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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786810/-epilepsy-and-comorbid-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
Viviann Nordin, Ingrid B Olsson, Torbjörn Tomson
In children and adults with epilepsy, it is important to be aware of and diagnose common comorbidities that may have a large impact on quality of life. Comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders include intellectual disability, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Depression and anxiety are common findings, and also the risk of psychosis is increased. The medication used to treat these comorbidities is found to be effective with little risks of seizure exacerbation, i.e. medication with methylphenidate, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and second generation neuroleptics...
May 22, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784236/a-review-associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-physical-activity-medication-use-eating-behaviors-and-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
REVIEW
Danielle Quesada, Nasar U Ahmed, Kristopher P Fennie, Erica L Gollub, Boubakari Ibrahimou
In the past few years we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between obesity and ADHD. Both conditions are major public health issues, affecting children, adolescents and adults alike. OBJECTIVE: This review seeks to (1) examine prior research on the association between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents; (2) discuss mechanisms and consequent behavioral attributes to gain understanding of the path association between ADHD and obesity, (3) review studies examining the role of physical activity, medication, eating behavior and gender on the relationship between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782211/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-depression-risk-and-quality-of-life-in-black-pregnant-women
#3
Heather A Jones, Laura D Eddy, Elizaveta Bourchtein, Amanda M Parks, Tiffany L Green, Nicole W Karjane, Dace S Svikis
BACKGROUND: Experiencing mental health difficulties during pregnancy predicts a variety of quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes for Black women. However, one area of prenatal mental health remains underresearched: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the impairments reported by adults with significant symptoms of ADHD and the linkages between depression and ADHD in nonpregnant samples, the current study aimed to examine the relationships among ADHD symptoms, depression, and QoL in Black pregnant women...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780342/long-term-efficacy-of-psychosocial-treatments-for-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#4
Carlos López-Pinar, Sonia Martínez-Sanchís, Enrique Carbonell-Vayá, Javier Fenollar-Cortés, Julio Sánchez-Meca
Background: Recent evidence suggests that psychosocial treatments, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are effective interventions for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this review was to determine the long-term efficacy of psychosocial interventions in improving clinically relevant variables, including ADHD core symptoms, clinical global impression (CGI), and global functioning. Methods: In total, nine randomized controlled trials and three uncontrolled single-group pretest-posttest studies were included...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780335/leg-movement-activity-during-sleep-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Corrado Garbazza, Cornelia Sauter, Juliane Paul, Jenny Kollek, Catharine Dujardin, Sandra Hackethal, Hans Dorn, Anita Peter, Marie-Luise Hansen, Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Heidi Danker-Hopfe
Objectives: To conduct a first detailed analysis of the pattern of leg movement (LM) activity during sleep in adult subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to healthy controls. Methods: Fifteen ADHD patients and 18 control subjects underwent an in-lab polysomnographic sleep study. The periodic character of LMs was evaluated with established markers of "periodicity," i.e., the periodicity index, intermovement intervals, and time distribution of LM during sleep, in addition to standard parameters such as the periodic leg movement during sleep index (PLMSI) and the periodic leg movement during sleep arousal index (PLMSAI)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778053/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-happiness-among-adults-in-the-general-population
#6
Andrew Stickley, Ai Koyanagi, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Vladislav Ruchkin, Yosuke Inoue, Aki Yazawa, Yoko Kamio
Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure...
May 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776383/escalate-adaptive-treatment-approach-for-adolescents-and-adults-with-adhd-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Toivo Zinnow, Tobias Banaschewski, Andreas J Fallgatter, Carolin Jenkner, Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Alexandra Philipsen, Wolfgang Retz, Esther Sobanski, Johannes Thome, Michael Rösler
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, a wide range of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment approaches for adults, including both pharmacological interventions and psychosocial treatments, have been proposed and observed to be efficient. In practice, individual treatment concepts are based on results of clinical studies as well as international guidelines (NICE Guidelines) that recommend a step-by-step treatment approach. Since the evidence supporting this approach is limited, the aim of the present study is to determine an optimal intervention regarding severity levels of ADHD symptomatology conducting a randomized controlled trial...
May 18, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#8
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775871/associations-between-abuse-neglect-and-adhd-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood-a-prospective-nationally-representative-twin-study
#9
Adi Stern, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Louise Arseneault
Child maltreatment has consistently been found to be associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the robustness of this association and the direction of the link between maltreatment and ADHD remain unclear. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a cohort of 2232 British twins, to investigate the associations between exposure to abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and to test their robustness and specificity. We also aimed to test longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, controlling for confounders...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774955/examining-the-factors-that-are-correlated-with-mindfulness-with-a-focus-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms
#10
Burcu Goksan Yavuz, Mesut Yavuz, Arzu Onal
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms would negatively correlate with the level of mindfulness. DESIGN AND METHOD: Seventy-six subjects referred to the outpatient psychiatry unit and 32 healthy control subjects filled out the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). FINDINGS: Patients scored higher on ADH symptoms compared to controls (p ≤ ...
May 18, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771818/suppressed-acoustic-startle-response-in-traumatic-brain-injury-masks-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-hyper-responsivity
#11
Grant M Liska, Jea-Young Lee, Kaya Xu, Paul R Sanberg, Cesario V Borlongan
An exaggerated acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a clinical indicator of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the prevalence of PTSD following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we studied the effects of TBI on ASR. Adult Sprague Dawley rats exposed to moderate controlled cortical impact injury model of TBI displayed suppression of ASR intensity and sensitivity. As patients with PTSD have been shown to display hyperactive startle responses, the present discrepant observation of TBI-induced suppression of ASR has clinical implications, in that the reduced, instead of elevated, startle response in patients with comorbid TBI/PTSD could be owing to a masking effect of TBI...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771183/association-of-inattention-hyperactivity-and-hypersomnolence-in-two-clinic-based-adult-cohorts
#12
Régis Lopez, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Laura Camodeca, Marie Gachet, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity in adults with ADHD and central hypersomnia. METHOD: Drug-free adult patients with ADHD ( n = 100) or hypersomnia ( n = 100) were evaluated using a structured clinical interview and self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms and EDS. RESULTS: In all, 61% of patients with hypersomnia had clinically significant ADHD symptoms with 25% having an ADHD diagnosis (with both childhood and adulthood ADHD symptoms) and 36% ADHD-like symptoms, without history of childhood ADHD...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768187/activation-of-kappa-opioid-receptors-in-the-dorsal-raphe-have-sex-dependent-effects-on-social-behavior-in-california-mice
#13
Emily C Wright, Tiffany V Parks, Jonathon O Alexander, Rajesh Supra, Brian C Trainor
Kappa opioid receptor activation has been linked to stress and anxiety behavior, thus leading to kappa antagonists being popularized in research as potential anxiolytics. However, while these findings may hold true in standard models, the neuromodulatory effects of social defeat may change the behavioral outcome of kappa opioid receptor activation. Previous research has shown that social defeat can lead to hyperactivity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and that inhibition of this increase blocks the social deficits caused by defeat...
May 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767323/prevalence-and-risk-factors-related-to-haloperidol-use-for-delirium-in-adult-intensive-care-patients-the-multinational-aid-icu-inception-cohort-study
#14
Marie O Collet, Jesús Caballero, Romain Sonneville, Fernando A Bozza, Peter Nydahl, Anna Schandl, Hilden Wøien, Giuseppe Citerio, Mark van den Boogaard, Johanna Hästbacka, Matthias Haenggi, Kirsten Colpaert, Louise Rose, Marija Barbateskovic, Theis Lange, Aksel Jensen, Martin B Krog, Ingrid Egerod, Helle L Nibro, Jørn Wetterslev, Anders Perner
PURPOSE: We assessed the prevalence and variables associated with haloperidol use for delirium in ICU patients and explored any associations of haloperidol use with 90-day mortality. METHODS: All acutely admitted, adult ICU patients were screened during a 2-week inception period. We followed the patient throughout their ICU stay and assessed 90-day mortality. We assessed patients and their variables in the first 24 and 72 h in ICU and studied their association together with that of ICU characteristics with haloperidol use...
May 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766024/integrating-hdad5-35-vectors-as-a-new-platform-for-hsc-gene-therapy-of-hemoglobinopathies
#15
Chang Li, Nikoletta Psatha, Hongjie Wang, Manvendra Singh, Himanshu Bhusan Samal, Wenli Zhang, Anja Ehrhardt, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Thalia Papayannopoulou, André Lieber
We generated an integrating, CD46-targeted, helper-dependent adenovirus HDAd5/35++ vector system for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. The ∼12-kb transgene cassette included a β-globin locus control region (LCR)/promoter driven human γ-globin gene and an elongation factor alpha-1 (EF1α)-mgmtP140K expression cassette, which allows for drug-controlled increase of γ-globin-expressing erythrocytes. We transduced bone marrow lineage-depleted cells from human CD46-transgenic mice and transplanted them into lethally irradiated recipients...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765401/mixed-effects-modeling-of-neurofeedback-self-regulation-performance-moderators-for-learning-in-children-with-adhd
#16
Agnieszka Zuberer, Franziska Minder, Daniel Brandeis, Renate Drechsler
Introduction: Neurofeedback (NF) has gained increasing popularity as a training method for children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is unclear to what extent children learn to regulate their brain activity and in what way NF learning may be affected by subject- and treatment-related factors. Methods: In total, 48 subjects with ADHD (age 8.5-16.5 years; 16 subjects on methylphenidate (MPH)) underwent 15 double training sessions of NF in either a clinical or a school setting...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765219/estimated-prevalence-and-incidence-of-diagnosed-adhd-and-health-care-utilization-in-adults-in-sweden-a-longitudinal-population-based-register-study
#17
Maria Polyzoi, Ewa Ahnemark, Emma Medin, Ylva Ginsberg
Background: Although the worldwide prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is estimated to be between 2% and 5%, it is considered to be underdiagnosed. This register study explored the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD and incidence of newly diagnosed ADHD in Swedish adults over time, and assessed comorbidities and pharmacologic treatment. Methods: National Patient Register data were used to estimate the overall prevalence of adults (≥18 years) with a registered ADHD diagnosis from 2006 to 2011, and the incidence of newly registered diagnoses from 2007 to 2011...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758392/effects-of-mindfulness-and-psychoeducation-on-working-memory-in-adult-adhd-a-randomised-controlled-fmri-study
#18
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754497/the-compensatory-adhd-behaviors-scale-cabs-development-and-initial-validation
#19
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia
Several measures are available that assess inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits. Treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and skill-based academic interventions focus on improving compensatory strategies to ameliorate functional impairment; however, no measure exists that examines the compensatory behaviors adults utilize to compensate for the functional deficits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The current study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compensatory ADHD Behaviors Scale (CABS)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753192/circadian-activity-rhythm-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Lorenzo Tonetti, Andreas Conca, Giancarlo Giupponi, Marco Filardi, Vincenzo Natale
The aim of the present study was to analyze the features of circadian motor activity rhythm of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients, by means of functional linear modeling, within the theoretical framework of the two-process model of sleep regulation. Thirty-two ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs) participated the study. Actiwatch AW64 actigraph was used to quantify motor activity data in 1-min epochs. Participants wore the actigraph on the non-dominant wrist for seven consecutive days...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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