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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053841/meat-quality-traits-and-proteome-profile-of-woody-broiler-breast-pectoralis-major-meat
#1
K Cai, W Shao, X Chen, Y L Campbell, M N Nair, S P Suman, C M Beach, M C Guyton, M W Schilling
Woody breast meat has recently become prevalent in the broiler industry in both the United States and European Union. Recent publications have described the meat quality characteristics of woody breast meat as having hardened areas and pale ridge-like bulges at both the caudal and cranial regions of the breast. The present study investigated the meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force) and protein quality characteristics (protein and salt-soluble protein content) in woody breast meat as compared to normal breast meat...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052807/current-trends-in-mouse-models-of-glioblastoma
#2
REVIEW
Masafumi Miyai, Hiroyuki Tomita, Akio Soeda, Hirohito Yano, Toru Iwama, Akira Hara
Glioblastoma is the most deadly brain tumor type and is characterized by a severe and high rate of angiogenesis, remaining an incurable disease in the majority of cases. Mechanistic understanding of glioblastoma initiation and progression is complicated by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell or tissue of origin. To determine these mechanisms, mouse models that recapitulate the molecular and histological characteristics of glioblastoma are required...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051809/impact-of-expansion-and-redifferentiation-under-hypothermia-on-chondrogenic-capacity-of-cultured-human-septal-chondrocytes
#3
Achim von Bomhard, Joseph Faust, Alexander F Elsaesser, Silke Schwarz, Katharina Pippich, Nicole Rotter
A critical limitation in the cultivation of cartilage for tissue engineering is the dedifferentiation in chondrocytes, mainly during in vitro amplification. Despite many previous studies investigating the influence of various conditions, no data exist concerning the effects of hypothermia. Our aim has been to influence chondrocyte dedifferentiation in vitro by hypothermic conditions. Chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsies and seeded in monolayer and in three-dimensional pellet-cultures. Each cell culture was either performed at 32...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051739/impaired-feedback-processing-for-symbolic-reward-in-individuals-with-internet-game-overuse
#4
Jinhee Kim, Hackjin Kim, Eunjoo Kang
Reward processing, which plays a critical role in adaptive behavior, is impaired in addiction disorders, which are accompanied by functional abnormalities in brain reward circuits. Internet gaming disorder, like substance addiction, is thought to be associated with impaired reward processing, but little is known about how it affects learning, especially when feedback is conveyed by less-salient motivational events. Here, using both monetary (±500 KRW) and symbolic (Chinese characters "right" or "wrong") rewards and penalties, we investigated whether behavioral performance and feedback-related neural responses are altered in Internet game overuse (IGO) group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050798/animals-anxiety-and-anxiety-disorders-how-to-measure-anxiety-in-rodents-and-why
#5
REVIEW
Jaanus Harro
Measurement of anxiety is desirable for the benefit of drug development and understanding the brain function and mental well-being. Animal models offer the advantages of detailed neurobiological analysis, experimental manipulation of specific components in the brain circuits that underlie psychopathology, and the possibility of screening novel drugs with clinical potential. A large variety of animal models of anxiety and screening tests of anxiolytics is currently in use. While their value in advancing the knowledge and predicting therapeutic success of drugs is unquestionable, the expectations have grown much higher, and the frustration over absence of novel successful drug concepts is rising...
October 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050579/synthesis-characterisation-and-physicochemical-properties-of-hydrophobically-modified-inulin-using-long-chain-fatty-acyl-chlorides
#6
Lingyu Han, I Ratcliffe, P A Williams
A series of inulin derivatives were synthesized in aqueous solution using acyl chlorides with varying alkyl chain length (C10-C16). They were characterised using a number of techniques including MALDI TOF-MS, (1)H NMR and FTIR and their degree of substitution determined. The solution properties of the hydrophobically modified inulins were investigated using dye solubilisation and surface tension and it was confirmed that the molecules aggregated in solution above a critical concentration (critical aggregation concentration, CAC)...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049978/targeting-eif4e-inhibits-growth-survival-and-angiogenesis-in-retinoblastoma-and-enhances-efficacy-of-chemotherapy
#7
Genguo Wang, Zhi Li, Zhuojun Li, Yi Huang, Xiaochun Mao, Chang Xu, Sha Cui
Although the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) has been shown to be critically involved in the transformation and progression of various tumors, little is known about the role of eIF4E in retinoblastoma. In this work, we report that ribavirin, a pharmacologic inhibitor of eIF4E function, effectively targets retinoblastoma and angiogenesis. Ribavirin treatment dose-dependently blocked the growth and stimulated apoptosis in various retinoblastoma cell lines, with IC50 values that are within the clinically achievable range...
October 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049879/width-dependent-band-gap-in-armchair-graphene-nanoribbons-reveals-fermi-level-pinning-on-au-111
#8
Néstor Merino-Díez, Aran Garcia-Lekue, Eduard Carbonell-Sanromà, Jingcheng Li, Martina Corso, Luciano Colazzo, Francesco Sedona, Daniel Sánchez-Portal, Jose Ignacio Pascual, Dimas G de Oteyza
We report on the energy level alignment evolution of valence and conduction bands of armchair-oriented graphene nanoribbons (aGNR) as their band gap shrinks with increasing width. We use 4,4''-dibromo-para-terphenyl as molecular precursor on Au(111) to form extended poly-para-phenylene nanowires, which can be fused sideways to form atomically precise aGNRs of varying widths. We measure the frontier bands by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, corroborating that the nanoribbon's band gap is inversely proportional to their width...
October 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049406/distinct-prediction-errors-in-mesostriatal-circuits-of-the-human-brain-mediate-learning-about-the-values-of-both-states-and-actions-evidence-from-high-resolution-fmri
#9
Jaron T Colas, Wolfgang M Pauli, Tobias Larsen, J Michael Tyszka, John P O'Doherty
Prediction-error signals consistent with formal models of "reinforcement learning" (RL) have repeatedly been found within dopaminergic nuclei of the midbrain and dopaminoceptive areas of the striatum. However, the precise form of the RL algorithms implemented in the human brain is not yet well determined. Here, we created a novel paradigm optimized to dissociate the subtypes of reward-prediction errors that function as the key computational signatures of two distinct classes of RL models-namely, "actor/critic" models and action-value-learning models (e...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048945/cell-density-affects-the-detection-of-chk1-target-engagement-by-the-selective-inhibitor-v158411
#10
Clara C Geneste, Andrew J Massey
Understanding drug target engagement and the relationship to downstream pharmacology is critical for drug discovery. Here we have evaluated target engagement of Chk1 by the small-molecule inhibitor V158411 using two different target engagement methods (autophosphorylation and cellular thermal shift assay [CETSA]). Target engagement measured by these methods was subsequently related to Chk1 inhibitor-dependent pharmacology. Inhibition of autophosphorylation was a robust method for measuring V158411 Chk1 target engagement...
October 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048070/low-stress-and-high-reflectance-mo-si-multilayers-for-extreme-ultraviolet-lithography-by-magnetron-sputtering-deposition-with-bias-assistance
#11
Bo Yu, Chunshui Jin, Shun Yao, Chun Li, Yu Liu, Feng Zhou, Benyin Guo, Hui Wang, Yao Xie, Liping Wang
To explore the potential of achieving low-stress and high-reflectance Mo/Si multilayers deposited by conventional magnetron sputtering with bias assistance, we investigated the effects of varying Ar gas pressure, substrate bias voltage, and a bias-assisted Si ratio on the stress and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance of Mo/Si multilayers. To reduce the damage of ion bombardments on an Si-on-Mo interface, only the final part of the Si layer was deposited with bias assistance. Bias voltage has strong influence on the stress...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047799/beam-steering-limitation-of-a-risley-prism-system-due-to-total-internal-reflection
#12
Yuan Zhou, Shixun Fan, Yin Chen, Xiaoxia Zhou, Guangcan Liu
Limitations of beam steering in Risley prisms, induced by total internal reflection, are investigated for the four typical configurations. The incident angles at the exit surfaces of double prisms are calculated by nonparaxial ray tracing and compared with the critical angle. On this basis, the limitations of the opening angle, relative orientation of the prisms, and ray deviation power of the system are derived. It is shown that the ray deviation power reaches its extreme value when the opening angles increase to a certain limit value for a given prism material...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047736/biconic-white-multipass-cell-design-based-on-a-skew-ray-tracing-model
#13
Yin Guo, Liqun Sun
A biconic White multipass cell (bi-WMPC), designed as a compact, zero-geometrical-loss, anastigmatic optical system, capably used with an extended divergent source, is proposed. First, a skew ray-tracing model is developed for a conventional White-type multipass cell (WMPC), based on which the astigmatism is calculated, together with its sensitivity coefficients in relation to all-important optical structural parameters in various configurations. Next, a generalized bi-WMPC is designed to suppress the astigmatism, which leads to much smaller reflection spots on the field mirror compared to the conventional design...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047336/a-qualitative-exploration-of-work-related-head-injury-vulnerability-at-the-intersection-of-workers-decision-making-and-organizational-values
#14
P Kontos, A Grigorovich, B Nowrouzi, B Sharma, J Lewko, T Mollayeva, A Colantonio
BACKGROUND: Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers' lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector...
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047023/heparin-binding-protein-hbp-improves-prediction-of-sepsis-related-acute-kidney-injury
#15
Jonas Tverring, Suvi T Vaara, Jane Fisher, Meri Poukkanen, Ville Pettilä, Adam Linder
BACKGROUND: Sepsis-related acute kidney injury (AKI) accounts for major morbidity and mortality among the critically ill. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a promising biomarker in predicting development and prognosis of severe sepsis and septic shock that has recently been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of AKI. The objective of this study was to investigate the added predictive value of measuring plasma HBP on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) regarding the development of septic AKI...
October 18, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046954/an-eye-tracking-study-of-bloodstain-pattern-analysts-during-pattern-classification
#16
R M Arthur, J Hoogenboom, R D Green, M C Taylor, K G de Bruin
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline concerned with the classification and interpretation of bloodstains and bloodstain patterns at the crime scene. At present, it is unclear exactly which stain or pattern properties and their associated values are most relevant to analysts when classifying a bloodstain pattern. Eye tracking technology has been widely used to investigate human perception and cognition. Its application to forensics, however, is limited. This is the first study to use eye tracking as a tool for gaining access to the mindset of the bloodstain pattern expert...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046660/beyond-clinical-case-studies-in-psychoanalysis-a-review-of-psychoanalytic-empirical-single-case-studies-published-in-isi-ranked-journals
#17
REVIEW
Reitske Meganck, Ruth Inslegers, Juri Krivzov, Liza Notaerts
Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046611/variation-in-chemical-colloidal-and-electrochemical-properties-of-carbon-nanotubes-with-the-degree-of-carboxylation
#18
Zheqiong Wu, Zhiqian Wang, Fang Yu, Megha Thakkar, Somenath Mitra
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were carboxylated via microwave irradiation where the treatment time was varied to alter the degree of functionalization, and as many as one in 15 carbons in the CNT could be oxidized. Chemical, physical, electrochemical, and colloidal behavior of the carboxylated CNTs was studied. All properties changed with the degree of functionalization to a point beyond which they appeared to remain constant. The surface area increased from 173.9 to 270.9 m(2)/g while the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values increased from 142...
January 2017: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046465/-usefulness-of-bilateral-rso-sub-2-sub-monitoring-for-predicting-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-carotid-artery-stenting
#19
Jun Niimi, Shoichiro Ishihara, Eisuke Tsukagoshi, Hiroaki Neki, Yoshiaki Kakehi, Nahoko Uemiya, Kouji Mizokami, Hideaki Ishihara, Shinya Kohyama, Fumitaka Yamane
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome(CHS)and cerebral hyperperfusion phenomenon(CHP)induce intracranial hemorrhage and can become critical complications after carotid artery stenting(CAS). The purpose of the present study was to predict and avoid CHS after CAS using bilateral rSO<sub>2</sub> intraoperative monitoring. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 100 consecutive patients who underwent CAS between January 2012 and May 2014 in our institution...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046179/coping-and-changes-in-arousal-after-exposure-to-gz-load
#20
Marcin Piotr Biernacki, Rafal Lewkowicz, Piotr Zieliński, Mieczyslaw Wojtkowiak
BACKGROUND: Acceleration load causes several physiological changes that play important roles in pilot performance. One of the problems is determining individual factors responsible for the differences in changes in the level of central nervous system (CNS) arousal after exposure to acceleration loads. We were interested in whether the coping style and anxiety as a trait might differentiate the subjects in terms of reactions of the CNS to +Gz load-related stress. METHODS: Examined were 31 male volunteers with ages between 23 and 30 yr...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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