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Testosterone synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708508/developmental-changes-in-the-histological-structure-of-the-testes-and-testosterone-profiles-in-male-guinea-fowls-numida-meleagris
#1
Iddriss I Abdul-Rahman, Frederick Y Obese, Ian A Jeffcoate
Owing to the paucity of information on the reproductive biology of guinea fowls, a study involving a total of 66 males was conducted, and documented the developmental changes in histological structure of the testes of guinea cocks from hatching until adulthood. Changes in testosterone synthesis during sexual development were also determined. Age-related changes were analysed using univariate analysis for completely randomised design and means separated using Tukey's test/Kruskal-Wallis test and medians separated by Mann-Whitney U test...
June 23, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705778/maternal-linuron-exposure-alters-testicular-development-in-male-offspring-rats-at-the-whole-genome-level
#2
Jianwei Bai, Hua Han, Feng Wang, Liyu Su, Hongwei Ding, Xiyin Hu, Binli Hu, Hong Li, Wei Zheng, Yan Li
Linuron is a widely used herbicide; its toxicity on the male reproductive system has been recognized. The current study was designed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying linuron-induced reproductive toxicity. Pregnant rats received daily oral gavage of linuron at the dose of 120mg/kg/d from gestation day (GD)12 to GD17. Tissues from male offspring rats were collected for pathological examination and microarray gene expression profiling. Changes in gene expression were further verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
July 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704441/a-comparison-of-sex-steroid-concentration-levels-in-the-vitreous-and-serum-of-patients-with-vitreoretinal-diseases
#3
Yuko Nishikawa, Seita Morishita, Taeko Horie, Masanori Fukumoto, Takaki Sato, Teruyo Kida, Hidehiro Oku, Jun Sugasawa, Tsunehiko Ikeda, Kimitoshi Nakamura
The purpose of this study was to compare steroid hormone concentration levels in the vitreous and serum of vitreoretinal disease patients to elucidate the possibility of neurosteroid production in the retina. Serum and vitreous samples were collected from vitrectomy patients, and estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. We measured E2 in epiretinal membrane (ERM, n = 14), macular hole (MH, n = 18), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, n = 20), and retinal detachment (RD, n = 19) cases, and T in ERM (n = 14), MH (n = 17), PDR (n = 13), and RD (n = 17) cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703914/hsd3b2-associated-in-modulating-steroid-hormone-synthesis-pathway-regulates-the-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-into-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#4
Chen Zhang, Man Wang, Nana He, Mahmoud F Ahmed, Yilin Wang, Ruifeng Zhao, Xinjian Yu, Jing Jin, Jiuzhou Song, Qisheng Zuo, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
Steroid hormones regulate differentiation of various types of cell during embryogenesis. Testosterone is one of the androgens that bind to receptors to regulate gene expression and promote spermatogenesis. Our results showed that testosterone, as a product of steroid hormones synthesis pathway, could facilitate the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). The analysis of the steroid hormones synthesis pathway demonstrated that 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase2 (Hsd3b2) plays a major role in the synthesis of testosterone...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700985/genes-involved-in-long-term-memory-are-expressed-in-testis-of-cryptorchid-boys-and-respond-to-gnrha-treatment
#5
Faruk Hadziselimovic, Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadler
It has been known for many years that boys with unilateral or bilateral undescended testis (cryptorchidism) tend to have a low IQ, and those who belong to the high infertility risk (HIR) group perform less well at school than low infertility risk (LIR) patients. However, the molecular biological processes underlying this phenomenon are not understood. In this study, we report the outcome of testicular RNA profiling for genes involved in long-term memory formation. We analyzed the histology and the transcriptome of testicular biopsies from bilateral HIR cryptorchid boys, comparing those who received GnRHa treatment for 6 months after the first surgery with those who did not receive GnRHa before the second surgery...
July 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686079/experimental-manipulation-of-corticosterone-does-not-influence-the-clearance-rate-of-plasma-testosterone-in-birds
#6
Pierre Deviche, Stève Desaivre, Mathieu Giraudeau
In vertebrates, exposure to acute stressors stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids such as corticosterone, and in some situations this hormone plays an important role in orchestrating the trade-off that exists between reproduction and self-maintenance. Stressful conditions often lead to a decrease in plasma levels of sex steroids such as testosterone in males, and it has been hypothesized that corticosterone contributes to this decrease. Generally supporting this proposition, glucocorticoids can inhibit the reproductive axis activity at multiple levels, including direct effects on testicular endocrine function...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685147/genotyping-the-high-altitude-mestizo-ecuadorian-population-affected-with-prostate-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Andrés López-Cortés, Alejandro Cabrera-Andrade, Carolina Salazar-Ruales, Ana Karina Zambrano, Santiago Guerrero, Patricia Guevara, Paola E Leone, César Paz-Y-Miño
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in males with 1,114,072 new cases in 2015. The MTHFR enzyme acts in the folate metabolism, which is essential in methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. MTHFR C677T alters homocysteine levels and folate assimilation associated with DNA damage. Androgens play essential roles in prostate growth. The SRD5A2 enzyme metabolizes testosterone and the V89L polymorphism reduces in vivo SRD5A2 activity. The androgen receptor gene codes for a three-domain protein that contains two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG, GGC)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683411/synthesis-of-novel-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-functionalized-s-n-codoped-carbon-dots-for-selective-detection-of-testosterone
#8
Mai Luo, Yifan Hua, Yiran Liang, Jiajun Han, Donghui Liu, Wenting Zhao, Peng Wang
A novel functionalized carbon dot has been synthesized by covalently linking β-cyclodextrin to the surface of N, S codoped carbon dots (β-CD-CDs). The characterization was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectra, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence emission spectra. On the basis of this carbon dot and (ferrocenylmethyl) trimethylammonium iodide (Fc(+)), a photo-induced electron transfer (PET) fluorescent probe system was developed to determine the concentration of testosterone in water and identify testosterone in cell by fluorescence imaging as a visible biomarker...
June 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679622/extra-ovarian-gonadotropin-negative-feedback-revealed-by-aromatase-inhibition-in-female-marmoset-monkeys
#9
Marissa Kraynak, Matthew T Flowers, Robert A Shapiro, Amita Kapoor, Jon Levine, David H Abbott
While the ovary produces the majority of estradiol (E2) in mature female primates, extra-ovarian sources contribute to E2 synthesis and action, including brain E2 regulating hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In ovary-intact female rodent models, aromatase inhibition (AI) induces a PCOS-like hypergonadotropic hyperandrogenism due to absent E2-mediated negative feedback. In order to examine the role of extra-ovarian E2 on nonhuman primate gonadotropin regulation, the present study employs letrozole to elicit AI in adult female marmoset monkeys...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667465/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-male-fertility-a-focus-on-the-testis
#10
REVIEW
Cristina de Angelis, Mariano Galdiero, Claudia Pivonello, Francesco Garifalos, Davide Menafra, Federica Cariati, Ciro Salzano, Giacomo Galdiero, Mariangela Piscopo, Alfonso Vece, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello
In the last decade, vitamin D has emerged as a pleiotropic molecule with a multitude of autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions, mediated by classical genomic as well as non-classical non-genomic actions, on multiple target organs and systems. The expression of vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in male reproductive system, particularly in the testis, suggests the occurrence of vitamin D synthesis and regulation as well as function in the testis. The role of vitamin D in the modulation of testis functions, including hormone production and spermatogenesis, has been investigated in animals and humans...
July 1, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660243/effects-of-selective-deletion-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-from-kisspeptin-cells-on-puberty-and-reproduction-in-male-and-female-mice
#11
Shannon B Z Stephens, Melvin L Rouse, Kristen P Tolson, Reanna B Liaw, Ruby A Parra, Navi Chahal, Alexander S Kauffman
The neuropeptide kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, regulates reproduction by stimulating GnRH secretion. Kiss1-syntheizing neurons reside primarily in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV/PeN) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei. AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic, with females expressing more Kiss1 than males, and participate in estradiol (E2)-induced positive feedback control of GnRH secretion. In mice, most AVPV/PeN Kiss1 cells coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis (in this case, dopamine)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658561/spermatogenic-cycle-and-steroidogenic-control-of-spermatogenesis-in-mytilus-galloprovincialis-collected-in-the-bay-of-naples
#12
Marina Prisco, Marisa Agnese, Adriano De Marino, Piero Andreuccetti, Luigi Rosati
The aim of the present paper was to study the spermatogenic cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in the bay of Naples during a whole year and to acquire new insights into the mechanism of control. Knowledge of the Mytilus cycle in this geographic area is of particular interest as, to the best of our knowledge, the male gonad cycle has been hitherto unexplored. Testis organization was evaluated together with the localization of the enzymes 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD and P450-aromatase, which are strictly connected to the synthesis of two key hormones involved in the testis activity: testosterone and 17β-estradiol...
June 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655647/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-%C3%AE-cypermethrin-on-fetal-rat-testicular-steroidogenesis
#13
Anne-Marie Saillenfait, Jean-Philippe Sabaté, Flavien Denis, Guillaume Antoine, Alain Robert, Alain-Claude Roudot, Dieynaba Ndiaye, Ethel Eljarrat
Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the insecticide α-cypermethrin at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, or 10mg/kg/day, or di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) at 250mg/kg/day, by gavage, from gestation day (GD) 13 to 19. Testicular testosterone production and the expression of several key genes related to cholesterol and androgen synthesis and transport were assessed in GD 19 male fetuses. Dams treated with 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin showed clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reduced body weight gain. α-Cypermethrin had no significant effect on post-implantation loss, fetal weight, incidence of male fetuses per litter, or anogenital distance of the male fetuses...
June 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655646/vitamin-d-deficiency-impairs-testicular-development-and-spermatogenesis-in-mice
#14
Lin Fu, Yuan-Hua Chen, Shen Xu, Yan-Li Ji, Cheng Zhang, Hua Wang, De-Xin Yu, De-Xiang Xu
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent especially in men. Nevertheless, whether vitamin D deficiency impairs male reproduction remains under debate. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency has an impact on testicular development and spermatogenesis in mice. In the control group and vitamin D deficient (VDD) diet group, dams and their pups were fed with standard-chow diet and VDD diet, respectively. Interestingly, testicular weight and sperm quality are reduced, testicular germ cell proliferation is suppressed, and the percentage of mature seminiferous tubules is decreased in VDD diet-fed mice...
June 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649695/neuronal-aromatase-expression-in-pain-processing-regions-of-the-medullary-and-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#15
May Tran, Julia A Kuhn, João M Bráz, Allan I Basbaum
In both acute and chronic pain conditions, women tend to be more sensitive than men. This sex difference may be regulated by estrogens, such as estradiol, that are synthesized in the spinal cord and brainstem and act locally to influence pain processing. To identify a potential cellular source of local estrogen, here we examined the expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Our studies focused on primary afferent neurons and on their central targets in the spinal cord and medulla as well as in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the target of nodose ganglion-derived visceral afferents...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645211/akr1c3-mediated-adipose-androgen-generation-drives-lipotoxicity-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Michael W O'Reilly, Punith Kempegowda, Mark Walsh, Angela E Taylor, Konstantinos N Manolopoulos, J William Allwood, Robert K Semple, Daniel Hebenstreit, Warwick B Dunn, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Wiebke Arlt
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent metabolic disorder, occurring in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Androgen excess is a defining feature of PCOS and has been suggested as causally associated with insulin resistance; however, mechanistic evidence linking both is lacking. We hypothesized that adipose tissue is an important site linking androgen activation and metabolic dysfunction in PCOS...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613046/anti-mullerian-hormone-amh-determinations-in-the-pediatric-and-adolescent-endocrine-practice
#17
Amir Weintraub, Talia Eldar-Geva
Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), secreted by immature testicular Sertoli-cells, triggers the regression of male fetal Mullerian ducts. During puberty, AMH is downregulated by intratesticular testosterone. In females, AMH is secreted from granulosa cells of immature ovarian follicles from late prenatal life until menopause; serum concentration is 5-20 times lower in females than in males through lifetime. In boys, AMH determination is useful in the clinical setting as a marker of Sertoli cell function. Serum AMH is low in infants with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (and increases with FSH treatment), in patients with primary hypogonadism from early postnatal life and in Klinefelter syndrome from midpuberty...
June 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598268/effects-of-pulmonary-exposure-to-chemically-distinct-welding-fumes-on-neuroendocrine-markers-of-toxicity
#18
K Krajnak, K Sriram, C Johnson, J R Roberts, R Mercer, G R Miller, O Wirth, J M Antonini
Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594910/testosterone-improves-the-differentiation-efficiency-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Haikun Liu, Dongsheng Guo, Aynisahan Ruzi, Yan Chen, Tingcai Pan, Fan Yang, Jialiang Li, Kecheng Xu, Tiancheng Zhou, Dajiang Qin, Yin-Xiong Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may provide potential resource for regenerative medicine research, including generation of insulin-producing cells for diabetes research and insulin production. Testosterone (T) is an androgen hormone which promotes protein synthesis and improves the management of type 2 diabetes in clinical studies. Concurrently, co-existed hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinism is frequently observed in polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and some of Wermer's syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583614/effects-of-active-immunization-against-gnrh-versus-surgical-castration-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-function-in-boars
#20
Xingfa Han, Yuqin Zhou, Yu Zeng, Fenfen Sui, Yacheng Liu, Yao Tan, Xiaohan Cao, Xiaogang Du, Fengyan Meng, Xianyin Zeng
The objective was to compare effects of anti-GnRH immunization (immunocastration) versus surgical castration on hypothalamic-pituitary function in boars. Thirty-six boars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12/group): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (boostered 8 wk later). Compared to intact boars, immunocastration reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of LH, FSH, testosterone and inhibin B and caused severe testicular atrophy, whereas surgical castration increased (P < 0...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
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