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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140884/ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumors-with-melanin-pigment-report-of-a-previously-undescribed-phenomenon
#1
Jennifer Taylor, W Glenn McCluggage
We report 2 ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, a luteinized adult granulosa cell tumor and a cellular fibroma, with melanin pigment. These occurred in 44 and 61-yr-old patients, respectively. As far as we are aware, melanin pigment has not been described previously in an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, although it has been reported in a testicular Sertoli cell tumor. We review ovarian neoplasms containing melanin pigment.
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134181/pregnancy-and-live-birth-after-follicle-stimulating-hormone-treatment-for-an-infertile-couple-including-a-male-affected-by-sertoli-cell-only-syndrome
#2
Gianni Paulis, Luca Paulis, Gennaro Romano, Carmen Concas, Marika Di Sarno, Renata Pagano, Antonio Di Filippo, Maria Luisa Di Petrillo
In males with nonobstructive azoospermia, one of the main histopathologic patterns of the testis is Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS), in which no germ cells are present and only Sertoli cells are contained in the seminiferous tubules. There is not any formal treatment for this pathological condition. However, several studies reported the possibility to perform testicular sperm extraction in patients with SCOS, although, according to some authors, sperm retrieval is possible only in the presence of focal spermatogenesis...
2017: Research and Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132723/ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumours-and-their-mimics
#3
REVIEW
Robert H Young
Sex cord-stromal tumours of the ovary include many of the most morphologically intriguing ovarian neoplasms and albeit many of them are rare, they factor into the differential diagnosis more often than their frequency might suggest. The most common malignant form, the adult granulosa cell tumour, may grossly simulate various surface epithelial neoplasms. Microscopically, confusion with endometrioid carcinoma may occur because the cords and microfollicles of the granulosa cell tumour may be mimicked by endometrioid carcinoma and the latter may have pale nuclei with nuclear grooves...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129333/pitfalls-in-the-interpretation-of-specimens-from-patients-with-testicular-tumours-with-an-emphasis-on-variant-morphologies
#4
REVIEW
Thomas M Ulbright
Accurate diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumours is essential in testicular cancer. While many cases are straightforward, some pose difficulties, especially when variant morphologies occur. Seminoma with 'atypical' features, including increased nuclear pleomorphism and crowding and greater cytoplasmic density with loss of membrane definition, mimics embryonal carcinoma, although ancillary features (fibrous septa, lymphocytes) and immunohistochemistry are of great help. Other deceptive seminoma features include prominent to exclusive intertubular growth, microcystic/tubular patterns, and signet-ring tumour cells...
November 9, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126714/testicular-steroidogenic-enzymes-in-the-lizard-podarcis-sicula-during-the-spermatogenic-cycle
#5
Luigi Rosati, Alessandra Santillo, Maria Maddalena Di Fiore, Piero Andreuccetti, Marina Prisco
Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), 5α-Reductase (5α-Red), P450 aromatase are key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis. Recently, we showed the expression and the localization of P450 aromatase in Podarcis sicula testis during the different phases of the reproductive cycle, showing its involvement in the control of steroidogenesis, particularly in 17β-estradiol synthesis. Now, we have investigated the presence and distribution of the other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, i...
November 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123028/the-cell-adhesion-molecule-bt-igsf-is-essential-for-a-functional-blood-testis-barrier-and-male-fertility-in-mice
#6
Laura Pelz, Bettina Purfürst, Fritz G Rathjen
The Ig-like cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) brain- and testis-specific immunoglobulin superfamily (BT-IgSF) protein plays a major role in male fertility in mice. However, the molecular mechanism by which BT-IgSF supports fertility is unclear. Here, we found that it is localized in Sertoli cells at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and at the apical ectoplasmic specialization. Absence of BT-IgSF in Sertoli cells in both global and conditional mouse mutants (i.e. AMHCre and Rosa26CreERT2 lines) resulted in male infertility, atrophic testes with vacuolation, azoospermia, and spermatogenesis arrest...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119857/mir-638-inhibits-immature-sertoli-cell-growth-by-indirectly-inactivating-pi3k-akt-pathway-via-spag1-gene
#7
Pandi Hu, Kaifeng Guan, Yue Feng, Changping Ma, Huibin Song, Yang Li, Xuanyan Xia, Jialian Li, Fenge Li
Numerous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell growth, apoptosis and spermatogenesis. Our previous study showed that miR-638 was differentially expressed in sexually immature and mature testes of Large White boars. Here we reported that sperm-associated antigen 1 (SPAG1) was a direct target gene of miR-638. Moreover, miR-638 inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle, and promoted apoptosis of porcine immature Sertoli cells. Key genes including phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (p-PI3K) and phosphorylated serine/ threonine kinase (p-AKT) in PI3K/AKT pathway as well as cell cycle factors including c-MYC, cyclin-D1 (CCND1), cyclin-E1 (CCNE1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) were all significantly down-regulated after overexpression of miR-638 or RNAi of SPAG1...
November 9, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116131/context-dependent-compensation-among-phosphatidylserine-recognition-receptors
#8
Kristen K Penberthy, Claudia Rival, Laura S Shankman, Michael H Raymond, Jianye Zhang, Justin S A Perry, Chang Sup Lee, Claudia Z Han, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Krzysztof Palczewski, Jeffrey J Lysiak, Kodi S Ravichandran
Phagocytes express multiple phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors that recognize apoptotic cells. It is unknown whether these receptors are interchangeable or if they play unique roles during cell clearance. Loss of the PtdSer receptor Mertk is associated with apoptotic corpse accumulation in the testes and degeneration of photoreceptors in the eye. Both phenotypes are linked to impaired phagocytosis by specialized phagocytes: Sertoli cells and the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Here, we overexpressed the PtdSer receptor BAI1 in mice lacking MerTK (Mertk (-/-) Bai1 (Tg) ) to evaluate PtdSer receptor compensation in vivo...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115523/characterization-of-cholesterol-metabolism-in-sertoli-cells-and-spermatogenesis-review
#9
Jin-Feng Shi, Yu-Kun Li, Kun Ren, Yuan-Jie Xie, Wei-Dong Yin, Zhong-Cheng Mo
The Sertoli cell, which is the supporting cell of spermatogenesis, has an important role in the endocrine and paracrine control of spermatogenesis. Functionally, it provides the cells of the seminiferous epithelium with nutrition, conveys mature spermatids to the lumen of seminiferous tubules, secretes androgen‑binding protein and interacts with endocrine Leydig cells. In addition, the levels of cholesterol, as well as its intermediates, vary greatly between nongonadal tissues and the male reproductive system...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109271/periodic-production-of-retinoic-acid-by-meiotic-and-somatic-cells-coordinates-four-transitions-in-mouse-spermatogenesis
#10
Tsutomu Endo, Elizaveta Freinkman, Dirk G de Rooij, David C Page
Mammalian spermatogenesis is an elaborately organized differentiation process, starting with diploid spermatogonia, which include germ-line stem cells, and ending with haploid spermatozoa. The process involves four pivotal transitions occurring in physical proximity: spermatogonial differentiation, meiotic initiation, initiation of spermatid elongation, and release of spermatozoa. We report how the four transitions are coordinated in mice. Two premeiotic transitions, spermatogonial differentiation and meiotic initiation, were known to be coregulated by an extrinsic signal, retinoic acid (RA)...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103113/testicular-toxicity-and-sperm-quality-following-copper-exposure-in-wistar-albino-rats-ameliorative-potentials-of-l-carnitine
#11
Maurya Khushboo, Meesala Krishna Murthy, Maibam Sunita Devi, Sanasam Sanjeev, Kalibulla Syed Ibrahim, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Vikas Kumar Roy, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Copper is a persistent toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. Continuous exposure of copper compounds of different origin is the most common form of copper poisoning and in turn adversely altering testis morphology and function and affecting sperm quality. L-carnitine has a vital role in the spermatogenesis, physiology of sperm, sperm production and quality. This study was designed to examine whether the detrimental effects of long-term copper consumption on sperm quality and testis function of Wistar albino rat could be prevented by L-carnitine therapy...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101268/disturbed-spermatogenic-signaling-in-pacap-deficient-mice
#12
Dora Reglodi, Sandor Cseh, Bence Somoskoi, Balazs Fulop, Eszter Szentleleky, Vince Szegeczki, Anna Kovacs, Andrea Varga, Peter Kiss, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Andrea Tamas, Attila Bardosi, Sridharan Manavalan, Eva Bako, Roza Zakany, Tamas Juhasz
PACAP is a neuropeptide with diverse functions in various organs, including reproductive system. It is present in the testis in high concentrations, and in addition to the stage-specific expression within the seminiferous tubules, PACAP affects spermatogenesis and the functions of Leydig and Sertoli cells. Mice lacking endogenous PACAP show reduced fertility, but the possibility of abnormalities in spermatogenic signaling has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of spermatozoa, sperm motility, and investigated signaling pathways that play a role during spermatogenesis in knockout mice...
November 3, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100724/expression-of-the-gm2-activator-protein-in-mouse-testis
#13
Yu-Teh Li, Su-Chen Li, I-Li Chen
The GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP), revealed by Li et al. in 1973 in human liver, was initially identified as a protein cofactor that stimulated β-hexosaminidase A to hydrolyze N-acetylgalactosamine from GM2 ganglioside. This cofactor was found to be missing in human variant AB Tay-Sachs disease. Over the years, the GM2-AP has also been shown to be involved in kidney vesicular transport, lipid presentation by CD1 molecule to T-cells, and interaction of human sperm with zona pellucida. Since the expression of the GM2-AP via mRNA detection in mouse tissues was found to be the highest in testis, we became interested in the localization of the GM2-AP at cellular level in mouse testis during spermatogenesis...
October 31, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095481/biallelic-mutations-in-flnb-cause-a-skeletal-dysplasia-with-46-xy-gonadal-dysgenesis-by-activating-%C3%AE-catenin
#14
K Upadhyay, J Loke, V O, B Taragin, H Ostrer
Filamin B (FLNB) functions as a switch that can affect chrondrocyte development and endochondral bone formation through a series of signaling molecules and transcription factors that also affect Sertoli cell development. Here, we report a subject with a novel skeletal dysplasia and co-existing 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis and biallelic mutations in FLNB. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify mutations. Quantitative qPCR and flow variant assays were performed to quantify RNA, proteins and phosphorylated proteins...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089336/mtorc1-rps6-regulates-blood-testis-barrier-btb-dynamics-and-spermatogenetic-function-in-the-testis-in-vivo
#15
Stephen Y T Li, Ming Yan, Haiqi Chen, Tito Jesus, Will M Lee, Xiang Xiao, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB), conferred by Sertoli cells in the mammalian testis, is an important ultrastructure that supports spermatogenesis. Studies using animal models have shown that a disruption of the BTB leads to meiotic arrest, causing defects in spermatogenesis and male infertility. In order to better understand the regulation of BTB dynamics, we report findings herein to understand the role of rpS6 (ribosomal protein S6), a downstream signaling protein of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), in promoting BTB disruption in the testis in vivo, making the barrier "leaky"...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084059/insl3-expression-in-leydig-cell-hyperplasia-and-leydig-cell-tumors
#16
Nelli S Lakis, Kara A Lombardo, Shamlal Mangray, George J Netto, Daniela Salles, Andres Matoso
Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) is a hormone produced by Leydig cells (LCs) and leads to physiological testicular descent during embryonic development. We investigated the expression of INSL3 by immunohistochemistry in normal LCs, in Leydig cell tumor (LCT) (n=17 including 15 testes and 2 ovaries) and in Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH) (n=10). Normally distributed LCs showed strong immunostaining in the cytoplasm in all cases. All 10 cases (100%) of LCH were strongly and diffusely positive in the intertubular areas. Six cases of LCH had nodules raging in size from 0...
October 27, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081925/sertoli-leydig-cell-tumor-of-the-ovary-masquerading-as-a-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-a-frozen-section-pitfall
#17
Jonathan E Zuckerman, Neda A Moatamed
Sertoli-Leydig cells tumors are rare ovarian neoplasms that can be managed with conservative resection given their generally excellent prognosis. Here we report a case of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor mistakenly diagnosed as an invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma at time of intraoperative consultation because of its blue-mucinous appearance in the frozen section material. The patient subsequently underwent an extensive staging procedure revealing unilateral, ovarian confined disease. The mucinous features seen on frozen section were lost on the slides prepared from formalin fixed tissues...
October 3, 2017: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075189/a-short-term-exposure-to-tributyltin-blocks-leydig-cell-regeneration-in-the-adult-rat-testis
#18
Xiaolong Wu, Jianpeng Liu, Yue Duan, Shiyu Gao, Yao Lü, Xiaoheng Li, Qiqi Zhu, Xianwu Chen, Jing Lin, Leping Ye, Ren-Shan Ge
Background: Tributyltin (TBT) is widely used as an antifouling agent that may cause reproductive toxicity. The mechanism of TBT on Leydig cell development is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a brief exposure to low doses of TBT permanently affects Leydig cell development and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and gavaged normal saline (control), 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/day TBT for a consecutive 10 days, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073541/melatonin-promotes-sheep-leydig-cell-testosterone-secretion-in-a-co-culture-with-sertoli-cells
#19
Shou-Long Deng, Zhi-Peng Wang, Cheng Jin, Xiao-Long Kang, Aalia Batool, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Yu Li, Xiu-Xia Wang, Su-Ren Chen, Chawn-Shang Chang, C Yan Cheng, Zheng-Xing Lian, Yi-Xun Liu
Leydig cells synthesize and secrete testosterone, and are regulated by Sertoli cells. These two cell types may work together to regulate testicular androgen production. Studies have shown that Leydig cell androgen synthesis can be dramatically enhanced by Sertoli cells in the presence of melatonin, which can regulate the secretory function of Leydig and Sertoli cells. However, the molecular mechanism of melatonin-regulated Leydig cell androgen production via Sertoli cells remains unclear. Here, we found that 10(-7) M melatonin increased testosterone production in co-cultured Leydig and Sertoli cells isolated from sheep...
October 17, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073214/robust-gdf9-and-bmp15-expression-in-the-oocytes-of-ovotestes-through-the-figla-independent-pathway-in-the-hermaphroditic-black-porgy-acanthopagrus-schlegelii
#20
Guan-Chung Wu, Jia-Wun Luo, Hau-Wen Li, Chen-Hsiu Huang, Ching-Fong Chang
More than 1,500 fish species are hermaphroditic, but no hermaphroditic lineage appears to be evolutionarily ancient in fishes. Thus, whether more than one sex at a time was present during the evolutionary shift from gonochorism to hermaphroditism in fishes is an intriguing question. Ectopic oocytes were created in the ovotestes of protandrous black porgy via the withdrawal of estradiol (E2) administration. These ectopic oocytes reprogrammed the surrounding cells, which changed from Sertoli cells to follicle-like cells...
2017: PloS One
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