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Neuromodulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446585/activation-mechanism-of-a-neuromodulator-gated-pacemaker-ionic-current
#1
Michael Gray, Daniel Hector Daudelin, Jorge Golowasch
The neuromodulator-gated current (IMI) found in the crab stomatogastric ganglion is activated by neuromodulators that are essential to induce the rhythmic activity of the pyloric network in this system. One of these neuromodulators is also known to control the correlated expression of voltage-gated ionic currents in pyloric neurons as well as synaptic plasticity and strength. Thus, understanding the mechanism by which neuromodulator receptors activate IMI should provide insights not only into how oscillations are initiated, but also into how other processes, and currents not directly activated by them, are regulated...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445906/-bipolar-stimulation-may-improve-the-efficacy-of-the-percutaneous-nerve-evaluation-test-of-sacral-neuromodulation
#2
André Reitz, Tanja Hüsch, Regula Doggweiler, Stephan Buse, Axel Haferkamp
Purpose This study evaluates the hypothesis that bipolar stimulation of the S3 and S4 sacral roots may enhance the efficacy of the percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) test. Material and Methods In this case-control-study, we enrolled 43 patients undergoing bipolar PNE and 57 controls undergoing unipolar PNE. For bipolar PNE, four test electrodes were placed at the bilateral S3 and S4 roots. The electrodes at the S3 and S4 roots of each side were connected to obtain bipolar stimulation. The test protocol over eight days included unilateral and bilateral stimulation of the S3 and S4 sacral roots...
April 26, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445779/the-acute-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-centrally-injected-arachidonic-acid-the-mediation-of-prostaglandin-e-d-and-f2%C3%AE
#3
Leman Gizem Erkan, Burcin Altinbas, Gokcen Guvenc, Begum Aydin, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Arachidonic acid (AA), which is released from synaptic membrane phospholipid by neuroreceptor-initiated activation of phospholipase A2, is abundant in the brain and works as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Recently we reported that centrally injected AA generated pressor and hyperventilation effects by activating thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway. The present study was designed to investigate the mediation of other metabolites of AA such as prostaglandin (PG) D, PGE and PGF2α alongside TXA2 in the AA-evoked cardiorespiratory effects in anaesthetized rats...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#4
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445601/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-2-treatment-monitoring-and-prognosis
#5
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To discuss current anticonvulsant drug options and advances in treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and to review the prognosis associated with SE. TREATMENT: When treating a patient with SE, the main goals are to halt seizure activity, prevent further seizures, identify the cause of the seizures, and manage any complications. The veterinary literature indicates that benzodiazepines are the most common class of drugs used for the initial treatment of SE...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445519/the-effect-of-atomoxetine-on-random-and-directed-exploration-in-humans
#6
Christopher M Warren, Robert C Wilson, Nic J van der Wee, Eric J Giltay, Martijn S van Noorden, Jonathan D Cohen, Sander Nieuwenhuis
The adaptive regulation of the trade-off between pursuing a known reward (exploitation) and sampling lesser-known options in search of something better (exploration) is critical for optimal performance. Theory and recent empirical work suggest that humans use at least two strategies for solving this dilemma: a directed strategy in which choices are explicitly biased toward information seeking, and a random strategy in which decision noise leads to exploration by chance. Here we examined the hypothesis that random exploration is governed by the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444708/can-we-create-a-valid-treatment-algorithm-for-patients-with-drug-resistant-overactive-bladder-oab-syndrome-or-detrusor-overactivity-do-results-from-a-think-tank-ici-rs-2015
#7
REVIEW
Apostolos Apostolidis, Marcio Augusto Averbeck, Arun Sahai, Sajjad Rahmana'i, Ralf Anding, Dudley Robinson, Stavros Gravas, Roger Dmochowski
AIMS: To review and assess the definitions of drug resistance and the evidence supporting treatment for drug resistant overactive bladder/detrusor overactivity (OAB/DO). METHODS: Evidence review of the extant literature and consensus of opinion was used to derive the summary recommendations. RESULTS: Drug resistance or drug refractory status has been inconsistently defined and reported in current evident sources. Recent publications use some correlation of lack of efficacy and or experienced side effects to define drug resistance...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444137/effects-of-serotonin-transporter-gene-variation-on-impulsivity-mediated-by-default-mode-network-a-family-study-of-depression
#8
Jiook Cha, Guia Guffanti, Jay Gingrich, Ardesheer Talati, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna Weissman, Jonathan Posner
Serotonergic neurotransmission, potentially through effects on the brain's default mode network (DMN), may regulate aspects of attention including impulse control. Indeed, genetic variants of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) have been implicated in impulsivity and related psychopathology. Yet it remains unclear the mechanism by which the 5-HTT genetic variants contribute to individual variability in impulse control. Here, we tested whether DMN connectivity mediates an association between the 5-HTT genetic variants and impulsivity...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443696/the-development-and-modelling-of-devices-and-paradigms-for-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#9
Stefan M Goetz, Zhi-De Deng
Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models...
April 26, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441605/biological-effects-and-medical-applications-of-infrared-radiation
#10
Shang-Ru Tsai, Michael R Hamblin
Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441568/neuromodulation-the-fevered-mind-of-the-worm
#11
Niels Ringstad
A landmark study has revealed that an interleukin-17-like signaling system modulates a neural circuit that controls the aggregation behavior of nematodes.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#12
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440001/treating-low-back-pain-with-combined-cerebral-and-peripheral-electrical-stimulation-a-randomized-double-blind-factorial-clinical-trial
#13
F A Hazime, A F Baptista, D G de Freitas, R L Monteiro, R L Maretto, R H Hasue, S M A João
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that chronic low back pain is associated with plastic changes in the brain that can be modified by neuromodulation strategies. This study investigated the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined simultaneously with peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) for pain relief, disability and global perception in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Ninety-two patients with CLBP were randomized to receive 12 sessions on nonconsecutive days of anodal tDCS (primary motor cortex, M1), 100 Hz sensory PES (lumbar spine), tDCS + PES or sham tDCS + PES...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437824/-neuromodulation-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-what-is-useful
#14
Volker Tronnier
Neuromodulatory techniques have replaced the earlier performed neurolesional procedures to treat chronic pain syndromes with only a few exceptions. Nevertheless these procedures are invasive with respective risks and complications and therefore conservative physical, psychological pharmacological as well as interventional treatments should be performed first. Because this therapy is costly, the indication has to be proven carefully with a strict patient selection and also the long-term results have to be considered...
April 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436038/direct-current-stimulation-boosts-synaptic-gain-and-cooperativity-in-vitro
#15
Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson
KEY POINTS: Direct current stimulation (DCS) polarity specifically modulates synaptic efficacy during a continuous train of presynaptic inputs, despite synaptic depression. DCS polarizes afferent axons and postsynaptic neurons, boosting cooperativity between synaptic inputs. Polarization of afferent neurons in upstream brain regions may modulate activity in the target brain region during transcranial DCS (tDCS). A statistical theory of coincident activity predicts that the diffuse and weak profile of current flow can be advantageous in enhancing connectivity between co-active brain regions...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434992/promising-techniques-to-illuminate-neuromodulatory-control-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-sleeping-and-waking-states
#16
REVIEW
Takeshi Kanda, Kaoru Ohyama, Hiroki Muramoto, Nami Kitajima, Hiroshi Sekiya
Sleep, a common event in daily life, has clear benefits for brain function, but what goes on in the brain when we sleep remains unclear. Sleep was long regarded as a silent state of the brain because the brain seemingly lacks interaction with the surroundings during sleep. Since the discovery of electrical activities in the brain at rest, electrophysiological methods have revealed novel concepts in sleep research. During sleep, the brain generates oscillatory activities that represent characteristic states of sleep...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434991/the-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-by-mesolimbic-dopamine-systems
#17
REVIEW
Yo Oishi, Michael Lazarus
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivational behaviors. Recent findings indicate that the VTA and NAc are also involved in sleep/wake regulation - the topic of this review. First, we present an overview of the growing evidence from rodent studies revealing a wake-regulatory role of VTA dopamine neurons. We also discuss brain areas and their neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that may regulate the activity of wake-promoting VTA dopamine neurons...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433830/spasticity-management-the-current-state-of-transcranial-neuromodulation
#18
REVIEW
Antonino Leo, Antonino Naro, Francesco Molonia, Provvidenza Tomasello, Ileana Saccà, Alessia Bramanti, Margherita Russo, Placido Bramanti, Angelo Quartarone, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
This narrative review aims to provide an objective view of the non-invasive neuromodulation (NINM) protocols available for treating spasticity, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). On the basis of the relevant randomized controlled trials, we infer that NINM is more effective in reducing spasticity when combined with the conventional therapies than used as a stand-alone treatment. However, the magnitude of NINM aftereffects depends significantly on the applied hemisphere and the underlying pathology...
April 19, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430976/acute-and-chronic-noradrenergic-effects-on-cortical-excitability-in-healthy-humans
#19
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
Background: Noradrenaline is a major neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggested that acute application of selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI) enhances cortical excitability in the human brain. However, other, such like clinical effects, usually require prolonged NRI treatment, which might go along with different physiological effects...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430535/transcranial-focused-ultrasound-a-new-tool-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation
#20
Maria Fini, William J Tyler
Ultrasound (US) is widely known for its utility as a biomedical imaging modality. An abundance of evidence has recently accumulated showing that US is also useful for non-invasively modulating brain circuit activity. Through a series of studies discussed in this short review, it has recently become recognized that transcranial focused ultrasound can exert mechanical (non-thermal) bioeffects on neurons and cells to produce focal changes in the activity of brain circuits. In addition to highlighting scientific breakthroughs and observations that have driven the development of the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation, this study also provides a discussion of mechanisms of action underlying the ability of ultrasound to physically stimulate and modulate brain circuit activity...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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