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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534229/production-of-a-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-2-receptor-knockdown-gnrhr2-kd-swine-line
#1
A T Desaulniers, R A Cederberg, G A Mills, C A Lents, B R White
Swine are the only livestock species that produce both the second mammalian isoform of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH2) and its receptor (GNRHR2). Previously, we reported that GNRH2 and GNRHR2 mediate LH-independent testosterone secretion from porcine testes. To further explore this ligand-receptor complex, a pig model with reduced GNRHR2 expression was developed. Small hairpin RNA sequences targeting porcine GNRHR2 were subcloned into a lentiviral-based vector, lentiviral particles were generated and microinjected into the perivitelline space of zygotes, and embryos were transferred into a recipient...
May 22, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531375/mouse-minipuberty-coincides-with-gonocyte-transformation-into-spermatogonial-stem-cells-a-model-for-human-minipuberty
#2
Ruili Li, Amanda Vannitamby, Sarah S K Yue, David Handelsman, John Hutson
As the transient postnatal hormone surge in humans, known as 'minipuberty', occurs simultaneously with key steps in germ-cell development, we investigated whether similar changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis of neonatal mice at a time that would coincide with gonocyte transformation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Serum and testes were collected from C57Bl/6 mice at embryonic Day 17 (E17), birth (postnatal Day 0; P0) and daily until P10. Serum FSH and testosterone levels in both serum and testes were analysed and gene expression of FSH receptor (Fshr), luteinising hormone receptor (Lhr), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), membrane type 1 metalloprotease (Mt1-mmp), proto-oncogene C-kit and promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (Plzf ) was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
May 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528332/the-persistent-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-syndrome-an-update-based-upon-a-personal-experience-of-157-cases
#3
Jean-Yves Picard, Richard L Cate, Chrystèle Racine, Nathalie Josso
Male sex differentiation is driven by 2 hormones, testosterone and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), responsible for the regression of müllerian ducts in male fetuses. Mutations inactivating AMH or its receptor AMHRII lead to the persistent müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) in otherwise normally virilized 46,XY males. Our objective was to review the clinical, anatomical, and molecular features of PMDS based upon a review of the literature and upon 157 personal cases. Three clinical presentations exist: bilateral cryptorchidism, unilateral cryptorchidism with contralateral hernia, and transverse testicular ectopia...
May 20, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511915/altered-ionic-currents-and-amelioration-by-igf-1-and-pacap-in-motoneuron-derived-cells-modelling-sbma
#4
Aura M Jiménez Garduño, Leon J Juárez-Hernández, María J Polanco, Laura Tosatto, Daniela Michelatti, Daniele Arosio, Manuela Basso, Maria Pennuto, Carlo Musio
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy's disease, is a motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polymorphic CAG tandem repeat encoding a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA is triggered by the binding of mutant AR to its natural ligands, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To investigate the neuronal alterations of motor neuron cell models of SBMA, we applied patch-clamp methods to verify how polyQ expansions in the AR alter cell ionic currents...
May 10, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508346/testosterone-insulin-like-effects-an-in-vitro-study-on-the-short-term-metabolic-effects-of-testosterone-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#5
C Antinozzi, F Marampon, C Corinaldesi, E Vicini, P Sgrò, G B Vannelli, A Lenzi, C Crescioli, L Di Luigi
PURPOSE: Testosterone by promoting different metabolic pathways contributes to short-term homeostasis of skeletal muscle, the largest insulin-sensitive tissue and the primary site for insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. Despite evidences indicate a close relationship between testosterone and glucose metabolism, the molecular mechanisms responsible for a possible testosterone-mediated insulin-like effects on skeletal muscle are still unknown. METHODS: Here we used undifferentiated proliferating or differentiated human fetal skeletal muscle cells (Hfsmc) to investigate the short-term effects of testosterone on the insulin-mediated biomolecular metabolic machinery...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504114/a-shortened-tamoxifen-induction-scheme-to-induce-creer-recombinase-without-side-effects-on-the-male-mouse-skeleton
#6
Ferran Jardí, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Ludo Deboel, Dieter Schollaert, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen exerts estrogen agonistic or antagonistic actions on several tissues, including bone. The off-target effects of tamoxifen are one of the most widely recognized pitfalls of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinases (CreERs), potentially confounding the phenotypic findings. Still, the validation of tamoxifen induction schemes that minimize the side effects of the drug has not been addressed. Here, we compared the side effects on the skeleton and other androgen-responsive targets of a shortened tamoxifen regimen (2 doses of 190 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) to a standard protocol (4 doses) and determined their efficiency in inducing CreER-mediated gene deletion...
May 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502742/seasonal-changes-of-androgen-receptor-estrogen-receptors-and-aromatase-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-wild-male-ground-squirrels-citellus-dauricus-brandt
#7
Fengwei Zhang, Yu Wang, Wentao Han, Junjie Wang, Haolin Zhang, Xia Sheng, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng, Yingying Han
The wild ground squirrel is a typical seasonal breeder whose annual life cycle can be roughly divided into the breeding season, the post-breeding season and hibernation. Our previous study has reported the seasonal changes in the expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) in the hypothalamus of male wild ground squirrels. To further seek evidence of seasonal expression of steroid hormone receptors and steroid hormone synthases in other brain regions, we investigated the protein and mRNA expressions of AR, ERα, ERβ and P450arom in the hippocampus of the male wild ground squirrels during these different reproductive periods...
May 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495656/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-augments-blood-brain-barrier-and-tight-junction-protein-expression-in-brain-endothelial-cells
#8
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
Tight junctions (TJ) between brain endothelial cells are essential for formation and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although loss of BBB integrity is associated with several neuropathological disorders, treatments that augment or stabilise the BBB are scarce. Here we show that physiological concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) stimulate the expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-3 in the brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd.3 and promote TJ formation between neighbouring cells, demonstrated by augmented transendothelial resistance across cell monolayers...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494009/postnatal-changes-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-collagen-expression-in-mouse-skin
#9
Koji Y Arai, Takuya Hara, Toyofumi Nagatsuka, Chikako Kudo, Sho Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro Nomura, Toshio Nishiyama
To investigate sexual dimorphism and postnatal changes in skin collagen expression, mRNA levels of collagens and their regulatory factors in male and female skin were examined during the first 120 days of age by quantitative realtime PCR. Levels of mRNAs encoding extracellular matrices did not show any differences between male and female mice until day 15. Col1a1 and Col1a2 mRNAs noticeably increased at day 30 and remained at high levels until day 120 in male mice, while those in female mice remained at low levels during the period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490267/darolutamide-odm-201-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#10
Neal D Shore
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay initial treatment for advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC), but disease progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) invariably occurs when patients do not succumb to another disease or comorbidity. Recognition that the androgen receptor (AR) axis continues to drive disease progression has led to the development of several AR-directed approved agents, including abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. An investigational agent, darolutamide (ODM-201, BAY-1841788), has completed early-phase clinical trials, and two global Phase III trials are currently accruing patients...
May 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485778/toxic-effects-of-ketamine-on-reproductive-system-via-disrupting-hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis
#11
L Qi, J-Y Liu, Y-L Zhu, W Liu, S-D Zhang, W-B Liu, J-J Jiang
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we focused on the toxic effect of ketamine on the reproductive system in male rats and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=10), i.e. a control group and 3 ketamine groups (high-dose, mid-dose, low-dose). Animals in the ketamine groups received an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (20, 40 or 60 mg/kg) every 3 days for 7 times. Control rats were injected with normal saline instead...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483507/synthesis-and-spectral-properties-of-estrogen-and-androgen-bodipy-conjugates
#12
Samira Osati, Hasrat Ali, Brigitte Guerin, Johan E van Lier
To develop receptor based fluorescence ligands for imaging breast and prostate cancer, a series of estrogen-, testosterone- and 19-nortestosterone conjugates linked to BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) or aza-BODIPY, were prepared. Their synthesis involves attachment of iodo derivatives of differently substituted BODIPY and aza-BODIPY analogs to the C17α-position of the steroid moieties using either the Sonogashira coupling or Click reaction. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the conjugates range from 500 to 710nm with fluorescence emission properties ranging from 520 to 700nm, facilitating observations in living cells and tissues...
May 5, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483475/dual-action-of-neuro-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-male-sexual-behavior
#13
Charlotte Anne Cornil, Catherine de Bournonville
Estrogens derived from brain testosterone aromatization (neuro-estrogens) are critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. Their effects on this behavior are typically associated with long-term changes in circulating levels of testosterone and the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors. According to this view, neuro-estrogens would prime the neural circuits controlling the long-term expression of behavior, which would then be acutely regulated by neurotransmitter systems conveying information from the social environment...
May 5, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479375/estrogen-receptor-related-receptor-%C3%AE-regulates-testicular-steroidogenesis-through-direct-and-indirect-regulation-of-steroidogenic-gene-expression
#14
Eunsook Park, Sudeep Kumar, Bobae Lee, Kyung-Jin Kim, Jeong-Eun Seo, Hueng-Sik Choi, Keesook Lee
Biosynthesis of testosterone, which mainly occurs in testicular Leydig cells, is controlled by steroidogenic proteins, such as StAR and P450c17. Although estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ), an orphan nuclear receptor, is expressed in the testis, its role is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of ERRγ in Leydig cells and its molecular action on testicular steroidogenesis. ERRγ is expressed in mouse Leydig cells from pre-pubertal stages. ERRγ overexpression in primary Leydig cells elevated the production of testosterone with a marked increase of P450c17 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, albeit decreased expression of StAR...
May 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479083/zip9-a-novel-membrane-androgen-receptor-and-zinc-transporter-protein
#15
Peter Thomas, Aubrey Converse, Håkan A Berg
Rapid, androgen actions initiated at the cell surface have been reported in a variety of vertebrate cells, including several macrophage and prostate cancer cell lines that lack the nuclear androgen receptor. However, until recently the identity of the novel membrane androgen receptor (mAR) mediating these nonclassical androgen actions remained unknown. In 2014, a novel mAR unrelated to nuclear androgen receptors was identified in Atlantic croaker ovaries as the zinc transporter protein, ZIP9. ZIP9 is one of the 14 members of the ZIP (ZRT-and Irt-like Protein, SLC39A) family that regulates zinc homeostasis by transporting zinc across cell and organelle membranes into the cytoplasm...
May 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475264/rfamide-related-peptide-3-and-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-ii-are-autocrine-paracrine-regulators-of-testicular-function-in-the-boar
#16
REVIEW
Clay A Lents, Jennifer F Thorson, Amy T Desaulniers, Brett R White
Widespread use of artificial insemination in swine requires millions of doses of boar semen each year. Subfertility of boars remains a major constraint, which can impact the reproductive efficiency of thousands of sows, so a better understanding of testicular function is needed in order to develop methods to improve semen production. With this in mind, the effects of RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II (GnRH-II) on gonadotropin secretion and testicular function of pigs are reviewed here...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473891/effect-of-extracellular-matrix-on-testosterone-production-during-in-vitro-culture-of-bovine-testicular-cells
#17
Vahid Akbarinejad, Parviz Tajik, Mansoureh Movahedin, Reza Youssefi
Testosterone is believed to play a significant role in spermatogenesis, but its contribution to the process of spermatogenesis is not completely understood. Given that extracellular matrix (ECM) facilitates differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) during culture, the present study was conducted to elucidate whether testosterone contribute to the permissive effect of ECM on SSCs differentiation. In experiment 1, testosterone production was measured in testicular cells cultured for 12 days on ECM or plastic (control)...
2017: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472669/the-role-of-estrogen-g-protein-coupled-receptor-30-gpr30-and-sexual-experience-in-sexual-incentive-motivation-in-male-rats
#18
W R Hawley, C Battista, S R Divack, N B Morales Núñez
Male rats exhibit reductions in sexual motivation following systemic administration of drugs that inhibit the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, which indicates that estrogen signaling plays a role in male rat sexual motivation. Given that estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is expressed in brain areas that are important for male sexual behaviors and endocrine function, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the role that GPR30 plays in sexual motivation in both sexually naïve and sexually experienced male rats...
May 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466980/social-context-affects-behavior-preoptic-area-gene-expression-and-response-to-d2-receptor-manipulation-during-territorial-defense-in-a-cichlid-fish
#19
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Jessica Nguyen, Hans A Hofmann
Social context often has profound effects on behavior, yet the neural and molecular mechanisms which mediate flexible behavioral responses to different social environments are not well understood. We used the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to examine aggressive defense behavior across three social contexts representing different motivational states: a reproductive opportunity, a familiar male, and a neutral context. To elucidate how differences in behavior across contexts may be mediated by neural gene expression, we examined gene expression in the preoptic area, a brain region known to control male aggressive and sexual behavior...
May 3, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465296/exploiting-ar-regulated-drug-transport-to-induce-sensitivity-to-the-survivin-inhibitor-ym155
#20
Michael D Nyquist, Alexandra Corella, John Burns, Ilsa Coleman, Shuai Gao, Robin Tharakan, Luke Riggan, Changmeng Cai, Eva Corey, Peter S Nelson, Elahe A Mostaghel
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is fundamental to prostate cancer and is the dominant therapeutic target in metastatic disease. However, stringent androgen deprivation therapy regimens decrease quality of life and have been largely unsuccessful in curtailing mortality. Recent clinical and preclinical studies have taken advantage of the dichotomous ability of AR signaling to elicit growth-suppressive and differentiating effects by administering hyperphysiologic levels of testosterone. In this study, high-throughput drug screening identified a potent synergy between high-androgen therapy and YM155, a transcriptional inhibitor of survivin (BIRC5)...
May 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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