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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735442/mechanisms-regulating-dendritic-arbor-patterning
#1
REVIEW
Fernanda Ledda, Gustavo Paratcha
The nervous system is populated by diverse types of neurons, each of which has dendritic trees with strikingly different morphologies. These neuron-specific morphologies determine how dendritic trees integrate thousands of synaptic inputs to generate different firing properties. To ensure proper neuronal function and connectivity, it is necessary that dendrite patterns are precisely controlled and coordinated with synaptic activity. Here, we summarize the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the formation of cell type-specific dendrite patterns during development...
July 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735415/cfd-simulation-of-aerosol-delivery-to-a-human-lung-via-surface-acoustic-wave-nebulization
#2
Morteza Yousefi, Oveis Pourmehran, Mofid Gorji-Bandpy, Kiao Inthavong, Leslie Yeo, Jiyuan Tu
Administration of drug in the form of particles through inhalation is generally preferable in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Conventional inhalation therapy devices such as inhalers and nebulizers, nevertheless, suffer from low delivery efficiencies, wherein only a small fraction of the inhaled drug reaches the lower respiratory tract. This is primarily because these devices are not able to produce a sufficiently fine drug mist that has aerodynamic diameters on the order of a few microns. This study employs computational fluid dynamics to investigate the transport and deposition of the drug particles produced by a new aerosolization technique driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) into an in silico lung model geometrically reconstructed using computed tomography scanning...
July 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735207/nutrient-balancing-for-phytoremediation-enhancement-of-urea-manufacturing-raw-wastewater
#3
Sara Yavari, Amirhossein Malakahmad, Nasiman B Sapari, Saba Yavari, Eakalak Khan
Application of urea manufacturing wastewater to teak (Tectona grandis) trees, a fast growing tropical timber plants, is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative for treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater. However, the plant growth is strongly limited by lack of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) elements when the plants are irrigated with wastewater containing high concentration of nitrogen (N). A greenhouse experiment was conducted to optimize the efficiency of teak-based remediation systems in terms of nutrient balance...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735178/development-of-a-real-time-prediction-model-of-driver-behavior-at-intersections-using-kinematic-time-series-data
#4
Yaoyuan V Tan, Michael R Elliott, Carol A C Flannagan
As connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with human drivers. One of the challenges for CAVs is that human drivers do not communicate their decisions well. Fortunately, the kinematic behavior of a human-driven vehicle may be a good predictor of driver intent within a short time frame. We analyzed the kinematic time series data (e.g., speed) for a set of drivers making left turns at intersections to predict whether the driver would stop before executing the turn...
July 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735150/inverse-relationship-between-urban-green-space-and-childhood-autism-in-california-elementary-school-districts
#5
Jianyong Wu, Laura Jackson
Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735098/cholangiocytes-cell-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ridola, Maria Consiglia Bragazzi, Vincenzo Cardinale, Guido Carpino, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
BACKGROUND: Due to significant limitations to the access to orthotropic liver transplantation, cell therapies for liver diseases have gained large interest worldwide. SCOPE OF REVIEW: To revise current literature dealing with cell therapy for liver diseases. We discussed the advantages and pitfalls of the different cell sources tested so far in clinical trials and the rationale underlying the potential benefits of transplantation of human biliary tree stem cells (hBTSCs)...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734679/assessment-of-biodistribution-using-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-algorithm-for-study-design-and-challenges-in-detection-methodologies
#7
Blanca Reyes, Maria Isabel Coca, Margarita Codinach, María Dolores López-Lucas, Anna Del Mazo-Barbara, Marta Caminal, Irene Oliver-Vila, Valentín Cabañas, Silvia Lope-Piedrafita, Joan García-López, José M Moraleda, Cesar G Fontecha, Joaquim Vives
BACKGROUND AIMS: Biodistribution of candidate cell-based therapeutics is a critical safety concern that must be addressed in the preclinical development program. We aimed to design a decision tree based on a series of studies included in actual dossiers approved by competent regulatory authorities, noting that the design, execution and interpretation of pharmacokinetics studies using this type of therapy is not straightforward and presents a challenge for both developers and regulators...
July 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734534/elbow-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-surgical-anatomy-and-technique
#8
Zvi Steinberger, Heng Xu, Nikolas H Kazmers, Stephanie Thibaudeau, Russel G Huffman, L Scott Levin
BACKGROUND: Elbow reconstruction with vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) may hold promise in treating end-stage arthritis as no current treatment is both functional and durable. We describe the vascular and gross anatomy of the elbow in the context of VCA procurement and propose a step-by-step surgical technique for human elbow VCA. METHODS: We injected latex in the arterial tree of 16 fresh adult cadaveric upper extremities. We identified and measured arteries and nerves and their branch points relative to the medial epicondyle...
August 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734528/exploring-risk-patterns-for-incident-ischemic-stroke-during-more-than-a-decade-of-follow-up-a-survival-tree-analysis
#9
Donna Parizadeh, Azra Ramezankhani, Amir Abbas Momenan, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The burden of stroke is increasing in low to middle income countries. Identifying risk patterns for ischemic stroke (IS) can help develop individualized preventive measures for at risk populations. METHODS: The study population included 3088 Iranian subjects (1426 men) aged ≥50 years, free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. The risk factors for ischemic stroke were identified by multivariate Cox analysis. A survival tree model was used to explore interactions between risk factors...
August 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734527/a-novel-method-to-identify-and-grade-dna-damage-on-comet-images
#10
Muhammed Kamil Turan, Eftal Sehirli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In recent years, development of software programs in medicine field has proceeded in a rapid manner. Comet assay is one of the research methods in medicine field that displays whether DNA has damage. In this study, it is aimed to share experience of dynamic time warping method and decision tree to decide whether DNA has damage and grade DNA damage by means of the software program. METHODS: The application analyzes manually extracted RGB single comet images whose centers are manually marked...
August 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734365/automatic-feed-phase-identification-in-multivariate-bioprocess-profiles-by-sequential-binary-classification
#11
Ramin Nikzad-Langerodi, Edwin Lughofer, Susanne Saminger-Platz, Thomas Zahel, Patrick Sagmeister, Christoph Herwig
In this paper, we propose a new strategy for retrospective identification of feed phases from online sensor-data enriched feed profiles of an Escherichia Coli (E. coli) fed-batch fermentation process. In contrast to conventional (static), data-driven multi-class machine learning (ML), we exploit process knowledge in order to constrain our classification system yielding more parsimonious models compared to static ML approaches. In particular, we enforce unidirectionality on a set of binary, multivariate classifiers trained to discriminate between adjacent feed phases by linking the classifiers through a one-way switch...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734266/air-quality-and-health-effects-of-biogenic-volatile-organic-compounds-emissions-from-urban-green-spaces-and-the-mitigation-strategies
#12
Yuan Ren, Zelong Qu, Yuanyuan Du, Ronghua Xu, Danping Ma, Guofu Yang, Yan Shi, Xing Fan, Akira Tani, Peipei Guo, Ying Ge, Jie Chang
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734209/new-insight-into-the-environmental-impact-of-two-imidazolium-ionic-liquids-effects-on-seed-germination-and-soil-microbial-activity
#13
J Salgado, J J Parajó, T Teijeira, O Cruz, J Proupín, M Villanueva, J A Rodríguez-Añón, P V Verdes, O Reyes
The next generation of ionic liquids must be synthetized taking into account structures that guarantee the suitable properties for a defined application as well as ecological data. Thus, searching of the right methodologies to know, quickly and efficiently, the ecological effects of these compounds is a preliminary task. The effects of two imidazolium based ionic liquids with different anions, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1Im][BF4], and 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C3C1Im][NTf2], on seedling emergence of six tree species and on the microbial behaviour of two soils were determined in this work...
July 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734064/extensive-seed-and-pollen-dispersal-and-assortative-mating-in-the-rain-forest-tree-entandrophragma-cylindricum-meliaceae-inferred-from-indirect-and-direct-analyses
#14
F K Monthe, O J Hardy, J L Doucet, J Loo, J Duminil
Pollen and seed dispersal are key processes affecting the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of plant species, and are also important considerations for the sustainable management of timber trees. Through direct and indirect genetic analyses we studied the mating system and the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in an economically-important timber species, Entandrophragma cylindricum (Meliaceae). We genotyped adult trees, seeds and saplings from a 400-ha study plot in a natural forest from East Cameroon using eight nuclear microsatellite markers...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733860/climate-threats-on-growth-of-rear-edge-european-beech-peripheral-populations-in-spain
#15
I Dorado-Liñán, L Akhmetzyanov, A Menzel
European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral populations will most likely be the most threatened ones. Four peripheral beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula were studied in order to assess the climate factors influencing tree growth for the last six decades...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733643/recent-wetting-and-glacier-expansion-in-the-northwest-himalaya-and-karakoram
#16
Ram R Yadav, Anil K Gupta, Bahadur S Kotlia, Vikram Singh, Krishna G Misra, Akhilesh K Yadava, Anoop K Singh
Hydroclimatic variability driven by global warming in the climatically vulnerable cold semi-arid to arid northwest (NW) Himalaya is poorly constrained due to paucity of continuous weather records and annually resolved proxies. Applying a network of annually resolved tree-ring-width chronologies from semi-arid region of Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India, we reconstructed April-May standardized precipitation index extending back to A.D. 1439 (576 years). The reconstructed series is featured by the most conspicuous long-term droughts during the 15(th) to early 17(th) centuries followed by a general wetting, with 1984-2014 being the wettest interval in the past 576 years...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733590/hypersaline-sapropels-act-as-hotspots-for-microbial-dark-matter
#17
Adrian-Ştefan Andrei, Andreea Baricz, Michael Scott Robeson, Manuela Raluca Păuşan, Tudor Tămaş, Cecilia Chiriac, Edina Szekeres, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Erika Andrea Levei, Cristian Coman, Mircea Podar, Horia Leonard Banciu
Present-day terrestrial analogue sites are crucial ground truth proxies for studying life in geochemical conditions close to those assumed to be present on early Earth or inferred to exist on other celestial bodies (e.g. Mars, Europa). Although hypersaline sapropels are border-of-life habitats with moderate occurrence, their microbiological and physicochemical characterization lags behind. Here, we study the diversity of life under low water activity by describing the prokaryotic communities from two disparate hypersaline sapropels (Transylvanian Basin, Romania) in relation to geochemical milieu and pore water chemistry, while inferring their role in carbon cycling by matching taxa to known taxon-specific biogeochemical functions...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732336/using-machine-learning-to-identify-air-pollution-exposure-profiles-associated-with-early-cognitive-skills-among-u-s-children
#18
Jeanette A Stingone, Om P Pandey, Luz Claudio, Gaurav Pandey
Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732281/epileptic-seizure-detection-in-eegs-signals-based-on-the-weighted-visibility-graph-entropy
#19
Zeynab Mohammadpoory, Mahda Nasrolahzadeh, Javad Haddadnia
PURPOSE: Epileptic seizure detection has been a complex task for both researchers and specialist in that the assessment of epilepsy is difficult because, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are chaotic and non-stationary. METHOD: This paper proposes a new method based on weighted visibility graph entropy (WVGE) to identify seizure from EEG signals. Single channel EEG signals are mapped onto the WVGs and WVGEs are calculated from these WVGs. Then some features are extracted of WVGEs and given to classifiers to investigate the performance of these features to classify the brain signals into three groups of normal (healthy), seizure free (interictal) and during a seizure (ictal) groups...
July 11, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732258/areca-catechu-palm-tree-nut-chewing-and-seizures-an-observational-study
#20
Farrah J Mateen, Marco Carone, Lhab Tshering, Chencho Dorji, Ugyen Dema, Sara J Grundy, Dili Ram Pokhrel, Damber K Nirola
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report the impact of chronic abuse of Areca catechu nut wrapped in leaf (also known as doma, quid, paan), the fourth most commonly abused psychoactive substance worldwide, on the frequency of seizures among people with epilepsy. METHODS: People with clinically diagnosed epilepsy (>14years old) residing in the Kingdom of Bhutan were surveyed for self-reported Areca catechu use, demographic variables, epilepsy characteristics, and seizure frequency...
July 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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