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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646732/effects-of-stimulants-and-atomoxetine-on-emotional-lability-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
T R Moukhtarian, R E Cooper, E Vassos, P Moran, P Asherson
BACKGROUND: Emotional lability (EL) is an associated feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, contributing to functional impairment. Yet the effect of pharmacological treatments for ADHD on EL symptoms is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on symptoms of EL and compare these with the effects on core ADHD symptoms. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on the databases Embase, PsychInfo, and Ovid Medline(®) and the clinicaltrials...
May 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645892/meis1-effects-on-motor-phenotypes-and-the-sensorimotor-system-in-mice
#2
Aaro V Salminen, Lillian Garrett, Barbara Schormair, Jan Rozman, Florian Giesert, Kristina M Niedermeier, Lore Becker, Birgit Rathkolb, Ildikó Rácz, Martin Klingenspor, Thomas Klopstock, Eckhard Wolf, Andreas Zimmer, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Miguel Torres, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst, Sabine M Hölter, Juliane Winkelmann
MEIS1 is a developmental transcription factor linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and with significant impact on the quality-of-life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the most potential system for modeling RLS in animals...
June 23, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645126/-adhd-in-adults-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorder-prevalence-clinical-diagnostics-and-integrated-therapy
#3
Henrike Dirks, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard Kis, Christian Mette
Substance use disorders (SUD) are one of the most frequent mental disorders among adults. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health issues in childhood and adolescence, often persisting in adulthood. ADHD in childhood and adolescence is a robust predictor of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in adulthood. Prevalence of comorbid ADHD in SUD patients is high. Nearly one quarter of these patients fulfill the DSM IV criteria for ADHD. Integrated concepts for treatment of SUD and ADHD are needed, but rare up to now...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645075/a-prospective-follow-up-study-of-younger-and-older-subjects-with-pathological-gambling
#4
Donald W Black, William Coryell, Brett McCormick, Martha Shaw, Jeff Allen
Pathological gambling (PG) is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates. Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. We enrolled 175 subjects in a longitudinal study of gambling behavior: our case group of 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and two comparison groups including 72 younger adults with PG (< 40 years) and 50 older adults without PG (≥ 60 years)...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640990/opiate-antagonists-do-not-interfere-with-the-clinical-benefits-of-stimulants-in-adhd-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone
#5
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate activates μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. μ-Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential. This study assessed whether the combination of naltrexone with methylphenidate is well-tolerated while preserving the clinical benefits of stimulants in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate from January 2013 to July 2015...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639480/managing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adults-using-illicit-psychostimulants-a-systematic-review
#6
Jon Cook, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Shalini Arunogiri, Edward Ogden, Yvonne Bonomo
CONTEXT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder commonly co-exist, and appropriate treatments have not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance for treatment of co-existing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of published English articles using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane, utilising consistent search terms. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials, comparing any treatment arm with a control group, for participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or equivalent criteria for both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638024/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cognitive-impairment-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
L S Chutko, S Yu Surushkina, E A Yakovenko, Yu D Kropotov, A V Sergeev
AIM: To qualify cognitive impairment in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and evaluate the efficacy of memoplant in the treatment of this pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors present the results of the clinical, psychological and electroencephalographic examination of 40 patients with ADHD, aged from 18 to 45 years. All patients received memoplant in dose of 240 mg a day for 8 weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adult patients with ADHD were characterized by both subjective and objective disorders of memory and attention...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635543/anxiety-modulates-the-relation-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severity-and-working-memory-related-brain-activity
#8
Dennis van der Meer, Pieter J Hoekstra, Daan van Rooij, Anderson M Winkler, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have heightened levels of anxiety, which has been associated with worse performance on working memory tasks. Knowledge of the neural pathways underlying the combined presence of ADHD and anxiety may aid in a better understanding of their co-occurrence. Therefore, we investigated how anxiety modulates the effect of ADHD severity on neural activity during a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task. METHODS: Neuroimaging data were available for 371 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17...
March 1, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634087/treatment-with-levetiracetam-improves-cognition-in-a-ketamine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#9
Ming Teng Koh, Yi Shao, Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson, Michela Gallagher
Imbalance in neural excitation and inhibition is associated with behavioral dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia and at risk for this illness. We examined whether targeting increased neural activity with the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, would benefit memory performance in a preclinical model of schizophrenia that has been shown to exhibit hyperactivity in the hippocampus. Adult rats exposed to ketamine subchronically during late adolescence showed impaired hippocampal-dependent memory performance...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628269/effect-of-food-intake-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-a-novel-methylphenidate-extended-release-oral-suspension-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Floyd R Sallee, Donna R Palumbo, Richat Abbas, Sally A Berry, Shivanand P Puthli, Kalyan K Kathala
We conducted an open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults to assess the impact of food on the bioavailability of 60 mg methylphenidate extended-release oral suspension (MEROS; Quillivant XR™)-a long-acting stimulant for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-by comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters under fed and fasting conditions. When MEROS 60 mg was administered under fed conditions compared with fasting conditions, the exposure of methylphenidate (d enantiomer) was higher, with a mean area under the plasma concentration-vs-time curve (AUC)0-t of 160...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625946/educational-needs-of-epileptologists-regarding-psychiatric-comorbidities-of-the-epilepsies-a-descriptive-quantitative-survey
#11
Marco Mula, Esper Cavalheiro, Alla Guekht, Andres M Kanner, Hyang Woon Lee, Cigdem Ozkara, Alfredo Thomson, Sarah J Wilson
Psychiatric disorders are relatively frequent comorbidities in epilepsy and they have an impact on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. This is a report from the Task Force on Education of the ILAE Commission on Neuropsychiatry based on a survey about educational needs of epileptologists regarding management of the psychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy. The Task Force designed a quantitative questionnaire to survey the self-perceived confidence of child and adult epileptologists and psychiatrists in managing major psychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy to identify: (1) critical areas of improvement from a list of skills that are usually considered necessary for effective management of these conditions, and (2) the preferred educational format for improving these skills...
June 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624582/further-replication-of-the-synergistic-interaction-between-lphn3-and-the-ntad-gene-cluster-on-adhd-and-its-clinical-course-throughout-adulthood
#12
Djenifer B Kappel, Jaqueline B Schuch, Diego L Rovaris, Bruna S da Silva, Renata B Cupertino, Cristina Winkler, Stefania P Teche, Eduardo S Vitola, Rafael G Karam, Luis A Rohde, Claiton H D Bau, Eugenio H Grevet, Nina R Mota
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. Despite the high heritability, the unraveling of specific genetic factors related to ADHD is hampered by its considerable genetic complexity. Recent evidence suggests that gene-gene interactions can explain part of this complexity. We examined the impact of strongly supported interaction effects between the LPHN3 gene and the NTAD gene cluster (NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2) in a 7-year follow-up of a clinical sample of adults with ADHD, addressing associations with susceptibility, symptomatology and stability of diagnosis...
June 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#13
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620324/description-of-various-factors-contributing-to-traffic-accidents-in-youth-and-measures-proposed-to-alleviate-recurrence
#14
REVIEW
Ludovic Gicquel, Pauline Ordonneau, Emilie Blot, Charlotte Toillon, Pierre Ingrand, Lucia Romo
Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616934/temporal-trends-in-the-prevalence-and-incidence-of-diagnosed-adhd-in-children-and-young-adults-between-1999-and-2012-in-canada-a-data-linkage-study
#15
Helen-Maria Vasiliadis, Fatoumata Binta Diallo, Louis Rochette, Mark Smith, Donald Langille, Elizabeth Lin, Steve Kisely, Eric Fombonne, Angus H Thompson, Johanne Renaud, Alain Lesage
OBJECTIVE: There is a need for the routine monitoring of treated attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for timely policy making. The objective is to report and assess over a decade the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed ADHD in Canada. METHODS: Administrative linked patient data from the provinces of Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia were obtained from the same sources as the Canadian Chronic Diseases Surveillance Systems to assess the prevalence and incidence of a primary physician diagnosis of ADHD ( ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes: 314, F90...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616095/acamprosate-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-modulation-of-spontaneous-cortical-activity-erk1-2-activation-locomotor-behavior-and-anxiety
#16
Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Lindsay M Grainger, Chandler K Robinson, Anthony T Earnheart, Melinda S Stegman, Anna L Lang, Amy A Ashworth, Gemma Molinaro, Kimberly M Huber, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) occurs as a result of a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. Loss of FMRP alters excitatory/inhibitory signaling balance, leading to increased neuronal hyperexcitability and altered behavior. Acamprosate (the calcium salt of N-acetylhomotaurinate), a drug FDA-approved for relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence in adults, is a novel agent with multiple mechanisms that may be beneficial for people with FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616094/arbaclofen-in-fragile-x-syndrome-results-of-phase-3-trials
#17
Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Randi Hagerman, Jeannie Visootsak, Dejan Budimirovic, Walter E Kaufmann, Maryann Cherubini, Peter Zarevics, Karen Walton-Bowen, Paul Wang, Mark F Bear, Randall L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Arbaclofen improved multiple abnormal phenotypes in animal models of fragile X syndrome (FXS) and showed promising results in a phase 2 clinical study. The objective of the study is to determine safety and efficacy of arbaclofen for social avoidance in FXS. METHODS: Two phase 3 placebo-controlled trials were conducted, a flexible dose trial in subjects age 12-50 (209FX301, adolescent/adult study) and a fixed dose trial in subjects age 5-11 (209FX302, child study)...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609313/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-life-satisfaction-in-a-representative-adolescent-and-adult-sample
#18
Timo Hennig, Ute Koglin, Sören Schmidt, Franz Petermann, Elmar Brähler
Although it is well documented that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced life satisfaction, the mechanisms that might explain this co-occurrence are unclear. We examined the correlation of ADHD symptoms with life satisfaction and whether this association is mediated by (lacking) social support and depressive symptoms. Self-reported ADHD symptoms, life satisfaction, social support, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative, predominantly adult sample from the general population (14-91 years, N = 2517)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607386/maternal-and-early-life-circadian-disruption-have-long-lasting-negative-consequences-on-offspring-development-and-adult-behavior-in-mice
#19
Benjamin L Smarr, Azure D Grant, Luz Perez, Irving Zucker, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Modern life involves chronic circadian disruption through artificial light and these disruptions are associated with numerous mental and physical health maladies. Because the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to perturbation, we hypothesized that early-life circadian disruption would negatively impact offspring development and adult function. Pregnant mice were subjected to chronic circadian disruption from the time of uterine implantation through weaning. To dissociate in utero from postnatal effects, a subset of litters was cross-fostered at birth from disrupted dams to control dams and vice versa...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604931/motor-vehicle-crash-risk-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Allison E Curry, Kristina B Metzger, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Michael R Elliott, Flaura K Winston, Thomas J Power
Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adolescence, when motor vehicle crash risk peaks. We know little about when adolescents with ADHD get licensed and, once they do, the extent to which they have increased crash risk compared with adolescents without ADHD. Objectives: To examine the association between ADHD and both driver licensing and crash involvement and whether it varies by sex, licensing age, and/or being prescribed ADHD medication at licensure...
June 12, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
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