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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222363/very-short-term-reactive-forecasting-of-the-solar-ultraviolet-index-using-an-extreme-learning-machine-integrated-with-the-solar-zenith-angle
#1
Ravinesh C Deo, Nathan Downs, Alfio V Parisi, Jan F Adamowski, John M Quilty
Exposure to erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that contributes to malignant keratinocyte cancers and associated health-risk is best mitigated through innovative decision-support systems, with global solar UV index (UVI) forecast necessary to inform real-time sun-protection behaviour recommendations. It follows that the UVI forecasting models are useful tools for such decision-making. In this study, a model for computationally-efficient data-driven forecasting of diffuse and global very short-term reactive (VSTR) (10-min lead-time) UVI, enhanced by drawing on the solar zenith angle (θs) data, was developed using an extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222255/stemness-signature-of-equine-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Morteza Zahedi, Abbas Parham, Hesam Dehghani, Hossein Kazemi Mehrjerdi
Background: Application of competent cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in equine athletes is increasingly needed. Moreover, similarities of horse and human in size, load and types of joint injuries, make horse as a good model for MSCs therapy studies. This study was designed to isolate and characterize stemness signature of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Methods: BM of three mares was aspirated and the mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated using density gradient...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222248/long-term-effects-of-climate-change-on-carbon-storage-and-tree-species-composition-in-a-dry-deciduous-forest
#3
István Fekete, Kate Lajtha, Zsolt Kotroczó, Gábor Várbíró, Csaba Varga, János Attila Tóth, Ibolya Demeter, Gábor Veperdi, Imre Berki
Forest vegetation and soils have been suggested as potentially important sinks for carbon (C) with appropriate management, and thus are implicated as effective tools in stabilizing climate even with increasing anthropogenic release of CO2 . Drought, however, which is often predicted to increase in models of future climate change, may limit NPP of dry forests types, with unknown effects on soil C storage. We studied C dynamics of a deciduous temperate forest of Hungary that has been subject to significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature in recent decades...
February 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222236/differential-sharing-and-distinct-co-occurrence-networks-among-spatially-close-bacterial-microbiota-of-bark-mosses-and-lichens%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#4
Ines Aline Aschenbrenner, Tomislav Cernava, Armin Erlacher, Gabriele Berg, Martin Grube
Knowledge of bacterial community host-specificity has increased greatly in recent years. However, the inter-microbiome relationships of unrelated but spatially close organisms remain little understood. Trunks of trees covered by epiphytes represent complex habitats with a mosaic of ecological niches. In this context, we investigated the structure, diversity and interactions of microbiota associated with lichens, mosses and the bare tree bark. Comparative analysis revealed significant differences in the habitat-associated community structures...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222200/understanding-tree-growth-responses-after-partial-cuttings-a-new-approach
#5
Miguel Montoro Girona, Sergio Rossi, Jean-Martin Lussier, Denis Walsh, Hubert Morin
Forest ecosystem management heads towards the use of partial cuttings. However, the wide variation in growth response of residual trees remains unexplained, preventing a suitable prediction of forest productivity. The aim of the study was to assess individual growth and identify the driving factors involved in the responses of residual trees. Six study blocks in even-aged black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] stands of the eastern Canadian boreal forest were submitted to experimental shelterwood and seed-tree treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222096/metacoder-an-r-package-for-visualization-and-manipulation-of-community-taxonomic-diversity-data
#6
Zachary S L Foster, Thomas J Sharpton, Niklaus J Grünwald
Community-level data, the type generated by an increasing number of metabarcoding studies, is often graphed as stacked bar charts or pie graphs that use color to represent taxa. These graph types do not convey the hierarchical structure of taxonomic classifications and are limited by the use of color for categories. As an alternative, we developed metacoder, an R package for easily parsing, manipulating, and graphing publication-ready plots of hierarchical data. Metacoder includes a dynamic and flexible function that can parse most text-based formats that contain taxonomic classifications, taxon names, taxon identifiers, or sequence identifiers...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221950/multistate-outbreak-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infections-associated-with-consumption-of-fresh-spinach-united-states-2006
#7
Umid M Sharapov, Arthur M Wendel, Jeffrey P Davis, William E Keene, Jeffrey Farrar, Samir Sodha, Eija Hyytia-Trees, Molly Leeper, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Patricia M Griffin, Chris Braden
During September to October, 2006, state and local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated a large, multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Case patients were interviewed regarding specific foods consumed and other possible exposures. E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from human and food specimens were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA). Two hundred twenty-five cases (191 confirmed and 34 probable) were identified in 27 states; 116 (56%) case patients were hospitalized, 39 (19%) developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, and 5 (2%) died...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221944/a-novel-immunoassay-test-system-for-detection-of-modified-allergen-residues-present-in-almond-cashew-coconut-hazelnut-and-soy-based-nondairy-beverages
#8
Jongkit Masiri, Lora Benoit, Mahzad Meshgi, Jeffrey Day, Cesar Nadala, Mansour Samadpour
A growing number of plant-based milk substitutes have become commercially available, providing an array of options for consumers with dietary restrictions. Though several of these products rival cow's milk in terms of their nutritional profiles, beverages prepared with soy and tree nuts can be a significant concern to consumers because of potential contamination with food allergens. Adding to this concern is the fact that allergen residues from plant-based beverages are modified during manufacturing, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of antibody-based detection methods...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221824/surviving-in-a-cosexual-world-a-cost-benefit-analysis-of-dioecy-in-tropical-trees
#9
Marjolein Bruijning, Marco D Visser, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, Liza S Comita, Stephen P Hubbell, Hans de Kroon, Eelke Jongejans
Dioecy has a demographic disadvantage compared with hermaphroditism: only about half of reproductive adults produce seeds. Dioecious species must therefore have fitness advantages to compensate for this cost through increased survival, growth, and/or reproduction. We used a full life cycle approach to quantify the demographic costs and benefits associated with dioecy while controlling for demographic differences between dioecious and hermaphroditic species related to other functional traits. The advantage of this novel approach is that we can focus on the effect of breeding system across a diverse tree community...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220972/quantitative-distinction-of-the-morphological-characteristic-of-erythrocyte-precursor-cells-with-texture-analysis-using-gray-level-co-occurrence-matrix
#10
Keigo Kono, Ruka Hayata, Satoru Murakami, Mai Yamamoto, Maiko Kuroki, Kana Nanato, Kazuto Takahashi, Keiko Miwa, Yutaka Tsutsumi, Kazunori Okada, Sanae Kaga, Taisei Mikami, Nobuo Masauzi
BACKGROUND: Morphological characteristics of blood cells are still qualitatively defined. So a texture analysis (Tx) method using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs; CM-Tx method) was applied to images of erythrocyte precursor cells (EPCs) for quantitatively distinguishing four types of EPC stages: proerythroblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatic erythroblast, and orthochromatic erythroblast. METHODS: Fifty-five images of four types of EPCs were downloaded from an atlas uploaded by the Blood Cell Morphology Standardization Subcommittee (BCMSS) of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Hematology (JSLH)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220612/tree-mortality-across-biomes-is-promoted-by-drought-intensity-lower-wood-density-and-higher-specific-leaf-area
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bönisch, Nathan J B Kraft, Alistair S Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits...
February 21, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220301/evidence-that-higher-co2-increases-tree-growth-sensitivity-to-temperature-a-comparison-of-modern-and-paleo-oaks
#12
Steven L Voelker, Michael C Stambaugh, J Renée Brooks, Frederick C Meinzer, Barbara Lachenbruch, Richard P Guyette
To test tree growth sensitivity to temperature under different ambient CO2 concentrations, we determined stem radial growth rates as they relate to variation in temperature during the last deglacial period, and compare these to modern tree growth rates as they relate to spatial variation in temperature across the modern species distributional range. Paleo oaks were sampled from Northern Missouri, USA and compared to a pollen-based, high-resolution paleo temperature reconstruction from Northern Illinois, USA...
February 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220208/abcb4-missense-mutations-d243a-k435t-g535d-i490t-r545c-and-s978p-significantly-impair-the-lipid-floppase-and-likely-predispose-to-secondary-pathologies-in-the-human-population
#13
Edward J Andress, Michael Nicolaou, Farrell McGeoghan, Kenneth J Linton
Bile salts are natural detergents required to solubilise dietary fat and lipid soluble vitamins. They are synthesised in hepatocytes and secreted into the luminal space of the biliary tree by the bile salt export pump (BSEP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the canalicular membrane. BSEP deficiency causes cytotoxic accumulation of bile salts in the hepatocyte that results in mild-to-severe forms of cholestasis. The resulting inflammation can also progress to hepatocellular cancer via a novel mechanism involving upregulation of proliferative signalling pathways...
February 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220202/enzyme-inhibitory-metabolites-from-endophytic-penicillium-citrinum-isolated-from-boswellia-sacra
#14
Sajid Ali, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Tania Shamim Rizvi, Sumera Afzal Khan, Javid Hussain, Muhammad Hamayun, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Fungal endophytes establish an important niche within the host plant through the secretion of chemical constituents. Isolation of bioactive metabolites could be a vital source for inhibiting the function of enzymes such as α-glucosidase and urease. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential of endophytes associated with Boswellia sacra through bioassay-guided isolation and identification of secondary metabolites with enzyme inhibitory ability. Endophytic fungal strains viz. Penicillium citrinum, P...
February 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220151/prioritizing-zoonotic-diseases-in-ethiopia-using-a-one-health-approach
#15
Emily G Pieracci, Aron J Hall, Radhika Gharpure, Abraham Haile, Elias Walelign, Asefa Deressa, Getahun Bahiru, Meron Kibebe, Henry Walke, Ermias Belay
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has the second largest human population in Africa and the largest livestock population on the continent. About 80% of Ethiopians are dependent on agriculture and have direct contact with livestock or other domestic animals. As a result, the country is vulnerable to the spread of zoonotic diseases. As the first step of the country's engagement in the Global Health Security Agenda, a zoonotic disease prioritization workshop was held to identify significant zoonotic diseases of mutual concern for animal and human health agencies...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220077/noninvasive-assessment-of-the-effect-of-position-and-exercise-on-pulse-arrival-to-peripheral-vascular-beds-in-healthy-volunteers
#16
Yurie Obata, Qi J Ong, J T Magruder, Helen Grichkevitch, Dan E Berkowitz, Daniel Nyhan, Jochen Steppan, Viachaslau Barodka
Background: The effects of position and exercise on pulse wave distribution across a healthy, compliant arterial tree are not fully understood. We studied the effects of exercise and position on the pattern of pulse arrival times (PATs) in healthy volunteers. Moreover, we compared the pulse arrival time ratios to the respective distance ratios between different locations. Methods: Thirteen young healthy volunteers were studied, using an electrocardiogram and plethysmograph to simultaneously record pulse wave arrival at the ear lobe, index finger and big toe...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219759/reevaluating-species-number-distribution-and-endemism-of-the-coral-genus-pocillopora-lamarck-1816-using-species-delimitation-methods-and-microsatellites
#17
P Gélin, B Postaire, C Fauvelot, H Magalon
Species delimitation methods based on genetic information, notably using single locus data, have been proposed as means of increasing the rate of biodiversity description, but can also be used to clarify complex taxonomies. In this study, we explore the species diversity within the cnidarian genus Pocillopora, widely distributed in the tropical belt of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. From 943 Pocillopora colonies sampled in the Western Indian Ocean, the Tropical Southwestern Pacific and Southeast Polynesia, representing a huge variety of morphotypes, we delineated Primary Species Hypotheses (PSH) applying the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, the Poisson tree processes algorithm and the Generalized mixed Yule-coalescent model on two mitochondrial markers (Open Reading Frame and Dloop) and reconstructing a haploweb using one nuclear marker (Internal Transcribed Spacer 2)...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219758/resolving-relationships-at-the-animal-fungal-divergence-a-molecular-phylogenetic-study-of-the-protist-trichomycetes-ichthyosporea-eccrinida
#18
Nicole K Reynolds, Matthew E Smith, Eric D Tretter, Justin Gause, Dustin Heeney, Matías J Cafaro, James F Smith, Stephen J Novak, William A Bourland, Merlin M White
Trichomycetes is a group of microorganisms that was considered a class of fungi comprising four orders of commensal, gut-dwelling endosymbionts obligately associated with arthropods. Since molecular phylogenies revealed two of those orders (Amoebidiales and Eccrinales = "protist trichos") to be closely related to members of the protist class Ichthyosporea (= Mesomycetozoea), trichomycetes have been considered an ecological association of both early-diverging fungi and protists. Understanding of the taxonomy, evolution, and diversity of the protist trichos is lacking largely due to the difficulties inherent in species collection that have contributed to undersampling and understudy...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219447/medialization-thyroplasty-versus-injection-laryngoplasty-a-cost-minimization-analysis
#19
Samantha Tam, Hongmei Sun, Sisira Sarma, Jennifer Siu, Kevin Fung, Leigh Sowerby
BACKGROUND: Medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty are widely accepted treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Although both procedures result in similar clinical outcomes, little is known about the corresponding medical care costs. Medialization thyroplasty requires expensive operating room resources while injection laryngoplasty utilizes outpatient resources but may require repeated procedures. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to quantify the cost differences in adult patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis undergoing medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219427/association-between-perceived-built-environmental-attributes-and-physical-activity-among-adults-in-south-africa
#20
Pasmore Malambo, Andre P Kengne, Estelle V Lambert, Anniza De Villers, Thandi Puoane
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between perceived environmental attributes and leisure-time and transport-related physical activity. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey involving 671 South Africans aged ≥35 years from urban and rural settings. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Neighbourhood Walkability Scale were used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to investigate the associations. RESULTS: Significant urban vs...
February 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
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