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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803577/auditory-brainstem-response-abr-profiling-tests-as-diagnostic-support-for-schizophrenia-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#1
Eva Juselius Baghdassarian, Maria Nilsson Markhed, Eva Lindström, Björn M Nilsson, Tommy Lewander
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performances of two auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as potential biomarkers and diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively, in an investigator-initiated blinded study design. METHOD: Male and female patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and adult ADHD (n=24) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic criteria and healthy controls (n=58) comprised the analysis set (n=108) of the total number of study participants (n=119)...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803031/neurofeedback-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Winfried Rief
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803030/neurofeedback-sham-neurofeedback-and-cognitive-behavioural-group-therapy-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-triple-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Michael Schönenberg, Eva Wiedemann, Alexander Schneidt, Jonathan Scheeff, Alexander Logemann, Philipp M Keune, Martin Hautzinger
BACKGROUND: Many studies suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback might be beneficial in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, numbers of well controlled studies are low and neurofeedback techniques are regarded as highly controversial. The present trial examined the efficacy (compared with sham neurofeedback) and efficiency (compared with meta-cognitive therapy) of a standard EEG neurofeedback protocol in adults with ADHD. METHODS: We did a concurrent, triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial using authorised deception in adults with ADHD from one centre (University of Tübingen) in Tübingen, Germany...
August 9, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800281/attentional-lapses-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-blank-rather-than-wandering-thoughts
#4
Charlotte Van den Driessche, Mikaël Bastian, Hugo Peyre, Coline Stordeur, Éric Acquaviva, Sara Bahadori, Richard Delorme, Jérôme Sackur
People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797603/chronic-traumatic-stress-impairs-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-acetylcholine-neuroinflammation-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-expression-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Ami Bhakta, Kartheek Gavini, Euitaek Yang, Lani Lyman-Henley, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran
Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780281/is-adult-onset-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-frequent-in-clinical-practice
#6
Régis Lopez, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Cédric Galera, Yves Dauvilliers
Recent population-based longitudinal studies concluded that most adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms would not have a childhood history of ADHD, leading to the concept of adult-onset ADHD. In a large, well-characterized clinical population of 446 adults with a primary complaint of ADHD, we reported a low frequency of adult-onset ADHD (6.9%), being a primary isolated condition in 2.8%. They had less severe symptoms and tendencies for higher hypersomnolence disorder comorbidity than patients with typical childhood-onset ADHD...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777180/sleep-wake-disorders-of-childhood
#7
Suresh Kotagal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders occur in 10% to 28% of children and differ somewhat in pathophysiology and management from sleep-wake disorders in adults. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of key childhood sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of sleep in memory consolidation and in the facilitation of learning has been increasingly recognized, even at the toddler stage. Cataplexy, a key feature of narcolepsy type 1, may be subtle in childhood and characterized by transient muscle weakness isolated to the face...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772221/perioperative-prediction-of-agitated-hyperactive-delirium-after-cardiac-surgery-in-adults-the-development-of-a-practical-scorecard
#8
Hani N Mufti, Gregory M Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a temporary mental disorder that occurs frequently among hospitalized patients. In this study we sought to develop a user-friendly scorecard based on perioperative features to identify patients at risk of developing agitated delirium after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a single center. A parsimonious predictive model was created, with subsequent internal validation...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770370/exploring-deficient-emotion-regulation-in-adult-adhd-electrophysiological-evidence
#9
Anna Shushakova, Patricia Ohrmann, Anya Pedersen
Emotional dysregulation (ED) is being increasingly recognized as a core feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the pathophysiological underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we provide meaningful electrophysiological evidence of ED in adult patients with ADHD (n = 39) compared to healthy controls (n = 40) by exploring the electrophysiological correlates of the emotion regulation strategies reappraisal, distraction, and expressive suppression. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during passive viewing of neutral and negative images, as well as during emotion regulation...
August 2, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768803/modulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-excitation-inhibition-balance-rescues-social-behavior-in-cntnap2-deficient-mice
#10
Aslihan Selimbeyoglu, Christina K Kim, Masatoshi Inoue, Soo Yeun Lee, Alice S O Hong, Isaac Kauvar, Charu Ramakrishnan, Lief E Fenno, Thomas J Davidson, Matthew Wright, Karl Deisseroth
Alterations in the balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition (E:I balance) have been implicated in the neural circuit activity-based processes that contribute to autism phenotypes. We investigated whether acutely reducing E:I balance in mouse brain could correct deficits in social behavior. We used mice lacking the CNTNAP2 gene, which has been implicated in autism, and achieved a temporally precise reduction in E:I balance in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) either by optogenetically increasing the excitability of inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) neurons or decreasing the excitability of excitatory pyramidal neurons...
August 2, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764867/effect-of-tobacco-smoking-on-frontal-cortical-thickness-development-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-mixed-cohort-of-adhd-affected-and-unaffected-youth
#11
Sophie E A Akkermans, Daan van Rooij, Nanda Rommelse, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Maarten Mennes, Jan K Buitelaar
Smoking rates are particularly high during adolescence and young adulthood, when the brain is still undergoing significant developmental changes. Cross-sectional studies have revealed altered brain structure in smokers, such as thinner frontal cortical areas. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of becoming nicotine-dependent, and has also been associated with abnormalities in frontal gray matter structure. The present study examines the relationships between smoking, cortical thickness and ADHD symptoms in a longitudinal design that compares adolescent and young adult smokers (n=44; 35 ADHD-affected) and non-smokers (n=45; 32 ADHD-affected) on frontal cortical thickness...
July 29, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763482/attention-impairments-and-adhd-symptoms-in-adult-narcoleptic-patients-with-and-without-hypocretin-deficiency
#12
Marco Filardi, Fabio Pizza, Lorenzo Tonetti, Elena Antelmi, Vincenzo Natale, Giuseppe Plazzi
BACKGROUND: Attentional complaints are common in narcolepsy patients and can overlap with daytime sleepiness features. Few studies attempted to characterize attentional domains in narcolepsy leading to controversial results. We aimed to assess the impact of hypocretin deficiency on attentional functioning by comparing performances on the attention network test (ANT) of narcoleptic patients with hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 1-NT1) versus patients without hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 2-NT2) and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760535/a-randomized-phase-i-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-alcohol-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-an-extended-release-orally-disintegrating-tablet-formulation-of-amphetamine-in-healthy-adults
#13
Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey G Stark, Sherilyn Adcock, Russ McMahen, Carolyn Sikes
PURPOSE: There is a strong association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol abuse, yet no studies have systematically assessed the effect of alcohol on the pharmacokinetics of psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMP) in vivo. This study evaluated the effects of alcohol on the rate and extent of absorption of Adzenys™ XR-ODT*, a new extended-release orally disintegrating AMP tablet (AMP XR-ODT) for ADHD. METHODS: A Phase I single-dose, open-label study was conducted in 32 healthy adults...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758432/psychotropic-medication-use-in-australia-2007-to-2015-changes-in-annual-incidence-prevalence-and-treatment-exposure
#14
Jonathan Brett, Emily A Karanges, Benjamin Daniels, Nicholas A Buckley, Carl Schneider, Atheer Nassir, Helga Zoega, Andrew J McLachlan, Sallie-Anne Pearson
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in annual patterns of psychotropic medication use in Australia from 2007 to 2015. METHODS: We used a 10% sample of individual-level nationwide dispensing claims for concessional beneficiaries dispensed psychotropic medications (stratified by class, subclass) to investigate annual trends and changes in the incidence and prevalence of use, median annual duration of exposure, proportion of people with single psychotropic dispensing and median defined daily doses per person dispensed each medicine per year...
July 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755620/does-the-increasing-placebo-response-impact-outcomes-of-adult-and-pediatric-adhd-clinical-trials-data-from-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-2000-2009
#15
Arif Khan, Kaysee Fahl Mar, Walter A Brown
In a study of recent antidepressant clinical trial data, it was found placebo response had grown significantly over time and that contrary to expectations, trial outcome measures and success rate were not impacted. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if this trend of increasing placebo response and stable outcome measures could be seen in clinical trial data for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a different psychiatric condition with susceptibility to placebo response. For this reason, we evaluated efficacy data reported in the FDA Medical and Statistical reviews for 10 ADHD medication programs (4917 patients, 17 trials, 29 treatment arms)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750547/addressing-medical-needs-of-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-a-primary-care-setting
#16
Youssra Saqr, Erika Braun, Kyle Porter, Debra Barnette, Christopher Hanks
Little has been reported about how to improve health care access and delivery for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. To understand the contributions to the health disparities in the autism spectrum disorder population, we conducted two independent research approaches to learn about current medical needs. A retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate medical comorbidities and medication use. A focus group was also created to address barriers faced in providing medical care. Of 126 charts reviewed, 49% (n = 62) had intellectual disability, 49% (n = 62) had attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 52% (n = 65) had anxiety, 41% (n = 52) had obesity, 31% (n = 39) with a history of aggressive behavior, 31% (n = 31) had depression, 22% (n = 28) had seizures, and 9% (n = 11) had hypertension...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750278/neuropsychological-deficits-in-adults-age-60-and-above-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
L B Thorell, Y Holst, H Chistiansen, J J S Kooij, D Bijlenga, D Sjöwall
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological deficits are of major importance in ADHD, yet no previous studies have assessed clinically referred samples of older adults. The authors compared older adults with ADHD (60-75years) with both younger adults with ADHD (18-45years) and older healthy controls with regard to various neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: Well-established tests were used to investigate working memory, inhibition, switching, planning, fluency, and speed of processing...
June 27, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750215/binge-pattern-cocaine-administration-causes-long-lasting-behavioral-hyperarousal-but-does-not-enhance-vulnerability-to-single-prolonged-stress-in-rats
#18
Michael J Lisieski, Shane A Perrine
Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749829/the-presence-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-may-be-associated-with-interpersonal-sensitivity-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Ahmet Koyuncu, Fahri Çelebi, Erhan Ertekin, Çağdaş Ö Memiş, Raşit Tükel
The goal of this study was to evaluate a possible association between childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and interpersonal sensitivity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The study involved 125 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of SAD. To evaluate childhood ADHD, the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was used. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and clinical rating scales were completed...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741968/review-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-south-africa
#20
A P Munasur-Naidoo, I Truter
Recently, there has been a greater focus on adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) given that the symptoms persist in two-thirds of patients into adulthood. Areas covered: A systematic review of articles reporting on adult ADHD in SA was undertaken. From the database search, 1209 articles were identified, with 29 articles included in this analysis. Expert Commentary: Fourteen of the 29 studies reviewed were exploratory, 10 were reviews/commentaries, four were developmental studies and one was a phenomenological study...
July 25, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
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