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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775951/retinal-blood-vessel-segmentation-using-fully-convolutional-network-with-transfer-learning
#1
Zhexin Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yi Wang, Seok-Bum Ko
Since the retinal blood vessel has been acknowledged as an indispensable element in both ophthalmological and cardiovascular disease diagnosis, the accurate segmentation of the retinal vessel tree has become the prerequisite step for automated or computer-aided diagnosis systems. In this paper, a supervised method is presented based on a pre-trained fully convolutional network through transfer learning. This proposed method has simplified the typical retinal vessel segmentation problem from full-size image segmentation to regional vessel element recognition and result merging...
April 26, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775866/identification-of-udp-glucosyltransferases-from-the-aluminum-resistant-tree-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-forming-%C3%AE-glucogallin-the-precursor-of-hydrolyzable-tannins
#2
Ko Tahara, Mitsuru Nishiguchi, Andrej Frolov, Juliane Mittasch, Carsten Milkowski
In the highly aluminum-resistant tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis, hydrolyzable tannins are proposed to play a role in internal detoxification of aluminum, which is a major factor inhibiting plant growth on acid soils. To understand and modulate the molecular mechanisms of aluminum detoxification by hydrolyzable tannins, the biosynthetic genes need to be identified. In this study, we identified and characterized genes encoding UDP-glucose:gallate glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (β-glucogallin), the precursor of hydrolyzable tannins...
May 15, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775396/the-importance-of-substrate-compaction-and-chemical-composition-in-the-phytoextraction-of-elements-by-pinus-sylvestris-l
#3
Mirosław Mleczek, Piotr Goliński, Bogusława Waliszewska, Andrzej Mocek, Monika Gąsecka, Magdalena Zborowska, Zuzanna Magdziak, Wojciech J Cichy, Bartłomiej Mazela, Tomisław Kozubik, Agnieszka Mocek-Płóciniak, Waldemar Moliński, Przemysław Niedzielski
Trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) are known for their effective phytoextraction capabilities. The results obtained in this study point to the significant role of substrate composition and chemical characteristics in the phytoextraction potential of this species. A multi-elemental (53 elements) analysis of pines from unpolluted (soil) and polluted (post-flotation tailings) sites was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The analyzed flotation tailings were characterized by alkaline pH (7...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775357/finding-the-optimal-nets-for-self-folding-kirigami
#4
N A M Araújo, R A da Costa, S N Dorogovtsev, J F F Mendes
Three-dimensional shells can be synthesized from the spontaneous self-folding of two-dimensional templates of interconnected panels, called nets. However, some nets are more likely to self-fold into the desired shell under random movements. The optimal nets are the ones that maximize the number of vertex connections, i.e., vertices that have only two of its faces cut away from each other in the net. Previous methods for finding such nets are based on random search, and thus, they do not guarantee the optimal solution...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775197/finding-the-seasons-in-tree-ring-stable-isotope-ratios
#5
EDITORIAL
Russell K Monson, Paul Szejner, Soumaya Belmecheri, Kiyomi A Morino, William E Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775099/the-use-of-olive-tree-pruning-waste-compost-to-sequestrate-methylene-blue-dye-from-aqueous-solution
#6
Ioannis Anastopoulos, Ilias Margiotoudis, Ioannis Massas
Considering that quality water supplies are diminishing and climate disorder affects water cycle, wastewaters should be decontaminated for reuse either by the same establishment or in agriculture for the growth of industrial plants. In that context, much research work has been focused on the development of low cost biosorbents. In this study, the effect of composting on the adsorption capacity of olive tree pruning waste (OTPW) biomass for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solutions was examined. Composting procedure may improve the sorption properties of the raw organic materials, is economical and easy to apply...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774944/can-traits-predict-individual-growth-performance-a-test-in-a-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#7
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774400/cost-effectiveness-of-osteoporosis-screening-strategies-for-hip-fracture-prevention-in-older-chinese-people-a-decision-tree-modeling-study-in-the-mr-os-and-ms-os-cohort-in-hong-kong
#8
Y Su, F T T Lai, B H K Yip, J C S Leung, T C Y Kwok
Despite the high costs of hip fracture, many governments provide limited support for osteoporosis screening. We demonstrated that osteoporosis screening by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with or without pre-screening by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) or calcaneal ultrasound are more cost-effective than no screening in Chinese people aged 65 or over in Hong Kong. INTRODUCTION: To examine the cost-effective potential osteoporosis screening strategies for hip fracture prevention in Hong Kong...
May 17, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774296/integrated-risk-mapping-and-landscape-characterisation-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-loiasis-in-south-west-nigeria
#9
Tara A Brant, Patricia N Okorie, Olushola Ogunmola, Nureni Bolaji Ojeyode, S B Fatunade, Emmanuel Davies, Yisa Saka, Michelle C Stanton, David H Molyneux, J Russell Stothard, Louise A Kelly-Hope
Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA) across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774245/evaluation-of-phylogenetic-reconstruction-methods-using-bacterial-whole-genomes-a-simulation-based-study
#10
John A Lees, Michelle Kendall, Julian Parkhill, Caroline Colijn, Stephen D Bentley, Simon R Harris
Background : Phylogenetic reconstruction is a necessary first step in many analyses which use whole genome sequence data from bacterial populations. There are many available methods to infer phylogenies, and these have various advantages and disadvantages, but few unbiased comparisons of the range of approaches have been made. Methods : We simulated data from a defined "true tree" using a realistic evolutionary model. We built phylogenies from this data using a range of methods, and compared reconstructed trees to the true tree using two measures, noting the computational time needed for different phylogenetic reconstructions...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774239/positive-site-selection-bias-in-meta-analyses-comparing-natural-regeneration-to-active-forest-restoration
#11
REVIEW
J Leighton Reid, Matthew E Fagan, Rakan A Zahawi
Several recent meta-analyses have aimed to determine whether natural regeneration is more effective at recovering tropical forests than active restoration (for example, tree planting). We reviewed this literature and found that comparisons between strategies are biased by positive site selection. Studies of natural forest regeneration are generally conducted at sites where a secondary forest was already present, whereas tree planting studies are done in a broad range of site conditions, including non-forested sites that may not have regenerated in the absence of planting...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774089/different-options-of-endosonography-guided-biliary-drainage-after-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangio-pancreatography-failure
#12
José Celso Ardengh, César Vivian Lopes, Rafael Kemp, José Sebastião Dos Santos
AIM: To investigate the success rates of endosonography (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) techniques after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failure for management of biliary obstruction. METHODS: From Feb/2010 to Dec/2016, ERCP was performed in 3538 patients, 24 of whom (0.68%) suffered failure to cannulate the biliary tree. All of these patients were initially submitted to EUS-guided rendez-vous (EUS-RV) by means of a transhepatic approach...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774018/the-invasive-brazilian-pepper-tree-schinus-terebinthifolius-is-colonized-by-a-root-microbiome-enriched-with-alphaproteobacteria-and-unclassified-spartobacteria
#13
Karim Dawkins, Nwadiuto Esiobu
Little is known about the rhizosphere microbiome of the Brazilian pepper tree (BP) - a noxious category 1 invasive plant inducing an enormous economic and ecological toll in Florida. Some invasive plants have been shown to drastically change the soil microbiome compared to other native plants. The rhizobacteria community structure of BP, two Florida native plants ( Hamelia patens and Bidens alba ) and bulk soils were characterized across six geographical sites. Although all 19 well-known and 10 poorly described phyla were observed in all plant rhizospheres, BP contained the least total bacterial abundance (OTUs) with a distinct bacteria community structure and clustering patterns differing significantly (pCOA and PERMANOVA) from the natives and bulk soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773867/novel-haloarchaeon-natrinema-thermophila-having-the-highest-growth-temperature-among-haloarchaea-with-a-large-genome-size
#14
Yeon Bee Kim, Joon Yong Kim, Hye Seon Song, Changsu Lee, Seung Woo Ahn, Se Hee Lee, Min Young Jung, Jin-Kyu Rhee, Juseok Kim, Dong-Wook Hyun, Jin-Woo Bae, Seong Woon Roh
Environmental temperature is one of the most important factors for the growth and survival of microorganisms. Here we describe a novel extremely halophilic archaeon (haloarchaea) designated as strain CBA1119T isolated from solar salt. Strain CBA1119T had the highest maximum and optimal growth temperatures (66 °C and 55 °C, respectively) and one of the largest genome sizes among haloarchaea (5.1 Mb). It also had the largest number of strain-specific pan-genome orthologous groups and unique pathways among members of the genus Natrinema in the class Halobacteria...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773850/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-acinetobacter-spp-plasmids-originating-from-clinical-settings-and-environmental-habitats
#15
Ileana P Salto, Gonzalo Torres Tejerizo, Daniel Wibberg, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter, Mariano Pistorio
Bacteria belonging to the genus Acinetobacter have become of clinical importance over the last decade due to the development of a multi-resistant phenotype and their ability to survive under multiple environmental conditions. The development of these traits among Acinetobacter strains occurs frequently as a result of plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer. In this work, plasmids from nosocomial and environmental Acinetobacter spp. collections were separately sequenced and characterized. Assembly of the sequenced data resulted in 19 complete replicons in the nosocomial collection and 77 plasmid contigs in the environmental collection...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773614/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-dickeya-fangzhongdai-type-strain-causing-bleeding-canker-of-pear-tree-trunks
#16
Yuqiang Zhao, Yanli Tian, Xiang Li, Baishi Hu
Dickeya fangzhongdai DSM 101947T was isolated from pear trees ( Pyrus pyrifolia ) in Zhejiang Province, China, and is the causal agent of bleeding canker, a devastating disease of pear trees. Here, we provide the complete genome sequence of this bacterium, which has a 5,027,163-bp-long genome, including 4,375 protein-coding genes and 100 RNA genes. This strain possesses a number of genes encoding virulence factors of pathogens.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773180/influence-of-f-1-hybridization-on-the-metal-uptake-behaviour-of-pine-trees-pinus-nigra-x-pinus-thunbergiana-pinus-thunbergiana-x-pinus-nigra
#17
Iva Juranović-Cindrić, Michaela Zeiner, Ana Starčević, Zlatko Liber, Gordana Rusak, Marilena Idžojtić, Gerhard Stingeder
Pine needles have been considered to be useful bio-indicators for air pollution. This phenomenon can be used for environmental studies for monitoring purposes. Additionally, this fact offers the possibility to study uptake and accumulation behaviour not only in different species, but also in hybrids obtained from common pine trees to inheritage processes. Therefore, needles of Pinus nigra Arnold and Pinus thunbergiana Franco as well as of their F1 hybrids were investigated for essential and non-essential metals, such as Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773135/discrimination-molecular-characterisation-and-phylogenetic-comparison-of-porcine-eimeria-spp-in-india
#18
Devina Sharma, Nirbhay K Singh, Harkirat Singh, Anja Joachim, Shitanshu S Rath, Damer P Blake
Infections with Eimeria spp. are common in pigs worldwide, occasionally affecting animals clinically after weaning or during the fattening period when diarrhoea and weight loss can be observed upon infection with the more pathogenic species. Molecular characterization of pathogens is valuable to accurately delimit species and development novel diagnostics, although sequences which define Eimeria species that infect pigs are scarce. Only three of the eight common species are currently represented in GenBank...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772890/application-of-decision-tree-for-prediction-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-incidence-based-on-environmental-and-topographic-factors-in-isfahan-province-iran
#19
Roghieh Ramezankhani, Nooshin Sajjadi, Roya Nezakati Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Ali Jozi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease that continues to be a health problem in Iran. Nearly 350 million people are thought to be at risk. We investigated the impact of the environmental factors on CL incidence during the period 2007- 2015 in a known endemic area for this disease in Isfahan Province, Iran. After collecting data with regard to the climatic, topographic, vegetation coverage and CL cases in the study area, a decision tree model was built using the classification and regression tree algorithm...
May 8, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772825/identification-and-characterization-of-the-wox-family-genes-in-five-solanaceae-species-reveal-their-conserved-roles-in-peptide-signaling
#20
Xiaoxu Li, Madiha Hamyat, Cheng Liu, Ahmad Salman, Xiaoming Gao, Cun Guo, Yuanying Wang, Yongfeng Guo
Members of the plant-specific WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family have been reported to play important roles in peptide signaling that regulates stem cell maintenance and cell fate specification in various developmental processes. Even though remarkable advances have been made in studying WOX genes in Arabidopsis , little is known about this family in Solanaceae species. A total of 45 WOX members from five Solanaceae species were identified, including eight members from Solanum tuberosum , eight from Nicotiana tomentosiformis , 10 from Solanum lycopersicum , 10 from Nicotiana sylvestris and nine from Nicotiana tabacum ...
May 17, 2018: Genes
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