it has been detected in girls younger than 10 years old. Currently, there are no prevention methods for this age group, since it is not considered a risk group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infection and HPV subtype in girls under 9 years old attended at a referral service in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-three girls younger than 9 years old had gynecological brush samples collected from vulval and perineal/anal regions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143114/cancer-vaccine-strategies-translation-from-mice-to-human-clinical-trials
#18
REVIEW
Jay A Berzofsky, Masaki Terabe, Jane B Trepel, Ira Pastan, David F Stroncek, John C Morris, Lauren V Wood
We translated two cancer vaccine strategies from mice into human clinical trials. (1) In preclinical studies on TARP, an antigen expressed in most prostate cancers, we mapped epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201, modified them to increase affinity and immunogenicity in HLA transgenic mice, and induced human T cells that killed human cancer cells ("epitope enhancement"). In a clinical trial, HLA-A2(+) prostate cancer patients with PSA biochemical recurrence (Stage D0) were vaccinated with two peptides either in Montanide-ISA51 or on autologous dendritic cells (DCs)...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143101/candidate-biomarkers-in-the-cervical-vaginal-fluid-for-the-self-diagnosis-of-cervical-precancer
#19
REVIEW
Xaveer Van Ostade, Martin Dom, Wiebren Tjalma, Geert Van Raemdonck
PURPOSE: Despite improvement in vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV), the causative agent of cervical cancer, screening women for cervical precancer will remain indispensable in the coming 30-40 years. A simple test that could be performed at home or at a doctor's practice and that informs the woman whether she is at risk would significantly help make a broader group of patients who aware that they need medical treatment. Cervical vaginal fluid (CVF) is a body fluid that is very well suited for such a test...
November 15, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142905/p-cadherin-cdh3-is-overexpressed-in-colorectal-tumors-and-has-potential-as-a-serum-marker-for-colorectal-cancer-monitoring
#20
H M C Shantha Kumara, Geoffrey A Bellini, Otavia L Caballero, Sonali A C Herath, Tao Su, Aqeel Ahmed, Linda Njoh, Vesna Cekic, Richard L Whelan
Introduction: Placental-Cadherin (CDH3) is a cell adhesion molecule vital to cellular localization and tissue integrity. It is highly expressed in the placenta (PLC)and is overexpressed by many types of cancer. P-cadherin levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly characterized. This study's purpose was to determine P-cadherin expression in CRC and normal tissues and to assess plasma CDH3 levels in order to determine the relationship, if any, between cancer stage, P-cadherin expression and plasma CDH3 levels...
September 2017: Oncoscience
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