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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645623/identification-of-a-coumarin-based-antihistamine-as-an-anti-filoviral-entry-inhibitor
#1
Han Cheng, Adam Schafer, Veronica Soloveva, Dima Gharaibeh, Tara Kenny, Cary Retterer, Rouzbeh Zamani, Sina Bavari, Norton P Peet, Lijun Rong
Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Cuevavirus, cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans with high mortality rates up to 90%. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or therapy available for the prevention and treatment of filovirus infection in humans. The recent 2013-2015 West African Ebola epidemic underscores the urgency to develop antiviral therapeutics against these infectious diseases. Our previous study showed that GPCR antagonists, particularly histamine receptor antagonists (antihistamines) inhibit Ebola and Marburg virus entry...
June 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645564/immunotherapy-holds-the-key-to-cancer-treatment-and-prevention-in-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-cmmrd-syndrome
#2
Harm Westdorp, Sigrid Kolders, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, I Jolanda M de Vries, Marjolijn C J Jongmans, Gerty Schreibelt
Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in MMR genes. This syndrome is characterized by the development of childhood cancer. Patients with CMMRD are at extremely high risk of developing multiple cancers including hematological, brain and intestinal tumors...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644608/targeting-cpg-adjuvant-to-lymph-node-via-dextran-conjugate-enhances-anti-tumor-immunotherapy
#3
Weidong Zhang, Myunggi An, Jingchao Xi, Haipeng Liu
Nucleic acids based adjuvants recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) are potent immune system stimulants that can augment the anti-tumor immune responses in an antigen-specific manner. However, their clinical uses as vaccine adjuvants are limited primarily due to lack of accumulation in the lymph nodes, the anatomic sites where the immune responses are initiated. Here, we showed that chemical conjugation of type B CpG DNA, a TLR9 agonist to dextran polymer dramatically enhanced CpG's lymph node accumulation in mice...
June 23, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644153/louisiana-physicians-are-increasing-hpv-vaccination-rates
#4
Donna L Williams, Courtney S Wheeler, Michelle Lawrence, Stacy S Hall, Michael Hagensee
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a common virus that can cause genital warts and certain cancers. The HPV vaccine is effective in preventing many HPV-associated diseases, however, vaccination rates suggest many remain unprotected. This study examined successful strategies used by physicians to improve HPV vaccination rates. Providers with above average vaccination rates were identified. A representative from each provider participated in an interview to identify strategies used to boost HPV vaccination. Key strategies in ensuring vaccine completion were reminders, education, standing orders, and scheduling future vaccine appointments at time of first dose...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643492/human-papillomavirus-genotype-distribution-among-18-815-women-in-13-korean-cities-and-relationship-with-cervical-cytology-findings
#5
Eun Hee Nah, Seon Cho, Suyoung Kim, Han Ik Cho
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and genotype distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection vary depending on geographical region and the immunity provided by vaccines. This study aimed to clarify the recent prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV according to age and cervical cytology findings in Korea. METHODS: This study included 18,815 health examinees that underwent cervical cytology and HPV genotyping tests at 16 centers of Korean Association of Health Promotion in 13 cities in Korea, between January 2014 and October 2015...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#6
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639883/cancer-immunotherapy-breakthrough-or-deja-vu-all-over-again
#7
Stewart Sell
From the application of Coley's toxin in the early 1900s to the present clinical trials using immune checkpoint regulatory inhibitors, the history of cancer immunotherapy has consisted of extremely high levels of enthusiasm after anecdotal case reports of enormous success, followed by decreasing levels of enthusiasm as the results of controlled clinical trials are available. In this review, this pattern will be documented for the various immunotherapeutic approaches over the years. The sole exception being vaccination against cancer causing viruses, which have already prevented thousands of cancers...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639100/sting-mediated-dna-sensing-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Xiang Zhou, Zhengfan Jiang
While STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) has been shown to be essential for cytosolic DNA-triggered innate immune activation, accumulated evidence obtained from various studies suggested that an intrinsic relevance of STING-associated signaling in tumorigenesis can be observed. Also, several clinical trials using immunostimulatory adjuvants, particularly agonistic as well as non-agonistic ligands for STING, have revealed their therapeutic potential not only as vaccine adjuvants but also as anti-tumor agents...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638786/polyelectrolyte-enrobed-cancer-cells-in-view-of-personalized-immune-therapy
#9
Lien Lybaert, Keun Ah Ryu, Riet De Rycke, Alfred C Chon, Olivier De Wever, Karim Y Vermaelen, Aaron Esser-Kahn, Bruno G De Geest
Targeting the immune system with a personalized vaccine containing cues derived from the patient's malignancy might be a promising approach in the fight against cancer. It includes neo-antigens as well as nonmutated tumor antigens, preferentially leading to an immune response that is directed to a broader range of epitopes compared to strategies involving a single antigen. Here, this paper reports on an elegant method to encapsulate whole cancer cells into polyelectrolyte particles. Porous and nonaggregated microparticles containing dead cancer cells are obtained by admixing mannitol and live cancer cells with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, dextran sulfate (anionic polysaccharide), and poly-l-arginine (cationic polypeptide) prior to atomization into a hot air stream...
June 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638734/severe-but-not-mild-heat-shock-treatment-induces-immunogenic-cell-death-in-cancer-cells
#10
Irena Adkins, Lenka Sadilkova, Nada Hradilova, Jakub Tomala, Marek Kovar, Radek Spisek
The mechanisms of immunogenicity underlying mild heat-shock (mHS) treatment < 42°C of tumor cells are largely attributed to the action of heat-shock proteins; however, little is known about the immunogenicity of tumor cells undergoing severe cytotoxic heat-shock treatment (sHS > 43°C). Here, we found that sHS, but not mHS (42°C), induces immunogenic cell death in human cancer cell lines as defined by the induction of ER stress response and ROS generation, cell surface exposure of calreticulin, HSP70 and HSP90, decrease of cell surface CD47, release of ATP and HMGB1...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638730/blockade-of-only-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-2-is-sufficient-to-enhance-the-efficacy-of-vaccine-and-pd-1-checkpoint-blockade-immunotherapy
#11
Masaki Terabe, Faith C Robertson, Katharine Clark, Emma De Ravin, Anja Bloom, David J Venzon, Shingo Kato, Amer Mirza, Jay A Berzofsky
Checkpoint inhibition has established immunotherapy as a major modality of cancer treatment. However, the success of cancer immunotherapy is still limited as immune regulation of tumor immunity is very complicated and mechanisms involved may also differ among cancer types. Beside checkpoints, other good candidates for immunotherapy are immunosuppressive cytokines. TGF-β is a very potent immunosuppressive cytokine involved in suppression of tumor immunity and also necessary for the function of some regulatory cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638729/cellular-immunotherapies-for-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Pedro Berraondo, Sara Labiano, Luna Minute, Iñaki Etxeberria, Marcos Vasquez, Alvaro Sanchez-Arraez, Alvaro Teijeira, Ignacio Melero
Lessons learned over decades on the use of gene and cell therapies have found clinical applicability in the field of cancer immunotherapy. On December 16(th), 2016 a symposium was held in Pamplona (Spain) to analyze and discuss the critical points for the clinical success of adoptive cell transfer strategies in cancer immunotherapy. Cellular immunotherapy is being currently exploited for the development of new cancer vaccines using ex vivo manipulated dendritic cells or to enhance the number of effector cells, transferring reinvigorated NK cells or T cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638727/identification-of-an-immunogenic-neo-epitope-encoded-by-mouse-sarcoma-using-cxcr3-ligand-mrnas-as-sensors
#13
Keisuke Fujii, Yoshihiro Miyahara, Naozumi Harada, Daisuke Muraoka, Mitsuhiro Komura, Rui Yamaguchi, Hideo Yagita, Junko Nakamura, Sahoko Sugino, Satoshi Okumura, Seiya Imoto, Satoru Miyano, Hiroshi Shiku
The CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, 10, and 11 play critical roles in the amplification of immune responses by recruiting CXCR3(+) immune effector cells to the tumor site. Taking advantage of this property of CXCR3 ligands, we aimed to establish a novel approach to identify immunogenic mutated-antigens. We examined the feasibility of using CXCR3 ligand mRNAs as sensors for detection of specific immune responses in human and murine systems. We further investigated whether this approach is applicable for the identification of immunogenic mutated-antigens by using murine sarcoma lines...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638480/mouse-ip-10-gene-delivered-by-folate-modified-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-dendritic-tumor-cells-fusion-vaccine-effectively-inhibit-the-growth-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-mice
#14
Zixi Hu, Jiaojiao Chen, Sufang Zhou, Nuo Yang, Siliang Duan, Zhenghua Zhang, Jing Su, Jian He, Zhiyong Zhang, Xiaoling Lu, Yongxiang Zhao
Dendritic cells (DC) and tumor cell fusion vaccine (DC/tumor cell fusion vaccine) is considered an effective approach in cancer biotherapy. However, its therapeutic effects in early clinical trials have been suboptimal partially due to the immunosuppressive tumor environment. In this study, we used nanoparticles of folate (FA)-modified chitosan, a non-viral vector capable of targeting tumor cells with high expression of FA receptors. FA-chitosan nanoparticles were used as biological carriers for the expression plasmid of the mouse interferon-induced protein-10 (mIP-10) gene, a potent chemoattractant for cytotoxic T cells...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637876/monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-with-silenced-pd-1-ligands-and-transpresenting-interleukin-15-stimulate-strong-tumor-reactive-t-cell-expansion
#15
Johan Mj Van den Bergh, Evelien Ljm Smits, Zwi N Berneman, Tim Ja Hutten, Hans De Reu, Viggo Fi Van Tendeloo, Harry Dolstra, Eva Lion, Willemijn Hobo
Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can elicit graft-versus-tumor (GVT) immunity, patients often relapse due to residual tumor cells. As essential orchestrators of the immune system, vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) is an appealing strategy to boost the GVT-response. Nevertheless, durable clinical responses after DC vaccination are still limited, stressing the need to improve current DC vaccines. Aiming to empower DC potency, we engineered monocyte-derived DCs to deprive them of ligands for the immune checkpoint regulated by programmed death 1 (PD-1)...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636222/recent-progress-in-immunotherapy-for-urological-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Wataru Obara, Renpei Kato, Yoichiro Kato, Mitsugu Kanehira, Ryo Takata
Cancer immunotherapy for urological tumors had made progress for several decades, but recent advances in immunotherapy, as therapeutic vaccines or immune checkpoint inhibitors, have drastically changed the present treatment strategy. Recently, nivolumab and atezolizumab have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of urological cancers. Additional immune checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines are being tested in clinical trials. Despite advances in these therapeutic modalities, benefits are limited to a subset of patients...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636142/clinical-development-of-immunotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Masanori Noguchi, Noriko Koga, Tsukasa Igawa, Kyogo Itoh
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Prostate cancer-related death occurs in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although several new drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer have been approved, each of these has prolonged survival by just a few months. Consequently, new therapies are sorely needed. Recently, it has been recognized that immunotherapy is an effective treatment for prostate cancer patients...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635517/a-primer-for-oncoimmunology-immunooncology
#18
Brad Bolon, Famke Aeffner
Oncoimmunology (or immunooncology) is a burgeoning specialty of precision ("personalized") medicine designed to heighten the antitumor response of the immune system against molecules expressed excessively or only by tumor cells. This focus is necessary, as cancers are polyclonal tissues comprised of antigenically heterogeneous cells, the exact composition of which is shaped by the balance between antitumor immunity and tumor-promoting inflammation. Key targets include enhancing immune system (especially T cell) reactivity, inhibiting immune checkpoints, and promoting tumor cytolysis...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633756/immunotherapy-the-wave-of-the-future-in-bladder-cancer
#19
Daniel P Petrylak
Urothelial cell carcinoma (UC) is one of the most common cancers and one of the most deadly. Metastatic UC is particularly hard to treat, because it is typically diagnosed when patients are elderly and have medical comorbidities. Many patients with metastatic UC are unable to receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, due to older age at diagnosis and comorbidities, and even when platinum chemotherapy can be administered, it has limited success in prolonging survival. Recently, improved understanding of molecular targets and immunologic characteristics of urothelial tumor cells has resulted in new therapeutic approaches that may help optimize first- and second-line therapy...
June 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632949/potential-impact-of-nonavalent-hpv-vaccine-in-the-prevention-of-high-grade-cervical-lesions-and-cervical-cancer-in-portugal
#20
Angela Pista, Carlos Freire de Oliveira, Carlos Lopes, Maria J Cunha
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential impact of the nonavalent HPV vaccine for high-grade cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Portugal. METHODS: The present secondary analysis used data collected in the CLEOPATRE II study on the prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 among female patients aged 20-88 years. The prevalence of HPV types in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 and ICC was examined. RESULTS: Data were included from 582 patients...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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