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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674209/possible-mechanisms-underlying-fatty-liver-in-a-rat-model-of-male-hypogonadism-a-protective-role-for-testosterone
#1
Hussein F Sakr, Abdelaziz M Hussein, Elsayed A Eid, Mahmoud AlKhateeb
AIMS: To investigate the effects of testosterone (Test) deficiency and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated peripheral insulin resistance (IR) in male rats and to illustrate the underlying mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups as follows: 1) sham-operated group (n=11), 2) ORCD-induced group (n=9) exposed to orchidectomy (ORCD), achieved by complete surgical removal of testicles, and 3) ORCD+ Test treated group (n=10) (11 ng/ mL Test propionate, 3x/week, S...
April 16, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668033/sexual-dimorphism-in-postnatal-gonadotropin-levels-in-infancy-reflects-diverse-maturation-of-the-ovarian-and-testicular-hormone-synthesis
#2
Tanja Kuiri-Hänninen, Leo Dunkel, Ulla Sankilampi
BACKGROUND: The postnatal gonadotropin surge is sexually dimorphic: FSH levels predominate in girls and LH levels in boys. However, in preterm (PT) girls, both gonadotropin levels are higher than in PT boys. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how gonadal maturation contributes to the sex differences in FSH and LH. DESIGN: Monthly follow-up of 58 full-term (FT, 29 boys) and 67 PT (33 boys) infants from one week (D7) to six months of age (M1-M6). Analyses were also done according to postmenstrual (PM) age in PT infants...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666838/a-brief-history-of-intracrine-androgen-metabolism-by-castration-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
James L Mohler
This mini-review describes the evolution of the concept of intracrine androgen metabolism by prostate cancer during androgen deprivation therapy. Persistence of androgen receptor protein in the face of castrate circulating levels of testosterone could not be explained fully by hypersensitization or mutation of the androgen receptor. The hypothesis that castration-recurrent prostate cancer produced its own testosterone was proven using radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry methods adopted for use in prostate tissue...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665500/aromatase-inhibition-by-letrozole-attenuates-kainic-acid-induced-seizures-but-not-neurotoxicity-in-mice
#4
Ramsha Iqbal, Gaurav K Jain, Fouzia Siraj, Divya Vohora
Evidence shows neurosteroids play a key role in regulating epileptogenesis. Neurosteroids such as testosterone modulate seizure susceptibility through its transformation to metabolites which show proconvulsant and anticonvulsant effects, respectively. Reduction of testosterone by aromatase generates proconvulsant 17-β estradiol. Alternatively, testosterone is metabolized into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) by 5α-reductase, which is then reduced by 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase enzyme (3α-HSOR) to form anticonvulsant metabolite 3α-androstanediol (3α-Diol), a potent GABAA receptor modulating neurosteroid...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662759/investigation-of-bioeffects-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-1-on-bone-turnover-in-male-mice
#5
Jian Li, Liang Xiang, Xiaotong Jiang, Bin Teng, Yutao Sun, Guanlian Chen, Jie Chen, Jian V Zhang, Pei-Gen Ren
Maintenance of healthy bone quality and quantity requires a well-coordinated balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Chemerin is a novel adipokine with known functions such as regulating immunity and energy homeostasis through activation of chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) is the second mammalian chemerin receptor with similar binding affinity as CMKLR1. In male GPR1-/- mice, a phenotype with significantly low bone mineral density was observed...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661690/the-history-of-testosterone-and-the-evolution-of-its-therapeutic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Abraham Morgentaler, Abdulmaged Traish
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone therapy has been controversial since its synthesis in the 1930s to the present day. Testosterone's history provides depth and context for current controversies. AIM: To review the history of testosterone therapy from its initial synthesis in the 1930s to the modern day. METHODS: Expert review of the literature. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Impactful events in the history of testosterone. RESULTS: By the 1940s there was already a fascinating literature that described the many symptomatic benefits of testosterone therapy that are recognized today...
April 13, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622348/effects-of-orexins-on-17%C3%AE-estradiol-synthesis-and-p450-aromatase-modulation-in-the-testis-of-alpaca-vicugna-pacos
#7
Giovanna Liguori, Alessandra Pelagalli, Loredana Assisi, Caterina Squillacioti, Anna Costagliola, Nicola Mirabella
The steroidogenic enzyme P450 aromatase (ARO) has a key role in the conversion of testosterone (T) into estrogens (E), expressed as 17β-estradiol. The presence and localization of this key enzyme have not been described before in the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos). In our previous studies of the expression and biological effects of orexin A (OxA) and OxB on the alpaca testis demonstrated that OxA, via its specific receptor 1 (OX1R), stimulated T synthesis. In order to extend these findings, we presently explored the presence and localization of ARO in the alpaca male gonad, and the possible correlation between ARO and the orexinergic complex...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618492/autophagy-regulates-testosterone-synthesis-by-facilitating-cholesterol-uptake-in-leydig-cells
#8
Fengyi Gao, Guoping Li, Chao Liu, Hui Gao, Hao Wang, Weixiao Liu, Min Chen, Yongliang Shang, Lina Wang, Jian Shi, Wenlong Xia, Jianwei Jiao, Fei Gao, Jian Li, Liang Chen, Wei Li
Testosterone is indispensable for sexual development and maintaining male characteristics, and deficiency of this hormone results in primary or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Testosterone is primarily produced in Leydig cells, where autophagy has been reported to be extremely active. However, the functional role of autophagy in testosterone synthesis remains unknown. In this study, we show that steroidogenic cell-specific disruption of autophagy influenced the sexual behavior of aging male mice because of a reduction in serum testosterone, which is similar to the symptoms of LOH...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613814/grape-seed-procyanidins-extract-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-oxidative-stress-and-testosterone-synthase-inhibition-in-rat-testes
#9
Minmin Tian, Fangfang Liu, Han Liu, Qiong Zhang, Lei Li, Xiangbo Hou, Jianxin Zhao, Sheng Li, Xuhong Chang, Yingbiao Sun
Cisplatin (CIS) is widely applied for its antihematological malignancies properties and as antisolid tumors drugs. However, it could cause testicular damage related with oxidative stress and testosterone synthesis disorder. Studies reported that grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE) could improve CIS induced-testes lesion via scavenging free radicals in animals, although its mechanisms were unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to explore the antagonistic mechanisms of GSPE on CIS-induced testes lesion...
April 3, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605576/effects-of-maternal-dietary-selenium-se-enriched-yeast-on-testis-development-testosterone-level-and-testicular-steroidogenesis-related-gene-expression-of-their-male-kids-in-taihang-black-goats
#10
Lei Shi, Ruigao Song, Xiaolei Yao, Yunli Duan, Youshe Ren, Chunxiang Zhang, Wenbin Yue, Fulin Lei
To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development status of testis was examined, tissue samples were collected for analyzing testosterone concentration and histological parameters...
March 26, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602039/potent-and-selective-aldo-keto-reductase-1c3-akr1c3-inhibitors-based-on-the-benzoisoxazole-moiety-application-of-a-bioisosteric-scaffold-hopping-approach-to-flufenamic-acid
#11
Agnese Chiara Pippione, Irene Maria Carnovale, Davide Bonanni, Marcella Sini, Parveen Goyal, Elisabetta Marini, Klaus Pors, Salvatore Adinolfi, Daniele Zonari, Claudio Festuccia, Weixiao Yuan Wahlgren, Rosmarie Friemann, Renzo Bagnati, Donatella Boschi, Simonetta Oliaro-Bosso, Marco Lucio Lolli
The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) isoform plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of androgens and is considered an attractive target in prostate cancer (PCa). No AKR1C3-targeted agent has to date been approved for clinical use. Flufenamic acid and indomethacine are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs known to inhibit AKR1C3 in a non-selective manner as COX off-target effects are also observed. Recently, we employed a scaffold hopping approach to design a new class of potent and selective AKR1C3 inhibitors based on a N-substituted hydroxylated triazole pharmacophore...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596647/male-reproductive-behavior-sensory-signaling-in-the-brain-of-low-performing-domestic-rams
#12
Brenda M Alexander
Rams are selected for genetic traits a producer desires to propagate in his flock. Even though practically all sheep are naturally bred, rams are rarely evaluated for expression of sexual interest or behavior. Research at the United States Sheep Experiment Station reported that the proportion of rams with limited interest in ewes was nearly 30% of the total number of breeding rams. Breeding soundness tested rams with low sexual-interest sire less than 16% of the lamb crop. While producers recognize the problem, their usual solution is to increase the number of rams in breeding flocks decreasing the risk of open ewes...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579175/the-cell-type-specific-expression-of-lhcgr-in-mouse-ovarian-cells-evidence-for-a-dna-demethylation-dependent-mechanism
#13
Tomoko Kawai, JoAnne S Richards, Masayuki Shimada
The LH receptor (LHCGR) is expressed at low levels in mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells of antral follicles but is induced dramatically in granulosa cells but not in cumulus cells by FSH. Therefore, we hypothesized that FSH not only activates transcription factors controlling Lhcgr expression but also alters other events to permit and enhance Lhcgr expression in granulosa cells but not in cumulus cells. In granulosa cells, the level of DNA methylation in the Lhcgr promoter region was significantly decreased by equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) in vivo...
March 19, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567110/ros-generation-and-mapks-activation-contribute-to-the-ni-induced-testosterone-synthesis-disturbance-in-rat-leydig-cells
#14
Aijie Han, Lingyue Zou, Xiaoqin Gan, Yu Li, Fangfang Liu, Xuhong Chang, Xiaotian Zhang, Minmin Tian, Sheng Li, Li Su, Yingbiao Sun
Nickel (Ni) can disorder testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells, whereas the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Ni-induced disturbance of testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells. The testosterone production and ROS levels were detected in Leydig cells. The mRNA and protein levels of testosterone synthetase, including StAR, CYP11A1, 3β-HSD, CYP17A1 and 17β-HSD, were determined...
March 19, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566712/the-in-vitro-modulation-of-steroidogenesis-by-inflammatory-cytokines-and-insulin-in-tm3-leydig-cells
#15
Kristian Leisegang, Ralf Henkel
BACKGROUND: Cytokines and hormones, including insulin, are known to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-testes axis and steroidogenesis, both centrally and peripherally. In the context of chronic inflammation and hyperinsulinaemia mediating male hypogonadism associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, these mechanisms are poorly understood and the impact of cytokines and insulin on Leydig cell steroidogenesis has not been fully elicited. This study aimed to further investigate the in vitro impact of TNFα, IL1ß, IL6, IL8 and insulin on Leydig cell function and steroidogenesis...
March 22, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561954/nitric-oxide-modulates-atp-evoked-currents-in-mouse-leydig-cells
#16
J L de Deus, A L A Dagostin, W A Varanda
Testosterone synthesis within Leydig cells is a calcium-dependent process. Intracellular calcium levels are regulated by different processes including ATP-activated P2X purinergic receptors, T-type Ca2+ channels modulated by the luteinizing hormone, and intracellular calcium storages recruited by a calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) is reported to have an inhibitory role in testosterone production. Based on these observations, we investigated the interaction between the purinergic and nitrergic systems in Leydig cells of adult mice...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560447/currently-available-murine-leydig-cell-lines-can-be-applied-to-study-early-steps-of-steroidogenesis-but-not-testosterone-synthesis
#17
Roger T Engeli, Cornelia Fürstenberger, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt
Androgen biosynthesis in males occurs to a large extent in testicular Leydig cells. This study focused on the evaluation of three murine Leydig cell lines as potential screening tool to test xenobiotics interfering with gonadal androgen synthesis. The final step of testosterone (T) production in Leydig cells is catalyzed by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-hsd3). The endogenous 17β-hsd3 mRNA expression and Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) to T conversion were determined in the murine cell lines MA-10, BLTK1 and TM3...
February 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550552/expression-profiles-of-amhy-and-major-sex-related-genes-during-gonadal-sex-differentiation-and-their-relation-with-genotypic-and-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-bonariensis
#18
Yan Zhang, Ricardo S Hattori, Munti Sarida, Estefany C García, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, Yoji Yamamoto
To shed light on the mechanisms of and interactions of GSD and TSD in pejerrey, we investigated how the transcriptional profiles of amhy and amha are affected by feminizing (17°C) and masculinizing (29°C) temperatures during the critical period of sex determination/differentiation and their relation with the expression profiles of AMH receptor type II (amhrII), gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a), and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2). Careful consideration of the results of this study and all information currently available for this species, including similar analyzes for an intermediate, mixed-sex promoting temperature (25°C), suggests a model for genotypic/temperature-dependent sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation that involves a) cyp19a1a-dependent, developmentally-programmed ovarian development as the default state that becomes self-sustaining in the absence of a potent and timely masculinizing stimulus, b) early, developmentally-programmed amhy expression and high temperature as masculinization signals that antagonize the putative female pathway by suppressing cyp19a1a expression, c) increasing stress response, cortisol, and the synthesis of the masculinizing androgen 11-keto-testosterone via hsd11b2 with increasing temperature that is important for masculinization in both genotypes but particularly so in XX individuals, and d) an endocrine network with positive/negative feedback mechanisms that ensure fidelity of the male/female pathway once started...
March 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537093/natural-endocrine-profiles-of-the-group-living-skunk-anemonefish-amphiprion-akallopisos-in-relation-to-their-size-based-dominance-hierarchy
#19
S C Mills, J L O'Donnell, G Bernardi, R Beldade
Group-living animals commonly display differences in behaviour, physiology and endocrine profiles between conspecifics within the group, which are tightly linked to reproduction. Teleosts exhibit a variety of social systems, where social status, as well as sex, has been linked to different androgen and oestrogen profiles. Levels of gonadal androgen and oestrogen were investigated as a function of sex and position in a social hierarchy in free-living individuals of the skunk anemonefish Amphiprion akallopisos, a protandrous pomacentrid fish with a size-based dominance hierarchical social system...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515056/influence-of-fetal-leydig-cells-on-the-development-of-adult-leydig-cell-population-in-rats
#20
Dong-Mei Su, Ying Feng, Lin Wang, Yi-Lun Wu, Ren-Shan Ge, Xue Ma
Leydig cells are the main endogenous testosterone synthesis cells in the body. Testosterone is an essential hormone in males that affects metabolism, emotion, and pubertal development. However, little is known about the development of Leydig cells and relationship between fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and adult Leydig cells (ALCs). The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of (FLCs) on ALC development. Our study showed that FLCs in neonatal rat testis can be eliminated by 100 mg/kg ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) treatment without affecting the health of newborn rats...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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