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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920735/lower-sensitivity-to-happy-and-angry-facial-emotions-in-young-adults-with-psychiatric-problems
#1
Charlotte Vrijen, Catharina A Hartman, Gerine M A Lodder, Maaike Verhagen, Peter de Jonge, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#2
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918087/fatigue-in-an-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-population-a-trans-diagnostic-approach
#3
Denise C Rogers, Antonia J Dittner, Katharine A Rimes, Trudie Chalder
OBJECTIVES: Trans-diagnostic approaches suggest that key cognitive and behavioural processes maintain symptoms across a wide range of mental health disorders. Fatigue is a common clinical feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood; however, empirical data supporting its prevalence are lacking. This study aimed to collate outcomes from outpatient services to (1) investigate the prevalence of fatigue in adults with ADHD, (2) examine symptoms of ADHD in adults with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and (3) consider secondary clinical characteristics common to both disorder groups...
December 5, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917110/adolescent-mice-are-resilient-to-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-and-changes-in-indices-of-glutamate-function-within-the-nucleus-accumbens
#4
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, Hadley A McGregor, Noah R Solton, Matan Cohen, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: (1) withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers; and (2) increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914009/serum-response-factor-srf-ablation-interferes-with-acute-stress-associated-immediate-and-long-term-coping-mechanisms
#5
Annemarie Zimprich, Gabi Mroz, Christopher Meyer Zu Reckendorf, Sofia Anastasiadou, Philip Förstner, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Cornelia Prehn, Birgit Rathkolb, Kristin Moreth, Wolfgang Wurst, Thomas Klopstock, Martin Klingenspor, Jerzy Adamski, Eckhard Wolf, Raffi Bekeredjian, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Bernd Knöll
Stress experience modulates behavior, metabolism, and energy expenditure of organisms. One molecular hallmark of an acute stress response is a rapid induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-Fos and Egr family members. IEG transcription in neurons is mediated by the neuronal activity-driven gene regulator serum response factor (SRF). We show a first role of SRF in immediate and long-lasting acute restraint stress (AS) responses. For this, we employed a standardized mouse phenotyping protocol at the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) including behavioral, metabolic, and cardiologic tests as well as gene expression profiling to analyze the consequences of forebrain-specific SRF deletion in mice exposed to AS...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912958/a-systematic-review-of-the-ayurvedic-medicinal-herb-bacopa-monnieri-in-child-and-adolescent-populations
#6
REVIEW
James D Kean, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
OBJECTIVES: Clinicians utilise critical research to advance their knowledge when prescribing standard and alternative therapies for developmental disorders. Recent research has reported that the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri may improve cognitive outcomes in adult populations; however, few studies have investigated its benefits in younger cohorts. The aim of the current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trial outcomes and safety of Bacopa and its effects on the cognition and behaviour in children and adolescents...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908296/smoking-in-pregnancy-adolescent-mental-health-and-cognitive-performance-in-young-adult-offspring-results-from-a-matched-sample-within-a-finnish-cohort
#7
Hugh Ramsay, Jennifer H Barnett, Graham K Murray, Pirjo Mäki, Tuula Hurtig, Tanja Nordström, Jouko Miettunen, Vesa Kiviniemi, Solja Niemelä, Zdenka Pausova, Tomas Paus, Juha Veijola
BACKGROUND: The association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) and adult cognition is debated, including if there are differences according to sex. We aimed to determine if there are associations between PEMCS and cognition in early adulthood in men and women and examine if observed associations were mediated by adolescent mental health factors that are associated with cognition, namely psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), inattention and hyperactivity, and other externalizing behaviors...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907271/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosis-management-and-treatment-in-the-dsm-5-era
#8
Joel L Young, David W Goodman
Objective: To increase awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary care community and to provide guidance for the management of this condition. Despite its increasing prevalence, adult ADHD largely remains underdiagnosed and inappropriately treated in the United States. The publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has provided more clear diagnostic criteria for adult ADHD, but a solid framework supporting the transition of ADHD management from pediatric to adult primary care is lacking...
November 17, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907249/grainyhead-like-3-grhl3-deficiency-in-brain-leads-to-altered-locomotor-activity-and-decreased-anxiety-like-behaviours-in-aged-mice
#9
Sebastian Dworkin, Alana Auden, Darren D Partridge, Maria Daglas, Robert L Medcalf, Theo Mantamadiotis, Smitha R Georgy, Charbel Darido, Stephen M Jane, Stephen B Ting
The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here we show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviours...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907040/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-cardiomyocytes-from-mice-with-the-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Monica Llano-Diez, Jon Sinclair, Takashi Yamada, Mei Zong, Jeremy Fauconnier, Shi-Jin Zhang, Abram Katz, Kent Jardemark, Håkan Westerblad, Daniel C Andersson, Johanna T Lanner
The metabolic syndrome is associated with prolonged stress and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and afflicted subjects are prone to develop cardiovascular disease. Under normal conditions, the cardiomyocyte response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation partly depends on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the interplay between beta-adrenergic signaling, ROS and cardiac contractility using freshly isolated cardiomyocytes and whole hearts from two mouse models with the metabolic syndrome (high-fat diet and ob/ob mice)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906414/delphi-consensus-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-evaluation-by-a-panel-of-experts
#11
Amaia Hervás, Teresa de Santos, Javier Quintero, Pedro M Ruíz-Lázaro, José A Alda, Alberto Fernández-Jaén, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, which is frequently maintained in adolescent and adult age. It presents great clinical heterogeneity, significantly affecting the functioning of those who suffer it. Although drug treatments obtain results by themselves, the approach should be multidisciplinary and be adapted to the specific needs of each patient and his/ her family. Given the variety of drugs currently available to treat ADHD, there are diverse opinions on the most effective way to approach this disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#12
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902544/academic-achievement-in-adults-with-a-history-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-population-based-prospective-study
#13
Robert G Voigt, Slavica K Katusic, Robert C Colligan, Jill M Killian, Amy L Weaver, William J Barbaresi
OBJECTIVE: Previous research on the developmental course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited by biased clinic-referred samples and other methodological problems. Thus, questions about adult academic outcomes associated with childhood ADHD remain unanswered. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe academic outcomes in adulthood among incident cases of research-identified childhood ADHD versus non-ADHD referents from a population-based birth cohort. METHOD: Young adults with research-identified childhood ADHD (N = 232; mean age 27...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901414/cognitive-deficits-and-inflammatory-response-resulting-from-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-are-exacerbated-by-repeated-pre-exposure-to-an-innate-stress-stimulus
#14
Michaël Ogier, Amor Belmeguenai, Thomas Lieutaud, Béatrice Georges, Sandrine Bouvard, Emilie Carré, Frédéric Canini, Laurent Bezin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both military and civilian populations, and often results in neurobehavioral sequelae that impair quality of life in both patients and their family. Although individuals who are chronically exposed to stress are more likely to experience TBI, it is still unknown whether pre-injury stress influences the outcome after TBI. The present study tested whether behavioral and cognitive long-term outcome after TBI in rats is affected by prior exposure to an innate stress stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900342/cacna1c-protecting-young-hippocampal-neurons-in-the-adult-brain
#15
Héctor De Jesús-Cortés, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha, Andrew A Pieper
Neuropsychiatric disease is the leading cause of disability in the United States, and fourth worldwide.(1,2) Not surprisingly, human genetic studies have revealed a common genetic predisposition for many forms of neuropsychiatric disease, potentially explaining why overlapping symptoms are commonly observed across multiple diagnostic categories. For example, the CACNA1C gene was recently identified in the largest human genome-wide association study to date as a risk loci held in common across 5 major forms of neuropsychiatric disease: bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890827/adolescent-gbr12909-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-disrupts-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-and-leads-to-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-adult-mice
#16
Asma Khan, Loek A W de Jong, Mary E Kamenski, Kerin K Higa, Jacinta D Lucero, Jared W Young, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888120/gestational-exposure-to-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-alterations-in-motor-related-behaviors
#17
David R Goulding, Sally S White, Sandra J McBride, Suzanne E Fenton, G Jean Harry
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances are used in commercial applications and developmental exposure has been implicated in alterations in neurobehavioral functioning. While associations between developmental perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and human outcomes have been inconsistent, studies in experimental animals suggest alterations in motor related behaviors. To examine a dose-response pattern of neurobehavioral effects following gestational exposure to PFOA, pregnant CD-1 mice received PFOA (0, 0...
November 22, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888044/motor-memory-consolidation-processes-in-young-female-adults-with-adhd-may-be-less-susceptible-to-interference
#18
Orly Fox, Esther Adi-Japha, Avi Karni
Young adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may have an atypical procedural ("how to") memory consolidation phase, after practicing a movement sequence, with smaller gains in speed and some costs in accuracy, compared to typical peers, at 24h post-training. Here we tested the susceptibility of performance gains retained after motor practice by young female adults with (N=16) and without (N=16) ADHD to post-training interference. Participants were trained on the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence learning task with performance speed and accuracy recorded before training, immediately after, and at 24h post-training...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886904/mastocytosis-and-anaphylaxis
#19
REVIEW
Anna Schuch, Knut Brockow
This article updates current knowledge on epidemiology, risk factors, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Hyperactive mast cells and higher number of effector mast cells are speculated to facilitate anaphylaxis in this condition. In children, increased risk is limited to those with extensive skin involvement and high tryptase. In adults, manifestations of anaphylaxis are severe with high frequency of cardiovascular symptoms. Hymenoptera stings are the most common triggers for these reactions; however, idiopathic anaphylaxis and reactions to food or drugs occur...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874270/neurodevelopmental-disorders-are-highly-over-represented-in-children-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Elisabet Wentz, Anna Björk, Jovanna Dahlgren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children with obesity and to compare body mass index (BMI) and metabolic profile in the children. METHODS: Seventy-six children (37 girls, 39 boys) were consecutively recruited from a university outpatient clinic specialized in severe obesity. Neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were assessed using interviews and questionnaires...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
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