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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346297/exposure-to-mycophenolate-and-fatherhood
#1
Karsten Midtvedt, Stein Bergan, Anna Varberg Reisæter, Bjørn Egil Vikse, Anders Åsberg
BACKGROUND: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active immunosuppressive substance in both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium and it is widely used after organ transplantation. In females taking MPA is teratogenic and may also influence spermatogenesis. There is a lack of knowledge regarding outcome of pregnancies fathered by males exposed to MPA. METHODS: We compared outcomes in pregnancies fathered by renal transplant males per whether they had been exposed to MPA or not at time of conception...
March 22, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342926/causes-and-clinical-features-of-infertile-men-with-non-obstructive-azoospermia-and-histopathological-diagnosis-of-hypospermatogenesis
#2
Yu-Sheng Cheng, Chun-Wun Lu, Tsung-Yen Lin, Pei-Yu Lin, Yung-Ming Lin
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes and the clinical features of infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and hypospermatogenesis (HS). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 100 patients with NOA and HS and eight patients with obstructive azoospermia and normal spermatogenesis. The severity of HS was subdivided into three groups (mild, moderate, and severe) based on spermatogenic score. Data of history, physical findings, serum hormone profiles, genetic studies and sperm retrieval rate (SRR) were collected...
March 22, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341418/a-novel-y-chromosome-microdeletion-potentially-associated-with-defective-spermatogenesis-identified-by-custom-array-comparative-genome-hybridization
#3
Tianwen He, Xiangzhong Zhang, Hua Deng, Weiping Zhou, Xin Zhao, Hui Zhao, Jian Lu, Yichun Zheng, Changbin Zhang, Liang Zhang, Aihua Yin
Male infertility is a major health problem worldwide. Oligospermia and azoospermia are the most common symptoms of this disorder. Despite recent advances, the aetiopathogenesis of defective spermatogenesis remains largely uncertain. The aim of this study is to discover unknown or novel chromosome aberrations associated with male reproductive failure. We developed a high-resolution custom array comparative genomic hybridization for initial screening of copy number variations in 10 patients with idiopathic oligozoospermia and azoospermia and eight normal fertile men...
January 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341395/gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-initiates-prior-to-birth-in-murine-testes-and-it-requires-fgf-signaling
#4
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
Spermatogenesis is a continuous and highly coordinated process of spermatozoa production. In mice, this process is believed to initiate shortly after birth with the emergence of nascent spermatogonia in the testes. However, because the nascent spermatogonia originated from the gonocytes are morphologically indistinguishable from their predecessors and there is no clear definition for the gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST), it remains unclear when and how spermatogenesis is initiated in the mouse testes...
March 21, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339784/regulatory-effects-of-autophagy-on-spermatogenesis
#5
Jun Yin, Bing Ni, Zhi-Qiang Tian, Fan Yang, Wei-Gong Liao, Yu-Qi Gao
Abnormal spermatogenesis is an important pathophysiological process underlying male infertility. Apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and disruption of ectoplasmic specialization (ES) have been characterized as the key biological events of this disorder. Under physiological and pathophysiological conditions (such as exposure to starvation, environmental chemicals, radiation), autophagy is activated in spermatogenic or Sertoli cells in order to maintain survival of the spermatogenic cells by inhibiting spermatogenic cell apoptosis and stabilizing the integrity of ES via degradation of PDZ and LIM domain 1 (PDLIM1), a negative regulator of cytoskeletal organization...
February 25, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339678/ddx4-egfp-transgenic-rat-model-for-the-study-of-germline-development-and-spermatogenesis%C3%A2
#6
Kathrin Gassei, Yi Sheng, Adetunji Fayomi, Payal Mital, Meena Sukhwani, Chih-Cheng Lin, Karen A Peters, Andrew Althouse, Hanna Valli, Kyle E Orwig
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. In addition, these adult tissue stem cells can be used as vehicles for germline modification in animal models and may have application for treating male infertility. To facilitate the investigation of SSCs and germ lineage development in rats, we generated a DEAD-box helicase 4 (DDX4) (VASA) promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter transgenic rat. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence confirmed that EGFP was expressed in the germ cells of the ovaries and testes and was absent in somatic cells and tissues...
February 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339648/three-dimensional-testicular-organoid-a-novel-tool-for-the-study-of-human-spermatogenesis-and-gonadotoxicity-in-vitro%C3%A2
#7
Samuel S Pendergraft, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani, Anthony Atala, Colin E Bishop
Existing methods for evaluating the potential gonadotoxicity of environmental agents and pharmaceutical compounds rely heavily on animal studies. The current gold standard in vivo functional assays in animals are limited in their human predictive capacity. In addition, existing human two-dimensional in vitro models of testicular toxicity do not accurately reflect the in vivo situation. A more reliable testicular in vitro model system is needed to better assess the gonadotoxic potential of drugs prior to progression into clinical trials...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339613/a-nonsense-mutation-in-ccdc62-gene-is-responsible-for-spermiogenesis-defects-and-male-infertility-in-repro29-repro29-mice%C3%A2
#8
Yuchi Li, Cailing Li, Shouren Lin, Bo Yang, Weiren Huang, Hanwei Wu, Yuanbin Chen, Lihua Yang, Manling Luo, Huan Guo, Jianbo Chen, Tiantian Wang, Qian Ma, Yanli Gu, Lisha Mou, Zhimao Jiang, Jun Xia, Yaoting Gui
Phenotype-driven mutagenesis is an unbiased method to identify novel genes involved in spermatogenesis and other reproductive processes. Male repro29/repro29 mice generated by the Reproductive Genomics Program at the Jackson Laboratory were infertile with deformed sperm and poor motility. Using selected exonic capture and massively parallel sequencing technologies, we identified a nonsense mutation in the exon 6 of coiled-coil domain-containing 62 gene (Ccdc62), which results in a formation of a premature stop codon and a truncated protein...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339606/testicular-abnormalities-in-mice-with-y-chromosome-deficiencies%C3%A2
#9
Victor A Ruthig, Torbjoern Nielsen, Jonathan M Riel, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Egle A Ortega, Quinci Salvador, Monika A Ward
We recently investigated mice with Y chromosome gene contribution limited to two, one, or no Y chromosome genes in respect to their ability to produce haploid round spermatids and live offspring following round spermatid injection. Here we explored the normalcy of germ cells and Sertoli cells within seminiferous tubules, and the interstitial tissue of the testis in these mice. We performed quantitative analysis of spermatogenesis and interstitial tissue on Periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin-stained mouse testis sections...
February 7, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339009/identification-of-egflam-spatc1l-and-rnase13-as-novel-susceptibility-loci-for-aortic-aneurysm-in-japanese-individuals-by-exome-wide-association-studies
#10
Yoshiji Yamada, Jun Sakuma, Ichiro Takeuchi, Yoshiki Yasukochi, Kimihiko Kato, Mitsutoshi Oguri, Tetsuo Fujimaki, Hideki Horibe, Masaaki Muramatsu, Motoji Sawabe, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Yu Taniguchi, Shuichi Obuchi, Hisashi Kawai, Shoji Shinkai, Seijiro Mori, Tomio Arai, Masashi Tanaka
We performed an exome-wide association study (EWAS) to identify genetic variants - in particular, low‑frequency or rare variants with a moderate to large effect size - that confer susceptibility to aortic aneurysm with 8,782 Japanese subjects (456 patients with aortic aneurysm, 8,326 control individuals) and with the use of Illumina HumanExome-12 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 BeadChip arrays. The correlation of allele frequencies for 41,432 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control to aortic aneurysm was examined with Fisher's exact test...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337635/measurement-of-bovine-body-and-scrotal-temperature-using-implanted-temperature-sensitive-radio-transmitters-data-loggers-and-infrared-thermography
#11
A L Wallage, J B Gaughan, A T Lisle, L Beard, C W Collins, S D Johnston
Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334509/disturbed-testicular-expression-of-the-estrogen-metabolizing-enzymes-cyp1a1-and-comt-in-infertile-men-with-primary-spermatogenic-failure-possible-negative-implications-on-sertoli-cells
#12
A Parada-Bustamante, C Molina, C Valencia, M Flórez, M C Lardone, F Argandoña, A Piottante, M Ebensperguer, P A Orihuela, A Castro
Estradiol (E2 ) is normally metabolized to hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols by CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. However, an altered production of these metabolites by a disturbed expression of these enzymes is associated with reproductive and non-reproductive pathologies. In vitro studies suggest that increased hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols intratesticular generation is related to male infertility, but no studies have explored whether infertile men have a disturbed testicular expression of the enzymes that generate these E2 metabolites...
March 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333312/establishment-maintenance-and-functional-integrity-of-the-blood-testis-barrier-in-organotypic-cultures-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-prepubertal-mouse-testes
#13
C Rondanino, A Maouche, L Dumont, A Oblette, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Can the spatio-temporal formation of an intact blood-testis barrier (BTB), which is essential for the progression of spermatogenesis, be reproduced in cultures of fresh or frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Organotypic cultures allow the establishment and maintenance of major BTB components and the formation of a functional BTB in mouse testicular tissues. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro maturation of prepubertal testicular tissues is a promising approach to restore fertility in adult survivors of childhood cancer...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333300/comparison-of-global-gene-expression-profiles-of-microdissected-human-foetal-leydig-cells-with-their-normal-and-hyperplastic-adult-equivalents
#14
Grete Lottrup, Kirstine Belling, Henrik Leffers, John E Nielsen, Marlene D Dalgaard, Anders Juul, Niels E Skakkebæk, Søren Brunak, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts
STUDY QUESTION: Do human adult Leydig cells (ALCs) within hyperplastic micronodules display characteristics of foetal LCs (FLCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The gene expression profiles of FLCs and all ALC subgroups were clearly different, but there were no significant differences in expressed genes between the normally clustered and hyperplastic ALCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: LCs are the primary androgen producing cells in males throughout development and appear in chronologically distinct populations; FLCs, neonatal LCs and ALCs...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333083/divergent-expression-patterns-and-function-implications-of-four-nanos-genes-in-a-hermaphroditic-fish-epinephelus-coioides
#15
Zhi-Hui Sun, Yang Wang, Wei-Jia Lu, Zhi Li, Xiao-Chun Liu, Shui-Sheng Li, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Multiple nanos genes have been characterized in several fishes, but the functional implications of their various expression patterns remain unclear. In this study, we identified and characterized four nanos genes from a hermaphroditic fish orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ecnanos1a and Ecnanos1b show divergent expression patterns, and the dynamic expression change of Ecnanos1a in pituitaries during sex change is associated with testis differentiation and spermatogenesis. Ecnanos2 and Ecnanos3 might be germline stem cells (GSCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs)-specific markers, respectively...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331619/processing-and-selection-of-surgically-retrieved-sperm-for-icsi-a-review
#16
Greta Verheyen, Biljana Popovic-Todorovic, Herman Tournaye
Although the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been a revolution in the alleviation of male infertility, the use of testicular sperm for ICSI was a formerly unseen breakthrough in the treatment of the azoospermic man with primary testicular failure. At the clinical level, different procedures of testicular sperm retrieval (conventional TESE, micro-TESE, FNA/TESA, MESA, PESA) are being performed, the choice is mainly based on the cause of azoospermia (obstructive versus non-obstructive) and the surgeon's skills...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330548/-polyorchidism-is-a-rare-cause-of-a-scrotal-mass
#17
Grete Padkær, Bassam Hamid Mahdi, Poul Erik Andersen, Lars Lund
In this case report we present a 14-year-old boy with two testicles in the right hemiscrotum - a case of polyorchidism. He did not have surgery for his condition, and his condition was followed according to the guidelines. In a study, 6.4% of cases with polyorchidism were found to contain neoplasms of which the most were malignant. If the supernumerary testicle is not contributing to the spermatogenesis, it is therefore recommended to remove the testicle. Otherwise, recommendations are a yearly follow-up by Doppler ultrasound, including a physical examination to discover development of cancer...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329024/toward-developing-recombinant-gonadotropin-based-hormone-therapies-for-increasing-fertility-in-the-flatfish-senegalese-sole
#18
François Chauvigné, Judith Ollé, Wendy González, Neil Duncan, Ignacio Giménez, Joan Cerdà
Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1) of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323106/implications-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-in-cultured-human-sertoli-cells-glycolytic-and-oxidative-profile
#19
Tânia R Dias, Marco G Alves, Joaquina Silva, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa, Susana Casal, Branca M Silva, Pedro F Oliveira
Sertoli cells are crucial for the success of spermatogenesis, which is the biological process that ensures male fertility. These cells present high metabolic rates, being often subjected to high oxidative stress levels that, if uncontrolled, may compromise male fertility. Since the most abundant tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has demonstrated a potent preventive activity against oxidative stress, we have evaluated its effect at concentrations of 5 and 50μM, on the metabolism, mitochondrial functionality and oxidative profile of human Sertoli cells (hSCs)...
March 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318978/the-mitochondrial-dna-polymerase-promotes-elimination-of-paternal-mitochondrial-genomes
#20
Zhongsheng Yu, Patrick H O'Farrell, Nikita Yakubovich, Steven Z DeLuca
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is typically inherited from only one parent [1-3]. In animals, this is usually the mother. Maternal inheritance is often presented as the passive outcome of the difference in cytoplasmic content of egg and sperm; however, active programs enforce uniparental inheritance at two levels, eliminating paternal mitochondrial genomes or destroying mitochondria delivered to the zygote by the sperm [4-13]. Both levels operate in Drosophila [8, 12, 13]. As sperm formation begins, hundreds of doomed mitochondrial genomes are visualized within the two huge mitochondria of each spermatid...
March 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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