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Neuromodulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#1
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076964/trigeminal-neuralgia-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Stine Maarbjerg, Giulia Di Stefano, Lars Bendtsen, Giorgio Cruccu
Introduction Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by touch-evoked unilateral brief shock-like paroxysmal pain in one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. In addition to the paroxysmal pain, some patients also have continuous pain. TN is divided into classical TN (CTN) and secondary TN (STN). Etiology and pathophysiology Demyelination of primary sensory trigeminal afferents in the root entry zone is the predominant pathophysiological mechanism. Most likely, demyelination paves the way for generation of ectopic impulses and ephaptic crosstalk...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076681/computational-modeling-of-neurotransmitter-release-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-non-linear-approaches-to-predicting-stimulation-evoked-dopamine-release
#3
James K Trevathan, Ali Yousefi, Hyung Ook Park, John J Bartoletta, Kip A Ludwig, Kendall H Lee, J Luis Lujan
Neurochemical changes evoked by electrical stimulation of the nervous system have been linked to both therapeutic and undesired effects of neuromodulation therapies used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hypertension, tinnitus, and many other indications. In fact, interest in better understanding the role of neurochemical signaling in neuromodulation therapies has been a focus of recent government- and industry-sponsored programs whose ultimate goal is to usher in an era of personalized medicine by creating neuromodulation therapies that respond to real-time changes in patient status...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076639/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-treatment-of-major-depression-during-pregnancy-a-review
#4
Renata de Melo Felipe, Ygor Arzeno Ferrão
Introduction: Pregnancy is characterized by a high prevalence of mental disorders. Depression is the most common of these disorders and it is a risk factor for negative maternal and child development outcomes. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are conventional and well-established therapeutic options, but some clients fail to respond and the safety of using some pharmacological agents during pregnancy is unclear. Some neuromodulation techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), have been studied in depressed pregnant women...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069925/cerebellar-tdcs-modulates-neural-circuits-during-semantic-prediction-a-combined-tdcs-fmri-study
#5
Anila M D'Mello, Peter E Turkeltaub, Catherine J Stoodley
: It has been proposed that the cerebellum acquires internal models of mental processes that enable prediction, allowing for the optimization of behavior. In language, semantic prediction speeds speech production and comprehension. Right cerebellar lobules VI and VII (including Crus I/II) are engaged during a variety of language processes and are functionally connected with cerebral cortical language networks. Further, right posterolateral cerebellar neuromodulation modifies behavior during predictive language processing...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069917/dopamine-modulates-the-functional-organization-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#6
Thorsten Kahnt, Philippe N Tobler
: Neuromodulators such as dopamine can alter the intrinsic firing properties of neurons, and may thereby change the configuration of larger functional circuits. The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) receives dopaminergic input from midbrain nuclei, but the role of dopamine in the OFC is still unclear. Here we tested the idea that dopaminergic activity changes the pattern of connectivity between the OFC and the rest of the brain, and thereby reconfigures functional networks in the OFC...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069535/thyronamines-and-analogues-translational-research-on-thyronergic-amines-the-route-from-rediscovery-of-thyronamines-to-the-bedside
#7
Grazia Chiellini, Lorenza Bellusci, Martina Sabatini, Riccardo Zucchi
Thyronamines are a novel class of endogenous signaling compounds, structurally related to thyroid hormones (THs). Specific thyronamines, particularly 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), stimulate with nanomolar affinity trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a G protein-coupled membrane receptor, and may also interact with other TAAR subtypes (particularly TAAR5), adrenergic receptors (particularly α2 receptors), amine transporters, and mitochondrial proteins. In addition to its structural similarities with THs, T1AM also contains the arylethylamine scaffold as in monoamine neurotransmitters, implicating an intriguing role for T1AM as both a neuromodulator and a hormone-like molecule constituting a part of thyroid hormone signaling...
January 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068296/orientation-selective-deep-brain-stimulation
#8
Lauri J Lehto, Julia P Slopsema, Matthew D Johnson, Artem Shatillo, Benjamin A Teplitzky, Lynn Utecht, Gregor Adriany, Silvia Mangia, Alejandra Sierra, Walter C Low, Olli Gröhn, Shalom Michaeli
OBJECTIVE: Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064346/effects-of-cerebellar-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-motor-cortex-excitability-and-motor-function
#9
Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alfredo Manuli, Francesca Sciarrone, Margherita Russo, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
The cerebellum regulates several motor functions through two main mechanisms, the cerebellum-brain inhibition (CBI) and the motor surround inhibition (MSI). Although the exact cerebellar structures and functions involved in such processes are partially known, Purkinje cells (PC) and their surrounding interneuronal networks may play a pivotal role concerning CBI and MSI. Cerebellar transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been proven to shape specific cerebellar components in a feasible, safe, effective, and non-invasive manner...
January 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061970/nitric-oxide-and-anxiety
#10
K Gulati, N Rai, A Ray
Anxiety is a common neuropsychiatric disorder which affects both physical and mental health. Complex neurobiological mechanisms are involved in the genesis of anxiety, and the drugs used to date, though effective, are not free from shortcomings. Conventional agents like the classical benzodiazepines and the atypical nonbenzodiazepine agents like buspirone have their own limitations. There is thus need to explore newer neurochemical pathways to develop efficacious and safer drugs for the disorder. Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique neuromodulator substance, with the ability to influence and modulate several other conventional messengers which play an important role in anxiety...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060912/early-fesoterodine-fumarate-administration-prevents-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-in-a-spinal-cord-transected-rat-model
#11
Xavier Biardeau, Mikolaj Przydacz, Shachar Aharony, George Loutochin, Lysanne Campeau, Maeva Kyheng, Jacques Corcos
BACKGROUND: In spinal cord injury, onset of detrusor overactivity (DO) is detrimental for quality of life (incontinence) and renal risk. Prevention has only been achieved with complex sophisticated electrical neuromodulation techniques. PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of early fesoterodine fumarate (FF) administration in preventing bladder overactivity in a spinal cord transected (SCT) rat model. METHODS: 33 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 6 groups-Group 1: 3 normal controls; Group 2: 6 SCT controls; Group 3: 6 SCT rats + FF 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059800/twist-and-turn-into-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-potential-role-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-auditory-stapedial-reflex
#12
Antonino Naro, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carlo Salviera, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), typically show an awareness impairment paralleled by a significant reflex hyper-excitability, which depend on the cortical deafferentation following brain-damage-induced thalamocortical system deterioration. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown a residual preservation of cortico-subcortical pathways that may sustain residual fragments of awareness in some DOC patients...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059140/identification-and-functional-characterisation-of-5-ht4-receptor-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka
#13
Tianming Wang, Zhen Yang, Naiming Zhou, Lina Sun, Zhenming Lv, Changwen Wu
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057429/cautious-optimism-for-non-invasive-transcranial-direct-current-neuromodulation-for-perinatal-stroke
#14
EDITORIAL
Martin Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057156/-short-term-outcome-of-sacral-neuromodulation-on-refractory-interstitial-cystitis-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#15
P Zhang, J Z Zhang, L Y Wu, H Q Niu, Y B Yang, X D Zhang
Objective: To summarize the initial experiences of applying sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for refractory interstitial cystitis/pelvic pain syndrome (IC/PPS). Methods: From January 2013 to August 2016, 26 patients with refractory IC/PPS (including 5 males and 21 females) treated with SNM were recruited in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital and Hebei Yanda Hospital in this retrospective study. The data before operation, after implantation of stage Ⅰ tined lead, and during short-term follow-up after implantation of stage Ⅱ implanted pulse generator (IPG) were compared in order to observe the improvement of relevant symptoms, and to summarize the effectiveness and safety of SNM for IC/PPS...
December 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055126/neuromodulation-therapies-for-alcohol-addiction-a-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Celeste A Azevedo, Antonios Mammis
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review is to explore alternative neurological therapies in the treatment of alcohol use disorder; including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation (DBS), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and the off-label use of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through EBSCOhost regarding the neurological therapies in the treatment of alcoholism discussed in this paper...
January 5, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054557/kilohertz-frequency-nerve-block-enhances-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#17
Yogi A Patel, Tarun Saxena, Ravi V Bellamkonda, Robert J Butera
Efferent activation of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) dampens systemic inflammatory processes, potentially modulating a wide-range of inflammatory pathological conditions. In contrast, afferent cVN activation amplifies systemic inflammatory processes, leading to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic nervous system through the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN), and elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ideally, to clinically implement anti-inflammatory therapy via cervical vagus nerve stimulation (cVNS) one should selectively activate the efferent pathway...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053504/nitroglycerin-enhances-the-propagation-of-cortical-spreading-depression-comparative-studies-with-sumatriptan-and-novel-kynurenic-acid-analogues
#18
Levente Knapp, Bence Szita, Kitti Kocsis, László Vécsei, József Toldi
BACKGROUND: The complex pathophysiology of migraine is not yet clearly understood; therefore, experimental models are essential for the investigation of the processes related to migraine headache, which include cortical spreading depression (CSD) and NO donor-induced neurovascular changes. Data on the assessment of drug efficacy in these models are often limited, which prompted us to investigate a novel combined migraine model in which an effective pharmacon could be more easily identified...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053245/synaptic-control-of-the-shape-of-the-motoneuron-pool-input-output-function
#19
Randall K Powers, Charles J Heckman
Although motoneurons have often been considered to be fairly linear transducers of synaptic input, recent evidence suggests that strong persistent inward currents (PICs) in motoneurons allow neuromodulatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to induce large nonlinearities in the relation between the level of excitatory input and motor output. To try and estimate the possible extent of this nonlinearity, we developed a pool of model motoneurons designed to replicate the characteristics of motoneuron input-output properties measured in medial gastrocnemius motoneurons in the decerebrate cat using voltage-clamp and current-clamp techniques...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042918/the-neurostimulation-appropriateness-consensus-committee-nacc-safety-guidelines-for-the-reduction-of-severe-neurological-injury
#20
REVIEW
Timothy R Deer, Tim J Lamer, Jason E Pope, Steven M Falowski, David A Provenzano, Konstantin Slavin, Stanley Golovac, Jeffrey Arle, Joshua M Rosenow, Kayode Williams, Porter McRoberts, Samer Narouze, Sam Eldabe, Shivanand P Lad, Jose A De Andrés, Eric Buchser, Philippe Rigoard, Robert M Levy, Brian Simpson, Nagy Mekhail
INTRODUCTION: Neurostimulation involves the implantation of devices to stimulate the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral or cranial nerves for the purpose of modulating the neural activity of the targeted structures to achieve specific therapeutic effects. Surgical placement of neurostimulation devices is associated with risks of neurologic injury, as well as possible sequelae from the local or systemic effects of the intervention. The goal of the Neurostimulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) is to improve the safety of neurostimulation...
January 2, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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