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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338919/genetic-overlap-between-schizophrenia-and-developmental-psychopathology-longitudinal-and-multivariate-polygenic-risk-prediction-of-common-psychiatric-traits-during-development
#1
Michel G Nivard, Suzanne H Gage, Jouke J Hottenga, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Bart M L Baselmans, Lannie Ligthart, Beate St Pourcain, Dorret I Boomsma, Marcus R Munafò, Christel M Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: Several nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence can precede the onset of schizophrenia, but the etiology of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated to what extent the association between schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders in childhood is explained by correlated genetic risk factors. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS), reflecting an individual's genetic risk for schizophrenia, were constructed for 2588 children from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and 6127 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337734/diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-findings-in-adult-civilian-military-and-sport-related-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-a-systematic-critical-review
#2
Breton Michael Asken, Steven T DeKosky, James R Clugston, Michael S Jaffee, Russell M Bauer
This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. Articles from 2002 to 2016 were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, using a Boolean search string containing the following terms: "diffusion tensor imaging", "diffusion imaging", "DTI", "white matter", "concussion", "mild traumatic brain injury", "mTBI", "traumatic brain injury", and "TBI"...
March 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335874/course-of-tourette-syndrome-and-comorbidities-in-a-large-prospective-clinical-study
#3
Camilla Groth, Nanette Mol Debes, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Theis Lange, Liselotte Skov
OBJECTIVE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and frequent comorbidities. Although tics often improve during adolescence, recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to persist. This large prospective follow-up study describes the clinical course of tics and comorbidities during adolescence and the prevalence of coexisting psychopathologies. METHOD: The clinical cohort was recruited at the Danish National Tourette Clinic, and data were collected at baseline (n = 314, age range 5-19 years) and at follow-up 6 years later (n = 227) to establish the persistence and severity of tics and comorbidities...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335040/-new-ways-of-diagnosing-adhd-in-adults
#4
Marco Grabemann, Marco Zimmermann, Laura Strunz, Monika Ebbert-Grabemann, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard Kis, Christian Mette
Objective Diagnosing Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults requires that ADHD has already been present in childhood. However, recall of ADHD-symptoms in childhood is fallible, for example influenced by mood. Furthermore, diagnostics need a procedure to handle oblivion and judgment biases. The Essen-Interview-for-school-days-related-biography (EIS-B) addresses these problems and offers a tool for retrospectively diagnosing childhood ADHD in adults. Method 36 patients with ADHD, 27 patients with depression or adjustment disorders and 39 healthy controls were included in the pilot study...
March 23, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333546/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-vortioxetine-in-pediatric-patients
#5
Robert L Findling, Adelaide S Robb, Melissa DelBello, Michael Huss, Nora McNamara, Elias Sarkis, Russell Scheffer, Lis H Poulsen, Grace Chen, Ole Michael Lemming, Johan Areberg, Philippe Auby
OBJECTIVE: The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tolerability of single and multiple doses of vortioxetine in children and adolescents with a depressive or anxiety disorder and to provide supportive information for appropriate dosing regimens for pediatric clinical trials. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, multinational, multisite, multiple-dose trial enrolled 48 patients (children and adolescents; 1:1 ratio) divided into 8 cohorts (4 adolescent and 4 child), with each cohort including 6 patients...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#6
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322724/valosin-containing-protein-vcp-p97-inhibitors-relieve-mitofusin-dependent-mitochondrial-defects-due-to-vcp-disease-mutants
#7
Ting Zhang, Prashant Mishra, Bruce A Hay, David Chan, Ming Guo
Missense mutations of valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause an autosomal dominant disease known as inclusion body myopathy, Paget disease with frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The pathological mechanism of IBMPFD is not clear and there is no treatment. We show that endogenous VCP negatively regulates Mitofusin, which is required for outer mitochondrial membrane fusion. Because 90% of IBMPFD patients have myopathy, we generated an in vivo IBMPFD model in adult Drosophila muscle, which recapitulates disease pathologies...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322273/neuregulin-2-ablation-results-in-dopamine-dysregulation-and-severe-behavioral-phenotypes-relevant-to-psychiatric-disorders
#8
L Yan, A Shamir, M Skirzewski, E Leiva-Salcedo, O B Kwon, I Karavanova, D Paredes, O Malkesman, K R Bailey, D Vullhorst, J N Crawley, A Buonanno
Numerous genetic and functional studies implicate variants of Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and its neuronal receptor ErbB4 in schizophrenia and many of its endophenotypes. Although the neurophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of NRG1 mutant mice have been investigated extensively, practically nothing is known about the function of NRG2, the closest NRG1 homolog. We found that NRG2 expression in the adult rodent brain does not overlap with NRG1 and is more extensive than originally reported, including expression in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and therefore generated NRG2 knockout mice (KO) to study its function...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321605/long-term-effects-of-stimulant-exposure-on-cerebral-blood-flow-response-to-methylphenidate-and-behavior-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Anouk Schrantee, C Bouziane, E E Bron, S Klein, M A Bottelier, J J S Kooij, S A R B Rombouts, L Reneman
Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We here assessed the long-term modifying effects of age-of-first-stimulant treatment on the human brain and behavior. 81 male adult ADHD patients were stratified into three groups: 1) early stimulant treatment (EST; <16 years of age) 2) late stimulant treatment (LST: ≥23 years of age) and 3) stimulant treatment naive (STN; no history of stimulant treatment)...
March 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314458/facilitating-transition-from-high-school-and-special-education-to-adult-life-focus-on-youth-with-learning-disorders-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-speech-language-impairments
#10
REVIEW
Lee I Ascherman, Julia Shaftel
Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301083/age-specific-autistic-like-behaviors-in-heterozygous-fmr1-ko-female-mice
#11
Manon Gauducheau, Valerie Lemaire-Mayo, Francesca R D'Amato, Diego Oddi, Wim E Crusio, Susanna Pietropaolo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Surprisingly, most existing studies on the Fmr1-KO mouse model for FXS have focused on males, although FX women, who are mostly heterozygous for the Fmr1 mutation, are known to exhibit several behavioral deficits, including autistic-like features. Furthermore, most animal research has been carried out on adults only; so that little is known about the age progression of the behavioral phenotype of Fmr1 mutants, which is a crucial issue to optimize the impact of therapeutic interventions...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295312/young-adult-outcomes-in-the-follow-up-of-the-multimodal-treatment-study-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-persistence-source-discrepancy-and-height-suppression
#12
James M Swanson, L Eugene Arnold, Brooke S G Molina, Margaret H Sibley, Lily T Hechtman, Stephen P Hinshaw, Howard B Abikoff, Annamarie Stehli, Elizabeth B Owens, John T Mitchell, Quyen Nichols, Andrea Howard, Laurence L Greenhill, Betsy Hoza, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Peter S Jensen, Benedetto Vitiello, Timothy Wigal, Jeffery N Epstein, Leanne Tamm, Kimberly D Lakes, James Waxmonsky, Marc Lerner, Joy Etcovitch, Desiree W Murray, Maximilian Muenke, Maria T Acosta, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, William E Pelham, Helena C Kraemer
BACKGROUND: The Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) began as a 14-month randomized clinical trial of behavioral and pharmacological treatments of 579 children (7-10 years of age) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type. It transitioned into an observational long-term follow-up of 515 cases consented for continuation and 289 classmates (258 without ADHD) added as a local normative comparison group (LNCG), with assessments 2-16 years after baseline. METHODS: Primary (symptom severity) and secondary (adult height) outcomes in adulthood were specified...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293481/a-genetic-variant-within-sts-previously-associated-with-inattention-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-is-associated-with-enhanced-cognition-in-healthy-adult-males
#13
Trevor Humby, Amelia Fisher, Christopher Allen, Meghann Reynolds, Annette Hartman, Ina Giegling, Dan Rujescu, William Davies
INTRODUCTION: The enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS) converts sulfated steroids to their non-sulfated forms. Deficiency for this enzyme is associated with inattention but preserved response control. The polymorphism rs17268988 within the X-linked STS gene is associated with inattentive, but not other, symptoms in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We initially tested whether rs17268988 genotype was associated with attention, response control, and underlying aspects of cognition, using questionnaires and neuropsychological tasks, in two independent cohorts of healthy adult males...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292705/prefrontal-and-parietal-correlates-of-cognitive-control-related-to-the-adult-outcome-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosed-in-childhood
#14
Kurt P Schulz, Xiaobo Li, Suzanne M Clerkin, Jin Fan, Olga G Berwid, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey M Halperin
The protracted and highly variable development of prefrontal cortex regions that support cognitive control has been purported to shape the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurodevelopmental model was tested in a prospectively followed sample of 27 adult probands who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 28 carefully matched comparison subjects aged 21-28 years. Probands were classified with persistent ADHD or remitted ADHD. Behavioral and neural responses to the Stimulus and Response Conflict Task (SRCT) performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were compared in probands and comparison subjects and in probands with persistent and remitted ADHD...
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290271/diminished-modulation-of-preparatory-sensorimotor-mu-rhythm-predicts-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severity
#15
N Ter Huurne, D Lozano-Soldevilla, M Onnink, C Kan, J Buitelaar, O Jensen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by problems in regulating attention and in suppressing disruptive motor activity, i.e. hyperactivity and impulsivity. We recently found evidence that aberrant distribution of posterior α band oscillations (8-12 Hz) is associated with attentional problems in ADHD. The sensorimotor cortex also produces strong 8-12 Hz band oscillations, namely the μ rhythm, and is thought to have a similar inhibitory function...
March 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288026/delirium-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-children-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-pediatric-delirium
#16
Chani Traube, Gabrielle Silver, Linda M Gerber, Savneet Kaur, Elizabeth A Mauer, Abigail Kerson, Christine Joyce, Bruce M Greenwald
OBJECTIVES: Delirium occurs frequently in adults and is an independent predictor of mortality. However, the epidemiology and outcomes of pediatric delirium are not well-characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of delirium in critically ill children, its duration, associated risk factors, and effect on in-hospital outcomes, including mortality. Secondary objectives included determination of delirium subtype, and effect of delirium on duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay...
March 10, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285251/neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-young-violent-offenders-overlap-and-background-characteristics
#17
Eva Billstedt, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
Neurodevelopmental disorders (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), tic disorder, intellectual disability (ID)), in prison populations have received increased attention but the focus has generally been on one single condition leaving out the global picture. This study assessed the prevalence and overlap of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in a consecutive cohort (n=270) of young adult male offenders (age 18-25 years), sentenced for "hands-on" violent offences and serving prison time in Swedish prisons...
March 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282447/neonatal-overfeeding-disrupts-pituitary-ghrelin-signalling-in-female-rats-long-term-implications-for-the-stress-response
#18
Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychological stress are exacerbated in adult female but not male rats made obese due to overfeeding in early life. Ghrelin, traditionally known for its role in energy homeostasis, has been recently recognised for its role in coordinating the HPA responses to stress, particularly by acting directly at the anterior pituitary where the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), the receptor for acyl ghrelin, is abundantly expressed. We therefore hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding in female rats would compromise pituitary responsiveness to ghrelin, contributing to a hyperactive central stress responsiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280346/trend-characteristics-and-pharmacotherapy-of-adults-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-nationwide-survey-in-taiwan
#19
Yu-Shian Cheng, Yu-Chiau Shyu, Sheng-Yu Lee, Shin-Sheng Yuan, Chun-Ju Yang, Kang-Chung Yang, Tung-Liang Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults may result in functional impairment warranting clinical interventions. However, few studies have investigated the diagnosis and treatment rates of adult ADHD in non-Caucasian ethnic groups. This study used nationwide population-based data to investigate the rate of diagnosis, associated characteristics, and pharmacological treatment for adult ADHD in Taiwan. METHODS: Adults (age ≥18 years) newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=5,397) between January 2000 and December 2011 were enrolled from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277154/comprehension-of-direct-and-indirect-sarcastic-remarks-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-s-syndrome
#20
Helena Drury, Shivani Shah, Jeremy S Stern, Sarah Crawford, Shelley Channon
Previous research has reported that aspects of social cognition such as nonliteral language comprehension are impaired in adults with Tourette's syndrome (TS), but little is known about social cognition in children and adolescents with TS. The present study aims to evaluate a measure of sarcasm comprehension suitable for use with children and adolescents (Experiment 1), and to examine sarcasm comprehension in children and adolescents with TS-alone or TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Experiment 2)...
February 8, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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