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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102460/neural-mass-models-as-a-tool-to-investigate-neural-dynamics-during-seizures
#1
Tatiana Kameneva, Tianlin Ying, Ben Guo, Dean R Freestone
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and is characterized by recurrent seizures. We use theoretical neuroscience tools to study brain dynamics during seizures. We derive and simulate a computational model of a network of hippocampal neuronal populations. Each population within the network is based on a model that has been shown to replicate the electrophysiological dynamics observed during seizures. The results provide insights into possible mechanisms for seizure spread. We observe that epileptiform activity remains localized to a pathological region when a global connectivity parameter is less than a critical value...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102411/defect-driven-shapes-in-nematic-droplets-analogies-with-cell-division
#2
Marco Leoni, Oksana V Manyuhina, Mark J Bowick, M Cristina Marchetti
Building on the striking similarity between the structure of the spindle during mitosis in living cells and nematic textures in confined liquid crystals, we use a continuum model of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal droplets to examine the physical aspects of cell division. The model investigates the interplay between bulk elasticity of the microtubule assembly, described as a nematic liquid crystal, and surface elasticity of the cell cortex, modeled as a bounding flexible membrane, in controlling cell shape and division...
January 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101717/trace-metals-accumulation-in-soil-irrigated-with-polluted-water-and-assessment-of-human-health-risk-from-vegetable-consumption-in-bangladesh
#3
REVIEW
Md Atikul Islam, Davor Romić, Md Ali Akber, Marija Romić
Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101271/the-impact-of-an-interactive-statistics-module-on-novices-development-of-scientific-process-skills-and-attitudes-in-a-first-semester-research-foundations-course
#4
Lynnsay A Marsan, Christina E D'Arcy, Jeffrey T Olimpo
Evidence suggests that incorporating quantitative reasoning exercises into existent curricular frameworks within the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is essential for novices' development of conceptual understanding and process skills in these domains. Despite this being the case, such studies acknowledge that students often experience difficulty in applying mathematics in the context of scientific problems. To address this concern, the present study sought to explore the impact of active demonstrations and critical reading exercises on novices' comprehension of basic statistical concepts, including hypothesis testing, experimental design, and interpretation of research findings...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100887/production-of-a-health-beneficial-food-emulsifier-by-enzymatic-partial-hydrolysis-of-phospholipids-obtained-from-the-head-of-autumn-chum-salmon
#5
A K M Azad Shah, Toshihiro Nagao, Hideyuki Kurihara, Koretaro Takahashi
Phospholipids and their partial hydrolysates, namely lysophospholipids (LPLs), have been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products as highly efficient emulsifiers. This study was conducted to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-esterified LPLs by enzymatic modification of phospholipids obtained from the head of autumn chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The emulsifying properties of the obtained LPLs were also evaluated. Two different types of substrates of salmon head phospholipids were prepared via silica gel and cold acetone precipitation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100737/selectivity-in-postencoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#6
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100591/dynamics-and-fate-of-beneficial-mutations-under-lineage-contamination-by-linked-deleterious-mutations
#7
Sophie Pénisson, Tanya Singh, Paul Sniegowski, Philip Gerrish
Beneficial mutations drive adaptive evolution, yet their selective advantage does not ensure their fixation. Haldane's application of single-type branching process theory showed that genetic drift alone could cause the extinction of newly-arising beneficial mutations with high probability. With linkage, deleterious mutations will affect the dynamics of beneficial mutations and might further increase their extinction probability. Here, we model the lineage dynamics of a newly-arising beneficial mutation as a multitype branching process...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100086/tracking-down-a-solution-exploring-the-acceptability-and-value-of-wearable-gps-devices-for-older-persons-individuals-with-a-disability-and-their-support-persons
#8
Brittany Williamson, Tammy Aplin, Desleigh de Jonge, Matthew Goyne
PURPOSE: To explore the acceptability and value of three wearable GPS devices for older persons and individuals with a disability and safety concerns when accessing the community. METHODS: This pilot study explored six wearers' and their support persons' experience of using three different wearable GPS devices (a pendant, watch, and mini GPS phone), each for a two-week period. RESULTS: Participants identified safety as the main value of using a wearable GPS device...
January 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099106/costing-in-radiology-and-health-care-rationale-relativity-rudiments-and-realities
#9
Geoffrey D Rubin
Costs direct decisions that influence the effectiveness of radiology in the care of patients on a daily basis. Yet many radiologists struggle to harness the power of cost measurement and cost management as a critical path toward establishing their value in patient care. When radiologists cannot articulate their value, they risk losing control over how imaging is delivered and supported. In the United States, recent payment trends directing value-based payments for bundles of care advance the imperative for radiology providers to articulate their value...
February 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099052/mhealth-intervention-elements-and-user-characteristics-determine-utility-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#10
Lyndsay A Nelson, Shelagh A Mulvaney, Kevin B Johnson, Chandra Y Osborn
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are improving the medication adherence of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but few studies examine how users experience these interventions. Therefore, we used a mixed-methods approach to understand how T2DM users experience a text messaging and interactive voice response (IVR)-delivered medication adherence intervention called MEssaging for Diabetes (MED). METHODS: Adults with T2DM used MED as part of a 3-month pilot study...
January 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098979/electroactive-self-assembled-monolayers-detect-micelle-formation
#11
Eric R Dionne, Antonella Badia
The interfacial electrochemistry of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ferrocenyldodecanethiolate on gold (FcC12SAu) electrodes is applied to detect the micellization of some common anionic surfactants, sodium n-alkyl sulfates, sodium n-alkyl sulfonates, sodium diamyl sulfosuccinate, and sodium dodecanoate, in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The apparent formal redox potential (Eº´SAM) of the FcC12SAu SAM is used to track changes in the concentration of the unaggregated surfactant anions and determine the critical micelle concentration (cmc)...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098790/synthesis-structure-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-novel-benzalkonium-chloride-analogues-with-pyridine-rings
#12
Bogumił Brycki, Izabela Małecka, Anna Koziróg, Anna Otlewska
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of compounds of great economic significance. They are widely used as emulsifiers, detergents, solubilizers and corrosion inhibitors in household and industrial products. Due to their excellent antimicrobial activity QACs have also gained a special meaning as antimicrobials in hospitals, agriculture and the food industry. The main representatives of the microbiocidal QACs are the benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), which exhibit biocidal activity against most bacteria, fungi, algae and some viruses...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098629/right-dose-right-now-customized-drug-dosing-in-the-critically-ill
#13
Jason A Roberts, Anand Kumar, Jeffrey Lipman
Drugs are key weapons that clinicians have to battle against the profound pathologies encountered in critically ill patients. Antibiotics in particular are commonly used and can improve patient outcomes dramatically. Despite this, there are strong opportunities for further reducing the persisting poor outcomes for infected critically ill patients. However, taking these next steps for improving patient care requires a new approach to antibiotic therapy. Giving the right dose is highly likely to increase the probability of clinical cure from infection and suppress the emergence of resistant pathogens...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098623/greater-protein-and-energy-intake-may-be-associated-with-improved-mortality-in-higher-risk-critically-ill-patients-a-multicenter-multinational-observational-study
#14
Charlene Compher, Jesse Chittams, Therese Sammarco, Michele Nicolo, Daren K Heyland
OBJECTIVES: Controversy exists about the value of greater nutritional intake in critically ill patients, possibly due to varied patient nutritional risk. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clinical outcomes vary by protein or energy intake in patients with risk evaluated by the NUTrition Risk in the Critically Ill score. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort. SETTING: A total of 202 ICUs. PATIENTS: A total of 2,853 mechanically ventilated patients in ICU greater than or equal to 4 days and a subset of 1,605 patients in ICU greater than or equal to 12 days...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098412/a-hierarchical-modeling-approach-to-estimate-regional-acute-health-effects-of-particulate-matter-sources
#15
Jenna R Krall, Amber J Hackstadt, Roger D Peng
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and other clinical parameters. Determining which sources of PM, such as traffic or industry, are most associated with adverse health outcomes could help guide future recommendations aimed at reducing harmful pollution exposure for susceptible individuals. Information obtained from multisite studies, which is generally more precise than information from a single location, is critical to understanding how PM impacts health and to informing local strategies for reducing individual-level PM exposure...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097726/role-of-the-edge-properties-in-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-on-mos2
#16
Petr Lazar, Michal Otyepka
Molybdenum disulfide, in particular its edges, has attracted considerable attention as possible substitute of platinum catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. Complex nature of the reaction complicates its detailed experimental investigations, which are mostly indirect and sample dependent. Therefore, we employed density functional theory calculations to study how the properties of MoS2 Mo-edge influence the thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption onto the edge. We discuss the effect of the computational model (one-dimensional nanostripe), border symmetry imposed by its length, sulfur saturation of the edge, and dimensionality of the material...
January 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097537/optimization-of-a-new-aerodynamic-cylindrical-faims-device-for-small-molecule-analysis
#17
Randy W Purves, Satendra Prasad, Michael Belford, Albert Vandenberg, Jean-Jacques Dunyach
The implementation of an aerodynamic mechanism to improve ion sampling between nanoelectrospray (n-ESI) and FAIMS was recently reported for proteomic analyses. This investigation explores the new FAIMS interface for small molecule analysis at high liquid flow rates and includes an examination of key differences in ionization between heated-ESI (HESI) and n-ESI. The sheath gas, critical for desolvation with HESI, affects FAIMS operation as higher FAIMS gas flow rates are required to achieve sufficient desolvation...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097478/study-of-the-influence-of-formulation-variables-in-bioadhesive-emulgels-using-response-surface-methodology
#18
Ana Ochoa-Andrade, M Emma Parente, Álvaro Jimenez-Kairuz, Lucía Boinbaser, Annibal Torregrosa
The aim of the present work was to study the main formulation variables that influence attributes of bioadhesive emulgels based on a combination of polymers, using response surface methodology (RSM). Bioadhesive products continue to gain attention in topical cutaneous administration as they allow long residence times on the application site, which is important when a long dermal action and a reduced product administration frequency are desired. A Box-Behnken design of experiments (DoE) was introduced to study the effect of formulation variables on quality attributes of the emulgels...
January 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097222/early-formation-of-the-moon-4-51-billion-years-ago
#19
Melanie Barboni, Patrick Boehnke, Brenhin Keller, Issaku E Kohl, Blair Schoene, Edward D Young, Kevin D McKeegan
Establishing the age of the Moon is critical to understanding solar system evolution and the formation of rocky planets, including Earth. However, despite its importance, the age of the Moon has never been accurately determined. We present uranium-lead dating of Apollo 14 zircon fragments that yield highly precise, concordant ages, demonstrating that they are robust against postcrystallization isotopic disturbances. Hafnium isotopic analyses of the same fragments show extremely low initial (176)Hf/(177)Hf ratios corrected for cosmic ray exposure that are near the solar system initial value...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097216/the-last-frontiers-of-wilderness-tracking-loss-of-intact-forest-landscapes-from-2000-to-2013
#20
Peter Potapov, Matthew C Hansen, Lars Laestadius, Svetlana Turubanova, Alexey Yaroshenko, Christoph Thies, Wynet Smith, Ilona Zhuravleva, Anna Komarova, Susan Minnemeyer, Elena Esipova
An intact forest landscape (IFL) is a seamless mosaic of forest and naturally treeless ecosystems with no remotely detected signs of human activity and a minimum area of 500 km(2). IFLs are critical for stabilizing terrestrial carbon storage, harboring biodiversity, regulating hydrological regimes, and providing other ecosystem functions. Although the remaining IFLs comprise only 20% of tropical forest area, they account for 40% of the total aboveground tropical forest carbon. We show that global IFL extent has been reduced by 7...
January 2017: Science Advances
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