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Testosterone synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613046/anti-mullerian-hormone-amh-determinations-in-the-pediatric-and-adolescent-endocrine-practice
#1
Amir Weintraub, Talia Eldar-Geva
Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), secreted by immature testicular Sertoli-cells, triggers the regression of male fetal Mullerian ducts. During puberty, AMH is downregulated by intratesticular testosterone. In females, AMH is secreted from granulosa cells of immature ovarian follicles from late prenatal life until menopause; serum concentration is 5-20 times lower in females than in males through lifetime. In boys, AMH determination is useful in the clinical setting as a marker of Sertoli cell function. Serum AMH is low in infants with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (and increases with FSH treatment), in patients with primary hypogonadism from early postnatal life and in Klinefelter syndrome from midpuberty...
June 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598268/effects-of-pulmonary-exposure-to-chemically-distinct-welding-fumes-on-neuroendocrine-markers-of-toxicity
#2
K Krajnak, K Sriram, C Johnson, J R Roberts, R Mercer, G R Miller, O Wirth, J M Antonini
Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594910/testosterone-improves-the-differentiation-efficiency-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Haikun Liu, Dongsheng Guo, Aynisahan Ruzi, Yan Chen, Tingcai Pan, Fan Yang, Jialiang Li, Kecheng Xu, Tiancheng Zhou, Dajiang Qin, Yin-Xiong Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may provide potential resource for regenerative medicine research, including generation of insulin-producing cells for diabetes research and insulin production. Testosterone (T) is an androgen hormone which promotes protein synthesis and improves the management of type 2 diabetes in clinical studies. Concurrently, co-existed hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinism is frequently observed in polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and some of Wermer's syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583614/effects-of-active-immunization-against-gnrh-versus-surgical-castration-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-function-in-boars
#4
Xingfa Han, Yuqin Zhou, Yu Zeng, Fenfen Sui, Yacheng Liu, Yao Tan, Xiaohan Cao, Xiaogang Du, Fengyan Meng, Xianyin Zeng
The objective was to compare effects of anti-GnRH immunization (immunocastration) versus surgical castration on hypothalamic-pituitary function in boars. Thirty-six boars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12/group): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (boostered 8 wk later). Compared to intact boars, immunocastration reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of LH, FSH, testosterone and inhibin B and caused severe testicular atrophy, whereas surgical castration increased (P < 0...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575284/role-of-heat-shock-factor-1-in-conserving-cholesterol-transportation-in-leydig-cell-steroidogenesis-via-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein
#5
Shintaro Oka, Koji Shiraishi, Mitsuaki Fujimoto, Arpit Katiyar, Ryosuke Takii, Akira Nakai, Hideyasu Matsuyama
Testicular testosterone synthesis begins with cholesterol transport into mitochondria via steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in Leydig cells. Acute heat stress is known to obstruct testicular steroidogenesis by transcriptional repression of StAR. In contrast, chronic heat stress such as cryptorchidism or varicocele generally does not affect testicular steroidogenesis, suggesting that Leydig cells adapt to heat stress and retain their steroid synthesis ability. However, the mechanisms of the stress response in steroid-producing cells are unclear...
May 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560422/effects-of-maternal-acrolein-exposure-during-pregnancy-on-testicular-testosterone-production-in-fetal-rats
#6
Yuzhuo Yang, Zhe Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, Kai Hong, Wenhao Tang, Lianming Zhao, Haocheng Lin, Defeng Liu, Jiaming Mao, Han Wu, Hui Jiang
Acrolein has been reported to have diverse toxic effects on various organs, including the reproductive system. However, little is known regarding the effects of maternal acrolein exposure on testicular steroidogenesis in male offspring. The present study investigated the effects of acrolein on fetal testosterone production and associated genes. Pregnant Sprague‑Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (normal saline) or 1, 2 or 5 mg/kg acrolein from gestational day (GD) 14‑20, and fetal testes were examined on GD 21...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536437/monocrotophos-pesticide-affects-synthesis-and-conversion-of-sex-steroids-through-multiple-targets-in-male-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#7
Hua Tian, Yang Sun, Hui Wang, Xin Bing, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Monocrotophos (MCP) is an organophosphorus pesticide that is median-toxic to fish. MCP pesticide resulted in an increase of 17 beta estradiol following a decrease in testosterone in male goldfish (Carassius auratus). To fully understand the mechanism of MCP pesticide that causes the imbalance between male and female hormones, we determined the levels of plasma cholesterol, spermatic steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA, steroidogenesis enzyme mRNA, plasma sex hormone synthesis intermediates, and effectual hormones in male goldfish exposed to MCP pesticide at nominal concentrations of 0...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505621/gnrha-treatment-of-cryptorchid-boys-affects-genes-involved-in-hormonal-control-of-the-hpg-axis-and-fertility
#8
Faruk Hadziselimovic, Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadler
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa; Buserelin) rescues fertility during adulthood in the majority of high infertility risk cryptorchid boys presenting with defective mini-puberty. However, the molecular events governing this effect are not understood. We report the outcome of an RNA profiling analysis of testicular biopsies from 4 operated patients who were treated with GnRHa for 6 months versus 3 operated controls who were not treated. GnRHa induces a significant transcriptional response, including protein-coding genes involved in pituitary development, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and testosterone synthesis...
May 16, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503943/transcriptional-profile-of-ethylene-glycol-monomethyl-ether-induced-testicular-toxicity-in-rats
#9
Takuya Matsuyama, Koichi Yabe, Chiharu Kuwata, Kazumi Ito, Yosuke Ando, Hiroshi Iida, Kazuhiko Mori
To clarify the molecular mechanism of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME)-induced testicular toxicity, the potential for EGME-related changes in transcript levels of genes including spermatocyte-specific genes was evaluated in the testis of rats given single dosing of EGME at 200, 600, or 2000 mg/kg. Furthermore, the contribution of decreased testicular testosterone on EGME-induced spermatocyte toxicity was investigated by comparing to transcriptional profile due to a testosterone synthesis inhibitor, ketoconazole (KET), at 30 or 300 mg/kg...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502861/analysis-of-testosterone-fatty-acid-esters-in-the-digestive-gland-of-mussels-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#10
Cesare Guercia, Piergiorgio Cianciullo, Cinta Porte
Several studies have indicated that up to 70% of the total steroids detected in molluscs are in the esterified form and that pollutants, by modifying the esterification of steroids with fatty acids, might act as endocrine disrupters. However, despite the strong physiological significance of this process, there is almost no information on which fatty acids form the steroid esters and how this process is modulated. This study (a) investigates the formation of fatty acid esters of testosterone in digestive gland microsomal fractions of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis incubated with either palmitoly-CoA or CoA and ATP, and (b) assesses whether the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) interferes with the esterification of testosterone...
May 11, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486593/prevalence-of-obesity-associated-gonadal-dysfunction-in-severely-obese-men-and-women-and-its-resolution-after-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hector F Escobar-Morreale, Elisa Santacruz, Manuel Luque-Ramírez, José I Botella Carretero
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism manifests noticeably in obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction. In women, obesity is associated with androgen excess disorders, mostly the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whereas androgen deficiency is frequently present in obese men in what has been termed as male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH). Obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction, consisting of PCOS in women and MOSH in men, is a frequent finding in patients with severe obesity and it may be ameliorated or even resolve with marked weight loss, especially after bariatric surgery...
May 9, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483507/synthesis-and-spectral-properties-of-estrogen-and-androgen-bodipy-conjugates
#12
Samira Osati, Hasrat Ali, Brigitte Guerin, Johan E van Lier
To develop receptor based fluorescence ligands for imaging breast and prostate cancer, a series of estrogen-, testosterone- and 19-nortestosterone conjugates linked to BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) or aza-BODIPY, were prepared. Their synthesis involves attachment of iodo derivatives of differently substituted BODIPY and aza-BODIPY analogs to the C17α-position of the steroid moieties using either the Sonogashira coupling or Click reaction. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the conjugates range from 500 to 710nm with fluorescence emission properties ranging from 520 to 700nm, facilitating observations in living cells and tissues...
May 5, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479382/characterization-and-expression-of-star2a-and-star2b-in-the-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#13
Dongdong Liang, Zhaofei Fan, Shenda Weng, Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Yuxia Zou, Xungang Tan, Jun Li, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein 2 (StAR2) is a key protein in transporting cholesterol from the outer mitochondria membrane to the inner mitochondria membrane for sex steroid synthesis. In this study, two StAR2 gene isoforms, StAR2a and StAR2b, were isolated from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus gonads. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that their expression levels were higher in testis than those in ovary. StAR2a was mainly expressed in the thecal cells and ooplasm of ovary, and Leydig cells and spermatid of testis according to the results of in situ hybridization...
May 4, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455626/influences-of-flavones-on-cell-viability-and-camp-dependent-steroidogenic-gene-regulation-in-ma-10-leydig-cells
#14
Michelle Cormier, Firas Ghouili, Pauline Roumaud, William Bauer, Mohamed Touaibia, Luc J Martin
Testicular Leydig cells are major contributors of androgen synthesis and secretion, which play an important role in testis development, normal masculinization, maintenance of spermatogenesis, and general male fertility. The rate-limiting step in testosterone biosynthesis involves the transfer of cholesterol to the mitochondrial inner membrane by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (Star) protein, a critical factor in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Once inside the mitochondria, cholesterol is metabolized by the steroidogenic enzyme Cyp11a1 to pregnenolone, which is further converted to testosterone by the action of other steroidogenic enzymes...
April 28, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442907/synthesis-of-magnetic-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-with-excellent-biocompatibility-for-the-selective-separation-and-inhibition-of-testosterone-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#15
Xiaoshuang Tang, Feng Li, Jing Jia, Chao Yang, Wei Liu, Ben Jin, Xinyang Wang, Ruixia Gao, Dalin He, Peng Guo
PURPOSE: Androgen plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. In the present study, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with good biocompatibility were produced for the selective separation and inhibition of testosterone in prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MMIPs were prepared by using magnetic nanospheres, gelatin, and testosterone as the supporting materials, functional monomer, and the template molecule, respectively...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414121/neural-derived-estradiol-regulates-brain-plasticity
#16
REVIEW
Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
In addition to be an ovarian hormone, estradiol is a neurosteroid synthesized by neural cells. The brain is a steroidogenic tissue that metabolizes testosterone to estradiol. The last step in the synthesis of estradiol is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, which is widely expressed in the brain of male and female animals and humans. Studies that have manipulated the expression or the activity of aromatase have revealed that brain-derived estradiol acts as a neuromodulator and regulates different forms of brain plasticity in male and female animals...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395332/acetamiprid-inhibits-testosterone-synthesis-by-affecting-the-mitochondrial-function-and-cytoplasmic-adenosine-triphosphate-production-in-rat-leydig-cells%C3%A2
#17
Deying Kong, Jidong Zhang, Xiaohui Hou, Shibin Zhang, Jun Tan, Yuanshou Chen, Weirong Yang, Junwei Zeng, Yong Han, Xiaohong Liu, Delin Xu, Renlian Cai
The insecticide acetamiprid is used to control noxious agricultural pests. However, it can cause mammalian toxicity. We evaluated the reproductive toxicity of acetamiprid in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were given oral acetamiprid alone or with vitamin E for 35 days. Rat plasma testosterone concentration and sperm quality decreased significantly as the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) increased after exposure. At the same time, acetamiprid increased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) levels of Leydig cells...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377716/human-cytochrome-p450-3a4-as-a-biocatalyst-effects-of-the-engineered-linker-in-modulation-of-coupling-efficiency-in-3a4-bmr-chimeras
#18
Danilo Degregorio, Serena D'Avino, Silvia Castrignanò, Giovanna Di Nardo, Sheila J Sadeghi, Gianluca Catucci, Gianfranco Gilardi
Human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 is the main enzyme involved in drug metabolism. This makes it an attractive target for biocatalytic applications, such as the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and drug metabolites. However, its poor solubility, stability and low coupling have limited its application in the biotechnological context. We previously demonstrated that the solubility of P450 3A4 can be increased by creating fusion proteins between the reductase from Bacillus megaterium BM3 (BMR) and the N-terminally modified P450 3A4 (3A4-BMR)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371818/acetamiprid-inhibits-testosterone-synthesis-by-affecting-the-mitochondrial-function-and-cytoplasmic-adenosine-triphosphate-production-in-rat-leydig-cells%C3%A2
#19
Deying Kong, Jidong Zhang, Xiaohui Hou, Shibin Zhang, Jun Tan, Yuanshou Chen, Weirong Yang, Junwei Zeng, Yong Han, Xiaohong Liu, Delin Xu, Renlian Cai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369636/maternal-fenvalerate-exposure-induces-fetal-intrauterine-growth-restriction-through-disrupting-placental-thyroid-hormone-receptor-signaling
#20
Bo Wang, Ji-Jie Liu, Yan Wang, Lin Fu, Ru Shen, Zhen Yu, Hua Wang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Cheng Zhang, Xiu-Hong Meng, De-Xiang Xu
Fenvalerate is an environmental endocrine disruptor that disrupts testosterone and estradiol synthesis. Nevertheless, whether fenvalerate disturbs placental TR signaling remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal fenvalerate exposure causes fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to explore the role of placental thyroid hormone receptor (TR) signaling. Pregnant mice except controls were orally administered to fenvalerate (0.2, 2.0 or 20 mg/kg) daily throughout pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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