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Spermatogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036365/the-developmental-origin-and-compartmentalization-of-glutathione-s-transferase-omega-2-isoforms-in-the-perinuclear-theca-of-eutherian-spermatozoa
#1
Lauren E Hamilton, Genevieve Acteau, Wei Xu, Peter Sutovsky, Richard J Oko
The perinuclear theca (PT) is a condensed, non-ionic detergent resistant cytosolic protein layer encapsulating the sperm head nucleus. It can be divided into two regions: the subacrosomal layer (SAL), whose proteins are involved in acrosomal assembly during spermiogenesis and the postacrosomal sheath (PAS), whose proteins are implicated in sperm-oocyte interactions during fertilization. In continuation of our proteomic analysis of the PT, we have isolated two prominent PT derived proteins of 28- and 31-kDa from demembranated bovine sperm head fractions...
October 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035837/testicular-cytology-by-fine-needle-aspiration-in-domestic-cats
#2
D P Leme, E Visacre, V B Castro, M D Lopes
In cases where semen collection in tom-cats is not possible, FNA of testes is the alternative to evaluate sperm production. Although this technique for the diagnosis of fertility problems has been well discussed in other mammals (men, dogs, stallions), data for domestic cats are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the reliability of FNA using needles of small diameters (22G and 29G) in testes of domestic cats of different ages to assess the spermatogenesis status and to present description of germ cells and Sertoli cells for cytological examinations...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032151/sertoli-cell-specific-knockdown-of-rar-related-orphan-receptor-ror-alpha-at-puberty-reduces-sperm-count-in-rats
#3
Kamal Mandal, Rajesh K Sarkar, Souvik Sen Sharma, Ayushi Jain, Subeer S Majumdar
Globally, there is an alarming decline in sperm count. Very often hormonal supplementation fails to restore normal sperm count. Sertoli cells (Sc) present within seminiferous tubules provide appropriate niche and factors required for the differentiation of germ cells (Gc) into mature sperm (spermatogenesis). Functionally compromised Sc may be one of the reasons for failure of hormones to facilitate normal spermatogenesis. Although role of secretory proteins and signaling molecules of Sc has been studied well, role of transcription factors regulating sperm count has not been addressed appropriately...
October 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031946/spermatozoa-dna-methylation-patterns-differ-due-to-peripubertal-age-in-bulls
#4
Simon Lambert, Patrick Blondin, Christian Vigneault, Rémi Labrecque, Isabelle Dufort, Marc-André Sirard
In the dairy industry, using semen as soon as the bull is mature enough to produce it is advantageous for breeding purposes. Mammalian spermatogenesis is a hormone-dependent developmental program in which a complex cascade of events must take place to ensure that germ cells reach the proper stage of development at the proper time. Conventional indicators of semen quality such as sperm cell motility and viability usually improve as bulls mature, meeting quality criteria satisfactorily at around 16 months. Using semen before that age may affect embryo viability, but other changes occurring during the peripubertal period should be considered...
October 6, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029549/progress-and-future-prospect-of-in-vitro-spermatogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Fahar Ibtisham, Jiang Wu, Mei Xiao, Lilong An, Zachary Banker, Aamir Nawab, Yi Zhao, Guanghui Li
Infertility has become a major health issue in the world. It affects the social life of couples and of all infertility cases; approximately 40-50% is due to "male factor" infertility. Male infertility could be due to genetic factors, environment or due to gonadotoxic treatment. Developments in reproductive biotechnology have made it possible to rescue fertility and uphold biological fatherhood. In vitro production of haploid male germ cell is a powerful tool, not only for the treatment of infertility including oligozoospermic or azoospermic patient, but also for the fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029459/melatonin-promotes-the-proliferation-of-gc-1-spg-cells-by-inducing-metallothionein-2-expression-through-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-activation
#6
Chunjin Li, Xiaoling Zhu, Shuxiong Chen, Lu Chen, Yun Zhao, Yanwen Jiang, Shan Gao, Fengge Wang, Zhuo Liu, Rong Fan, Liting Sun, Xu Zhou
Synthesized by the pineal gland, melatonin is a neurohormone implicated in diverse physiological functions via several mechanisms. However, the role of melatonin in spermatogenesis and its underlying mechanisms have yet to be completely understood. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing was performed to characterize the mechanism of melatonin-induced GC-1 spg proliferation. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and pathway analyses were also conducted to identify the signaling pathways and biological processes involved in differential mRNA expression...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029271/sequence-and-structural-diversity-of-mouse-y-chromosomes
#7
Andrew P Morgan, Pardo-Manuel de Villena Fernando
Over the 180 million years since their origin, the sex chromosomes of mammals have evolved a gene repertoire highly specialized for function in the male germline. The mouse Y chromosome is unique among mammalian Y chromosomes characterized to date in that it is large, gene-rich and euchromatic. Yet little is known about its diversity in natural populations. Here we take advantage of published whole-genome sequencing data to survey the diversity of sequence and copy number of sex-linked genes in three subspecies of house mice...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029242/germ-cell-neoplasia-in-situ-and-preserved-fertility-despite-suppressed-gonadotropins-in-a-patient-with-testotoxicosis
#8
Li Juel Mortensen, Martin Blomberg Jensen, Peter Christiansen, Ann-Margrethe Rønholt, Anne Jørgensen, Hanne Frederiksen, John E Nielsen, Anand C Loya, Birgitte Grønkær Toft, Niels E Skakkebæk, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Anders Juul
Context: Testotoxicosis is an autosomal dominant, male-limited disorder. Activating mutations in the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor gene (LHCGR) cause high autonomous testosterone secretion resulting in early-onset peripheral precocious puberty. Little is known about long-term consequences of testotoxicosis. Case Description: We present a rare case of a patient followed for 25 years with two remarkable outcomes; preserved fertility and germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028550/paternal-exposure-to-environmental-17-alpha-ethinylestradiol-concentrations-modifies-testicular-transcription-affecting-the-sperm-transcript-content-and-the-offspring-performance-in-zebrafish
#9
David G Valcarce, Elena Vuelta, Vanesa Robles, Maria Paz Herráez
The synthetic estrogen 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a major constituent in contraceptive pills, is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) present in the aquatic environment at concentrations of ng/L. Developmental exposure to these low concentrations in fish can induce several disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a perfect organism for monitoring the effects of environmental contaminants. Our hypothesis is that changes promoted by EE2 in the germ line of male adults could be transmitted to the unexposed progeny...
September 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027584/the-ceratopteris-fern-developing-motile-gamete-walls-contain-diverse%C3%A2-polysaccharides-but-not-pectin
#10
Renee A Lopez, Karen S Renzaglia
Unlike most plant cell walls, the five consecutive walls laid down during spermatogenesis in the model fern Ceratopteris contain sparse cellulose, lack pectin and are enriched with callose and hemicelluloses. Seed-free plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes produce swimming male gametes for sexual reproduction. During spermatogenesis, unique walls are formed that are essential to the appropriate development and maturation of the motile gametes. Other than the detection of callose and general wall polysaccharides in scattered groups, little is known about the sequence of wall formation and the composition of these walls during sperm cell differentiation in plants that produce swimming sperm...
October 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026709/needle-aspiration-biopsy-of-seminiferous-tubules-nabst-as-a-diagnostic-method-in-korea
#11
Jay Ho Jung, Tae Ho Lee, Kyung Hwa Choi, Jae Yup Hong
To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of needle aspiration biopsy of seminiferous tubules (NABST) and to represent the redistributed diagnostic results corresponding to testicular volumes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. In this retrospective study, we investigated 65 infertile men with either azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Following NABST, specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and classified into five histological types. With pre-procedure FSH levels and testicular volumes, we evaluated the probabilities of detecting sperms within biopsy specimens...
September 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025071/the-expression-characteristics-of-fam71d-and-its-association-with-sperm-motility
#12
Qian Ma, Yuchi Li, Manling Luo, Huan Guo, Shouren Lin, Jianbo Chen, Ye Du, Zhimao Jiang, Yaoting Gui
STUDY QUESTION: What are the features of FAM71D (Family with sequence similarity 71, member D) expression and is there an association between FAM71D expression and sperm motility? SUMMARY ANSWER: FAM71D, a novel protein exclusively expressed in the testis, is located in sperm flagella and is functionally involved in sperm motility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Some testis-specific proteins have been reported as potential diagnostic biomarkers to evaluate the spermatogenesis process and sperm quality...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025062/deletion-of-spata2-by-crispr-cas9n-causes-increased-inhibin-alpha-expression-and-attenuated-fertility-in-male-mice
#13
Ie Zhao, Jianjun Zhao, Guojin Xu, Zhijuan Wang, Jie Gao, Sheng Cui, Jiali Liu
As somatic cells in the testis seminiferous tubule, Sertoli cells provide the medium for spermatogenesis. One of the important functions of Sertoli cells is synthesizing and secreting cell factors to affect the production of sperm; however, much of those molecular regulation mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we confirm the localization of protein SPATA2, spermatogenesis-associated protein 2, which had previously been shown to be highly expressed in Sertoli cells of the adult mouse testis. To further conduct a functional study, we generated SPATA2 global knockout mice via use of the CRISPR/Cas9n gene editing technology...
August 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025014/reactive-oxygen-species-and-protein-modifications-in-spermatozoa
#14
Cristian O'Flaherty, David Matsushita Fournier
Cellular response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) includes both reversible redox signaling and irreversible non-enzymatic reactions which depend on the nature and concentration of the ROS involved. Changes in thiol/disulfide pairs affect protein conformation, enzymatic activity, ligand binding, and protein-protein interactions. During spermatogenesis and epididymal maturation, there are ROS-dependent modifications of the sperm chromatin and flagellar proteins.The spermatozoon is regulated by redox mechanisms to acquire fertilizing ability...
September 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024969/preconception-urinary-phthalate-concentrations-and-sperm-dna-methylation-profiles-among-men-undergoing-ivf-treatment-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Haotian Wu, Molly S Estill, Alexander Shershebnev, Alexander Suvorov, Stephen A Krawetz, Brian W Whitcomb, Holly Dinnie, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K Sites, J Richard Pilsner
STUDY QUESTION: Are preconception phthalate and phthalate replacements associated with sperm differentially methylated regions (DMRs) among men undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ten phthalate metabolites were associated with 131 sperm DMRs that were enriched in genes related to growth and development, cell movement and cytoskeleton structure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several phthalate compounds and their metabolites are known endocrine disrupting compounds and are pervasive environmental contaminants...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024760/rna-processing-in-the-male-germline-mechanisms-and-implications-for-fertility
#16
REVIEW
Julien M D Legrand, Robin M Hobbs
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a tightly coordinated process that gives rise to mature spermatozoa capable of fertilising an ovum during sexual reproduction. A population of stem and progenitor cells known as undifferentiated spermatogonia enables continual spermatogenesis throughout life. A complex transcriptional network that balances self-renewal of spermatogonia with their timely differentiation in order to maintain constant fertility regulates this process. Importantly, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in spermatogenesis, necessitated by the profound genetic and morphological changes that occur during meiosis and sperm maturation...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023069/histological-characteristics-on-the-testes-of-mud-spiny-lobster-panulirus-polyphagus-herbst-1793
#17
Siti Nor Fatihah, Harman Muhd-Farouk, Adnan Amin-Safwan, Hairul Hafiz Mahsol, Mhd Ikhwanuddin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mud spiny lobsters, Panulirus polyphagus (P. polyphagus) are one of the most important fisheries resources now-a-days due to quality that it's possessed. However, there is still lack of in-depth study about this species mainly on males testicular characteristics and sexual maturity size. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the histological characteristics on the testes and sexual maturity sizes of mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023053/effect-of-antioxidants-on-testicular-inos-and-enos-after-high-fat-diet-in-rat
#18
Maryam Sohrabi, Mahnaz Hosseini, Sevinc Inan, Zohreh Alizadeh, Mehrangiz Vahabian, Ali Asghar Vahidinia, Hosein Lahoutian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spermatogenesis is a process by which germ cells produce spermatozoa and can be disturbed at every level. Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS), implicate in interactions with Oxidative Stress (OS) which is one of the main factors in the etiology of male infertility. The High Fat Diet (HFD) is a major factor of obesity which in turn is important for enhancing OS. Antioxidants and garlic could attenuate or reverse effects of HFD. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants and garlic on testicular inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in Wistar albino rats fed on HFD...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022902/differential-regulation-of-spermatogenic-process-by-lkb1-isoforms-in-mouse-testis
#19
Feifei Kong, Mei Wang, Xiaojing Huang, Qiuling Yue, Xiang Wei, Xiaowei Dou, Xiaoxu Peng, Yuanyuan Jia, Ke Zheng, Tinghe Wu, Jun Yan, Jing Li
Liver serine/threonine kinase B1 (LKB1) is a tumor suppressor associated with the pathogenesis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Affected males are at increased risk of developing Sertoli cell tumors and display defective spermatogenesis. Male mice lacking the short isoform (Lkb1S) of Lkb1 were sterile and exhibited abnormal spermiogenesis. In addition to the short isoform, the long isoform of Lkb1 (Lkb1L) is also expressed in testis; however, the requirement of the long isoform for fertility and the functional difference between the isoforms remain unknown...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022899/transplanted-human-p75-positive-stem-leydig-cells-replace-disrupted-leydig-cells-for-testosterone-production
#20
Min Zhang, Jiancheng Wang, Chunhua Deng, Mei Hua Jiang, Xin Feng, Kai Xia, Weiqiang Li, Xingqiang Lai, Haipeng Xiao, Ren-Shan Ge, Yong Gao, Andy Peng Xiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that rodent stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation can partially restore testosterone production in Leydig cell (LC)-disrupted or senescent animal models, which provides a promising approach for the treatment of hypogonadism. Here, we isolated human SLCs prospectively and explored the potential therapeutic benefits of human SLC transplantation for hypogonadism treatment. In adult human testes, p75 neurotrophin receptor positive (p75(+)) cells expressed the known SLC marker nestin, but not the LC lineage marker hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3β (HSD3β)...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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