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new born

Megan O'Reilly, Bernard Thébaud
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 11 % of all births worldwide. Advances in perinatal care have enabled the survival of preterm infants born as early as 23-24 weeks of gestation. However, many are affected by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-a common respiratory complication of preterm birth, which has life-long consequences for lung health. Currently, there is no specific treatment for BPD. Recent advances in stem cell research have opened new therapeutic avenues for prevention/repair of lung damage...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Kathleen Falster, Emily Banks, Sanja Lujic, Michael Falster, John Lynch, Karen Zwi, Sandra Eades, Alastair H Leyland, Louisa Jorm
BACKGROUND: Australian Aboriginal children experience a disproportionate burden of social and health disadvantage. Avoidable hospitalizations present a potentially modifiable health gap that can be targeted and monitored using population data. This study quantifies inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. METHODS: This statewide population-based cohort study included 1 121 440 children born in New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012, including 35 609 Aboriginal children...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Jessica M Healy, M Catherine Burgess, Tai-Ho Chen, W Thane Hancock, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Magele Scott Anesi, Ray T Tulafono, Mary Aseta Mataia, Benjamin Sili, Jacqueline Solaita, A Christian Whelen, Rebecca Sciulli, Remedios B Gose, Vasiti Uluiviti, Morgan Hennessey, Fara Utu, Motusa Tuileama Nua, Marc Fischer
During December 2015-January 2016, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) detected through surveillance an increase in the number of cases of acute febrile rash illness. Concurrently, a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection documented to cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects in some infants born to women infected during pregnancy (1,2) was reported in a traveler returning to New Zealand from American Samoa. In the absence of local laboratory capacity to test for Zika virus, ASDoH initiated arboviral disease control measures, including public education and vector source reduction campaigns...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Amanda McGuire, Kaitlyn Miedema, Joseph R Fauver, Amber Rico, Tawfik Aboellail, Sandra L Quackenbush, Ann Hawkinson, Tony Schountz
Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions...
October 18, 2016: Viruses
Sigrid Bosteels, Michel Vandenbroeck, Geert Van Hove
New-born screening programs for congenital disorders and chronic disease are expanding worldwide and children "at risk" are identified by nationwide tracking systems at the earliest possible stage. These practices are never neutral and raise important social and ethical questions. An emergent concern is that a reflexive professionalism should interrogate the ever earlier interference in children's lives. The Flemish community of Belgium was among the first to generalize the screening for hearing loss in young children and is an interesting case to study the public justification of early interventions for families with deaf children...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Lucille Arragain, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Olivia O'Connor, Nathalie Sigur, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Emilie Huguon, Clothilde Dechanet, Cécile Cazorla, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Elodie Descloux
: We investigated 10 mother-newborn pairs and found a 90% rate of dengue virus (DENV) transmission during the perinatal period. Here, we describe DENV kinetics in the sera of newborns before the onset of disease. Of the breast-milk samples analyzed, 75% tested positive for DENV. BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. With this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of vertical (DENV) transmission during the peripartum period and to describe its viral kinetics in serum and breast milk...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Sheena Mary McCormack, Veronica Noseda, Jean-Michel Molina
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to the global trend showing a decline in new HIV infections, the number reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) region of Europe is increasing. Health systems are disparate, but even countries with free access to screening and treatment observe continuing high rates of new infections in key populations, notably men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is only available in France. This commentary describes the European epidemics and healthcare settings where PrEP could be delivered, how need might be estimated for MSM and the residual barriers to access...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Leon E Hugo, Natalie A Prow, Bing Tang, Greg Devine, Andreas Suhrbier
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus associated with epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease in humans. Aedes albopictus has emerged as an important new natural vector for CHIKV transmission; however, mouse models for studying transmission have not been developed. METHODS: Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were infected with CHIKV via membrane feeding and by using infected adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Paraffin sections of infected mosquitoes were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody staining using an anti-CHIKV antibody...
October 19, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jérôme Casas, Claudio Lazzari, Teresita Insausti, Pascal Launois, Florence Fouque
Major emergency efforts are being mounted for each vector-borne disease epidemiological crisis anew, while knowledge about the biology of arthropods vectors is dwindling slowly but continuously, as is the number of field entomologists. The discrepancy between the rates of production of knowledge and its use and need for solving crises is widening, in particular due to the highly differing time spans of the two concurrent processes. A worldwide web based search using multiple key words and search engines of onsite and online courses in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and German concerned with the biology of vectors identified over 140 courses...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
R Crippa, M Paglia, F Ferrante, A Ottonello, F Angiero
: BACKGROUND Often breastfeeding problems experienced by mothers and their babies may be attributed to the abnormal attachment of the infant's tongue (ankyloglossia) and/or maxillary lip-tie. Proper breastfeeding depends upon an infant's ability to correctly latch onto its mother's breast. If born with oral soft tissue abnormalities such as tongue-tie or lip-tie, it may be almost impossible for the infant to breastfeed. During the oral evaluation of an infant presenting with breastfeeding problems, one factor that is often overlooked and undiagnosed - and thus untreated - is the attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary gingival tissue...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
G C Luvoni, M G Morselli
The hidden treasure represented by epididymal spermatozoa has great potential in the current reproductive technologies in dogs. In case of azoospermia or when a donor male accidentally dies or undergoes orchiectomy, the retrieval of epididymal spermatozoa opens new possibilities to generate progeny. Spermatozoa can be collected by different techniques from ex vivo or in vivo testicles and can be cryopreserved for a future use. Freeze tolerance of canine epididymal spermatozoa seems lower than that of ejaculated spermatozoa; however, puppies were born after artificial insemination with frozen epididymal semen, other than with fresh and chilled...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Annukka Pietikäinen, Mikael Maksimow, Tommi Kauko, Saija Hurme, Marko Salmi, Jukka Hytönen
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Gary M Lovett, Marissa Weiss, Andrew M Liebhold, Thomas P Holmes, Brian Leung, Kathy Fallon Lambert, David A Orwig, Faith T Campbell, Jonathan Rosenthal, Deborah G McCullough, Radka Wildova, Matthew P Ayres, Charles D Canham, David R Foster, Shannon L LaDeau, Troy Weldy
We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last 150 yr. Currently the two major pathways of introduction are importation of live plants and wood packing material such as pallets and crates...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Joon Kyungjoon Lim, Sandra Burke, Geoffrey Head
OBJECTIVE: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of developing hypertension in the offspring. Plasma leptin levels correlate strongly with blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a key centre of energy homeostasis, haemodynamic and sympathetic tone to renal vasculature. It is possible that exposure to over-nutrition during development change the activity of the neurons, amplifying sympathetic output leading to hypertension in the offspring...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rik Olde Engberink, Thomas Van den Hoek, Nicky Van Noordenne, Bert-Jan Van den Born, Liffert Vogt
OBJECTIVE: Lowering salt intake has been shown to decrease blood pressure (BP). However, data from large cohort studies on salt intake and cardiovascular and renal outcomes are inconsistent. These studies have estimated long-term salt intake using 1 baseline measurement, which may be inaccurate. In this retrospective cohort study, the effect of using successive and multiple 24h samples on the relation between salt intake and long-term outcome was investigated. DESIGN AND METHOD: We selected adult subjects with an eGFR > 60 mL/min and at least 1 outpatient 24h urine sample >300 mL between 1998-1999...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Nilsson
During more than 50 years the high cardiovascular risk in Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, now Russia, has been described as very high. This is based on epidemiological findings from countries and regions, for example within the MONICA study as organized by the WHO. One common explanation is that this is influenced by an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile including high prevalence rates of hypertension in many subjects, in combination with unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, diet) and stressful social conditions, including health care gaps...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jeffrey Fagen, Phyllis Ohr, Kimberly Boller
In this article, we reflect upon Carolyn Rovee-Collier's pioneering research on learning and memory in infants, especially that using the mobile conjugate reinforcement task, for our understanding of (a) cognitive development in infants born prematurely and those with Down's syndrome and (b) her prediction that infants' performance in the mobile conjugate reinforcement and similar operant tasks would predict later intellectual functioning. We then examine the implications of her research on time windows (the integration of new information into a memory) and memory reactivation (the retrieval of a forgotten memory as a result of the re-exposure to a component of the original learning experience) for early intervention programs and clinicians treating victims of early trauma...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Akkaladevi Venkatesham, Milind Saudi, Suzanne Kaptein, Johan Neyts, Jef Rozenski, Mathy Froeyen, Arthur Van Aerschot
Previous efforts led to dicarboxamide derivatives like 1.3, comprising either an imidazole, pyrazine or fenyl ring as the central scaffold, with many congeners displaying strong inhibitory effects against dengue virus (DENV) in cell-based assays. Following up on some literature reports, the rationale was borne out to preserve the pending groups, now attached to either a 2,6-diaminopurine or 2,4-diaminoquinazoline scaffold. Synthetic efforts turned out less straightforward than expected, but yielded some new derivatives with low micromolar anti-DENV activity, albeit not devoid of cellular toxicity...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Guohua Tao
Accurately describing nuclear motion is crucial in electronically nonadiabatic dynamics simulations. In this work, a coherence-controlled (CC) approach is proposed based on the mapping between the classical state space and the full electronic matrix and that between the decomposed state space and different nuclear dynamics that allows nuclear motion to properly follow either Ehrenfest dynamics in the coherence domain or Born-Oppenheimer-like dynamics in the single-state domain in a consistent manner. This new method is applied to several benchmark models involving nonadiabatic transitions in two-state or three-state systems, and the obtained results are in excellent agreement with exact quantum calculations...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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