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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414121/neural-derived-estradiol-regulates-brain-plasticity
#1
REVIEW
Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
In addition to be an ovarian hormone, estradiol is a neurosteroid synthesized by neural cells. The brain is a steroidogenic tissue that metabolizes testosterone to estradiol. The last step in the synthesis of estradiol is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, which is widely expressed in the brain of male and female animals and humans. Studies that have manipulated the expression or the activity of aromatase have revealed that brain-derived estradiol acts as a neuromodulator and regulates different forms of brain plasticity in male and female animals...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395332/acetamiprid-inhibits-testosterone-synthesis-by-affecting-the-mitochondrial-function-and-cytoplasmic-adenosine-triphosphate-production-in-rat-leydig-cells%C3%A2
#2
Deying Kong, Jidong Zhang, Xiaohui Hou, Shibin Zhang, Jun Tan, Yuanshou Chen, Weirong Yang, Junwei Zeng, Yong Han, Xiaohong Liu, Delin Xu, Renlian Cai
The insecticide acetamiprid is used to control noxious agricultural pests. However, it can cause mammalian toxicity. We evaluated the reproductive toxicity of acetamiprid in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were given oral acetamiprid alone or with vitamin E for 35 days. Rat plasma testosterone concentration and sperm quality decreased significantly as the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) increased after exposure. At the same time, acetamiprid increased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) levels of Leydig cells...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377716/human-cytochrome-p450-3a4-as-a-biocatalyst-effects-of-the-engineered-linker-in-modulation-of-coupling-efficiency-in-3a4-bmr-chimeras
#3
Danilo Degregorio, Serena D'Avino, Silvia Castrignanò, Giovanna Di Nardo, Sheila J Sadeghi, Gianluca Catucci, Gianfranco Gilardi
Human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 is the main enzyme involved in drug metabolism. This makes it an attractive target for biocatalytic applications, such as the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and drug metabolites. However, its poor solubility, stability and low coupling have limited its application in the biotechnological context. We previously demonstrated that the solubility of P450 3A4 can be increased by creating fusion proteins between the reductase from Bacillus megaterium BM3 (BMR) and the N-terminally modified P450 3A4 (3A4-BMR)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371818/acetamiprid-inhibits-testosterone-synthesis-by-affecting-the-mitochondrial-function-and-cytoplasmic-adenosine-triphosphate-production-in-rat-leydig-cells%C3%A2
#4
Deying Kong, Jidong Zhang, Xiaohui Hou, Shibin Zhang, Jun Tan, Yuanshou Chen, Weirong Yang, Junwei Zeng, Yong Han, Xiaohong Liu, Delin Xu, Renlian Cai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369636/maternal-fenvalerate-exposure-induces-fetal-intrauterine-growth-restriction-through-disrupting-placental-thyroid-hormone-receptor-signaling
#5
Bo Wang, Ji-Jie Liu, Yan Wang, Lin Fu, Ru Shen, Zhen Yu, Hua Wang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Cheng Zhang, Xiu-Hong Meng, De-Xiang Xu
Fenvalerate is an environmental endocrine disruptor that disrupts testosterone and estradiol synthesis. Nevertheless, whether fenvalerate disturbs placental TR signaling remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal fenvalerate exposure causes fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to explore the role of placental thyroid hormone receptor (TR) signaling. Pregnant mice except controls were orally administered to fenvalerate (0.2, 2.0 or 20 mg/kg) daily throughout pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359098/attenuation-of-resting-but-not-load-mediated-protein-synthesis-in-prostate-cancer-patients-on-androgen-deprivation
#6
Erik D Hanson, André R Nelson, Daniel W D West, John A Violet, Lannie O'Keefe, Stuart M Phillips, Alan Hayes
Context: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common prostate cancer (PCa) treatment but results in muscular atrophy. Periodic increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) that occur after resistance exercise or protein intake may ameliorate this muscle loss, but the impact of these anabolic stimuli during ADT is unclear. Objective: To determine the acute MPS response to whey protein supplementation with and without resistance exercise during ADT. Design: Acute response in PCa patients vs age-matched controls (CON)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355063/quantitative-adverse-outcome-pathways-and-their-application-to-predictive-toxicology
#7
Rory B Conolly, Gerald T Ankley, WanYun Cheng, Michael L Mayo, David H Miller, Edward J Perkins, Daniel L Villeneuve, Karen H Watanabe
A quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) consists of one or more biologically based, computational models describing key event relationships linking a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome. A qAOP provides quantitative, dose-response, and time-course predictions that can support regulatory decision-making. Herein we describe several facets of qAOPs, including (a) motivation for development, (b) technical considerations, (c) evaluation of confidence, and (d) potential applications. The qAOP used as an illustrative example for these points describes the linkage between inhibition of cytochrome P450 19A aromatase (the MIE) and population-level decreases in the fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas)...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350999/discovery-of-novel-1-2-3-4-tetrahydrobenzo-4-5-thieno-2-3-c-pyridine-derivatives-as-potent-and-selective-cyp17-inhibitors
#8
Mingliang Wang, Yanjia Fang, Shoulai Gu, Fangfang Chen, Zhengjiang Zhu, Xun Sun, Jidong Zhu
The inhibition of CYP17 to block androgen biosynthesis is a well validated strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Herein we reported the design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for a series of novel 1,2,3,4- tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivatives. Some analogs demonstrated a potent inhibition to both rat and human CYP17 protein and reduced testosterone production in human H295R cell line. Some analogs also showed high selectivity against other CYP enzymes such as 3A4, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19 and 2D6, which may limit side effects due to drug-drug interactions...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349382/protective-effect-of-selenium-on-aflatoxin-b1-induced-testicular-toxicity-in-mice
#9
Zheng Cao, Bing Shao, Feibo Xu, Yunfeng Liu, Yanfei Li, Yanzhu Zhu
Aflatoxins have been considered as one of the major risk factors of male infertility, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most highly toxic and prevalent member of the aflatoxins family. Selenium (Se), an essential nutritional trace mineral for normal testicular development and male fertility, has received extensive intensive on protective effects of male reproductive system due to its potential antioxidant and activating testosterone synthesis. To investigate the protective effect of Se on AFB1-induced testicular toxicity, the mice were orally administered with AFB1 (0...
March 27, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342428/revealing-the-influence-of-glucocorticoid-treatment-on-the-excretion-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-in-horses-through-in-vitro-digestive-simulations-and-an-in-vivo-case-study
#10
Anneleen Decloedt, Sander Damen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are strictly forbidden in equine sports because of their stimulating effect on muscle growth and performance. Nevertheless, low levels of AAS have been found in some horses, untreated with AAS. Glucocorticoids (GC), used as an anti-inflammatory therapy and structurally related to AAS, might play a role in this phenomenon. In order to unravel this possible correlation the influence of glucocorticoid treatment on the excretion of AAS was studied both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo effects were investigated by analysing urine samples collected from a gelding treated with betamethasone...
February 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341248/abnormal-lipid-lipoprotein-metabolism-and-high-plasma-testosterone-levels-in-male-but-not-female-aromatase-knockout-mice
#11
Akiko Amano, Yoshitaka Kondo, Yoshihiro Noda, Mitsuhiro Ohta, Noriaki Kawanishi, Shuichi Machida, Kazuteru Mitsuhashi, Takafumi Senmaru, Michiaki Fukui, Osamu Takaoka, Taisuke Mori, Jo Kitawaki, Masafumi Ono, Toshiji Saibara, Hiroshi Obayashi, Akihito Ishigami
Sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are believed to play important roles in lipid metabolism. To elucidate the effects of estrogen depletion on lipid metabolism in male and female mice, we used aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, in which Cyp19 gene disruption prevented estrogen synthesis in vivo. These mice were divided into the following 4 groups: male and female ArKO mice and male and female wild-type (WT) mice. These mice were fed a normal-fat diet (13.6% fat) ad libitum. At 159 days after birth, the mice were tested for liver and plasma lipid content and hepatic hormone receptor- and lipid/lipoprotein metabolism-related gene expression...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337175/effects-of-chronic-acth-excess-on-human-adrenal-cortex
#12
REVIEW
Xavier Bertagna
Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic cortisol excess, without escape phenomenon, resulting in Cushing's syndrome. Excess adrenal androgens also occur: in females, they will overcompensate the gonadotrophic loss, inducing high testosterone; in males, they will not compensate it, inducing low testosterone. Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic adrenal mineralocorticoid excess and low aldosterone levels: after an acute rise, aldosterone plasma levels resume low values after a few days when ACTH is prolonged. Two other mineralocorticoids in man, cortisol and 11 deoxycorticosterone (DOC), at the zona fasciculata, will not escape the long-term effect of chronic ACTH excess and their secretion rates will remain elevated in parallel...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333286/high-prevalence-of-moderate-and-severe-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Laura G Cooney, Iris Lee, Mary D Sammel, Anuja Dokras
STUDY QUESTION: Do women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with control women, and do these symptoms correlate with age, BMI, testosterone, hirsutism or insulin resistance (IR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with PCOS have significantly increased odds of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of obesity, and the symptoms are weakly associated with age, BMI, elevated testosterone, hirsutism and IR...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324044/inverse-regulation-of-dht-synthesis-enzymes-5%C3%AE-reductase-types-1-and-2-by-the-androgen-receptor-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Étienne Audet-Walsh, Tracey Yee, Ingrid S Tam, Vincent Giguère
5α-Reductase types 1 and 2, encoded by SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, are the two enzymes that can catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the most potent androgen receptor (AR) agonist in prostate cells. 5α-Reductase type 2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the normal prostate. However, its expression decreases during prostate cancer (PCa) progression, whereas SRD5A1 increases, and the mechanism underlying this transcriptional regulatory switch is still unknown. Interrogation of SRD5A messenger RNA expression in three publicly available data sets confirmed that SRD5A1 is increased in primary and metastatic PCa compared with nontumoral prostate tissues, whereas SRD5A2 is decreased...
April 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323036/targeting-androgen-receptor-versus-targeting-androgens-to-suppress-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#15
Changcheng Guo, Shuyuan Yeh, Yuanjie Niu, Gonghui Li, Junhua Zheng, Lei Li, Chawnshang Chang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States and its progression is tightly associated with the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals. Men castrated before puberty (eunuchs) or men with inherited deficiency of type II 5α-reductase (with failure to convert testosterone to the more potent dihydrotestosterone) (DHT) do not develop PCa. To date, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgen treatments to reduce or prevent androgens from binding to the AR remains the main therapeutic option for advanced PCa since its discovery by Huggins and Hodges in 1941...
March 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280794/the-putative-effects-of-d-aspartic-acid-on-blood-testosterone-levels-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Farzad Roshanzamir, Seyyed Morteza Safavi
BACKGROUND: D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) is in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues, where it carries out important physiological functions. Recently, it has been reported that D-Asp is involved in the synthesis and release of testosterone and is assumed can be used as a testosterone booster for infertile men, and by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence related to the effects of D-Asp on serum testosterone levels...
January 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274349/sex-hormones-and-acne
#17
Qiang Ju, Tao Tao, Tingting Hu, Ayşe Serap Karadağ, Safaa Al-Khuzaei, WenChieh Chen
The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267564/development-of-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-3-as-a-target-in-hormone-dependent-prostate-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Xiaohui Ning, Yan Yang, Hong Deng, Qihao Zhang, Yadong Huang, Zhijian Su, Yongmei Fu, Qi Xiang, Shu Zhang
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is expressed almost exclusively in the testes and specifically converts the weak androgenic androstenedione to active testosterone (T) in the presence of NADPH. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that 17β-HSD3 is over-expressed in hormone-dependent prostate cancer. T, which interacts with the androgen receptor (AR), eventually stimulates the growth of prostate cancer cells. Defects in T synthesis or action impair the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and cause the autosomal recessive disorder male pseudohermaphroditism...
March 4, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262723/developmental-sex-differences-in-the-metabolism-of-cardiolipin-in-mouse-cerebral-cortex-mitochondria
#19
Estefanía Acaz-Fonseca, Ana Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana B Lopez-Rodriguez, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Mariana Astiz
Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid. CL content and acyl chain composition are crucial for energy production. Given that estradiol induces CL synthesis in neurons, we aimed to assess CL metabolism in the cerebral cortex (CC) of male and female mice during early postnatal life, when sex steroids induce sex-dimorphic maturation of the brain. Despite the fact that total amount of CL was similar, its fatty acid composition differed between males and females at birth. In males, CL was more mature (lower saturation ratio) and the expression of the enzymes involved in synthetic and remodeling pathways was higher, compared to females...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257863/effects-of-selenium-on-the-proliferation-apoptosis-and-testosterone-production-of-sheep-leydig-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
Lei Shi, Ruigao Song, Xiaolei Yao, Youshe Ren
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on in vitro proliferation, apoptosis and testosterone production of sheep Leydig cells and its underlying mechanism. Leydig cells were collected from 8-month-old sheep and divided into four treatment groups (0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 μmol/L Se). After treatment with Se for 48 h, the MTT and flow cytometric assay were used to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. Testosterone level in the culture medium was determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of cell cycle, apoptosis and testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
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