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Critical values

Sunlin Chi, Yuli Qin, Weihong Xu, Yourong Chai, Deyu Feng, Yanhua Li, Tao Li, Mei Yang, Zhangmi He
Pot experiment was conducted to study the difference of cadmium uptake and OAS and IRT genes' expression between the two ryegrass varieties under cadmium stress. The results showed that with the increase of cadmium levels, the dry weights of roots of the two ryegrass varieties, and the dry weights of shoots and plants of Abbott first increased and then decreased. When exposed to 75 mg kg-1 Cd, the dry weights of shoot and plant of Abbott reached the maximum, which increased by 11.13 and 10.67% compared with the control...
June 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Beau J Kildow, Elizabeth P Howell, Vasili Karas, William T Baumgartner, Daniel J Cunningham, Cynthia L Green, Michael P Bolognesi, Thorsten M Seyler
BACKGROUND: Routine laboratory studies are often obtained following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Moreover, laboratory studies are often continued daily until the patient is discharged regardless of medical management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of routine complete blood count (CBC) tests following THA. Secondarily, the purpose was to identify patient factors associated with abnormal postoperative lab values. METHODS: This retrospective review identified 352 patients who underwent primary THA at a single institution from 2012 to 2014...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Bethany L Reinhart, Karen A Kidd, R Allen Curry, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Scott A Pavey
Although estuaries are critical habitats for many aquatic species, the spatial trends of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in biota from fresh to marine waters are poorly understood. Our objective was to determine if MeHg concentrations in biota changed along a salinity gradient in an estuary. Fourspine Stickleback (Apeltes quadracus), invertebrates (snails, amphipods, and chironomids), sediments, and water were collected from ten sites along the Saint John River estuary, New Brunswick, Canada in 2015 and 2016, with salinities ranging from 0...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
David M Fisher, Spencer A Wood, Eric M White, Dale J Blahna, Sarah Lange, Alex Weinberg, Michael Tomco, Emilia Lia
Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ruyu Yao, Michael Heinrich, Zigui Wang, Caroline S Weckerle
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. AIM OF THE STUDY: Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Carlos H Maldaner, Patrick M Quinn, John A Cherry, Beth L Parker
A straddle-packer system for use in boreholes in fractured rock was modified to investigate the average linear groundwater velocity (v¯f ) in fractures under ambient flow conditions. This packer system allows two different tests to be conducted in the same interval between packers without redeploying the system: (1) forced gradient hydraulic tests to determine the interval transmissivity (T), and (2) borehole dilution experiments to determine the groundwater flow rate (Qt ) across the test interval. The constant head step test method provides assurance that flow is Darcian when determining T for each interval and identifies the flow rate at the onset of non-Darcian flow...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Orkun Yılmaz, Ahmet Özmeriç, Kadir Bahadır Alemdaroğlu, Pınar Celepli, Sema Hücümenoğlu, Özgür Şahin
AIMS: The aim of the study was to test if the addition of CGF to the Masquelet technique contributes to the quality of the membrane formed surrounding the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), in terms of inflammation, proliferation and vasculazition in the Masquelet technique in the early and late phases in a rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A critical bone defect of 15 mm was created in radius diaphysis, leaving 3 cm of intact bone to the joint. To mimic the Masquelet technique and to increase stability, a 6-hole 1...
June 8, 2018: Injury
Moriah E Ellen, Michael G Wilson, Marcela Vélez, Ruth Shach, John N Lavis, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Kaelan A Moat
BACKGROUND: Health systems are increasingly focusing on the issue of 'overuse' of health services and how to address it. We developed a framework focused on (1) the rationale and context for health systems prioritising addressing overuse, (2) elements of a comprehensive process and approach to reduce overuse and (3) implementation considerations for addressing overuse. METHODS: We conducted a critical interpretive synthesis informed by a stakeholder-engagement process...
June 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Puja Banerjee, Biman Bagchi
Due to the presence of the rotational mode and the distributed surface charges, the dynamical behavior of polyatomic ions in water differs considerably from those of the monatomic ions. However, their fascinating dynamical properties have drawn scant attention. We carry out theoretical and computational studies of a series of well-known polyatomic ions, namely, sulfate, nitrate, and acetate ions. All three ions exhibit different rotational diffusivity, with that of the nitrate ion being considerably larger than the other two...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Martin Svoboda, Martin Lísal
To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Timothy T Duignan, Marcel D Baer, Christopher J Mundy
The tetra-phenyl arsonium and tetra-phenyl borate (TATB) assumption is a commonly used extra-thermodynamic assumption that allows single ion free energies to be split into cationic and anionic contributions. The assumption is that the values for the TATB salt can be divided equally. This is justified by arguing that these large hydrophobic ions will cause a symmetric response in water. Experimental and classical simulation work has raised potential flaws with this assumption, indicating that hydrogen bonding with the phenyl ring may favor the solvation of the TB- anion...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Subhadeep Roy
The present paper deals with a fiber bundle model which consists of a fraction α of infinitely strong fibers. The inclusion of such an unbreakable fraction has been proven to affect the failure process in early studies, especially around a critical value α_{c}. The present work has a twofold purpose: (i) a study of failure abruptness, mainly the brittle to quasibrittle transition point with varying α and (ii) variation of α_{c} as we change the strength of disorder introduced in the model. The brittle to quasibrittle transition is confirmed from the failure abruptness...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
B A Malomed, N N Rosanov, S V Fedorov
We consider the evolution of the 2-soliton (breather) of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation on a semi-infinite line with the zero boundary condition and a linear potential, which corresponds to the gravity field in the presence of a hard floor. This setting can be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, and in a nonlinear planar waveguide in optics. In the absence of the gravity, repulsion of the breather from the floor leads to its splitting into constituent fundamental solitons, if the initial distance from the floor is smaller than a critical value; otherwise, the moving breather persists...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Milan Žukovič, Georgii Kalagov
Critical properties of the two-dimensional XY model involving solely nematic-like terms of the second and third orders are investigated by spin-wave analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that, even though neither of the nematic-like terms alone can induce magnetic ordering, their coexistence and competition leads to an extended phase of the magnetic quasi-long-range-order phase, wedged between the two nematic-like phases induced by the respective couplings. Thus, except for the multicritical point, at which all the phases meet, for any finite value of the coupling parameters ratio there are two phase transition: one from the paramagnetic phase to one of the two nematic-like phases followed by another one at lower temperatures to the magnetic phase...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Satoshi Iso, Shotaro Shiba, Sumito Yokoo
Theoretical understanding of how a deep neural network (DNN) extracts features from input images is still unclear, but it is widely believed that the extraction is performed hierarchically through a process of coarse graining. It reminds us of the basic renormalization group (RG) concept in statistical physics. In order to explore possible relations between DNN and RG, we use the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) applied to an Ising model and construct a flow of model parameters (in particular, temperature) generated by the RBM...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Zhuo-Ming Ren, Manuel Sebastian Mariani, Yi-Cheng Zhang, Matúš Medo
Complex networks are often used to represent systems that are not static but grow with time: People make new friendships, new papers are published and refer to the existing ones, and so forth. To assess the statistical significance of measurements made on such networks, we propose a randomization methodology-a time-respecting null model-that preserves both the network's degree sequence and the time evolution of individual nodes' degree values. By preserving the temporal linking patterns of the analyzed system, the proposed model is able to factor out the effect of the system's temporal patterns on its structure...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
R Sánchez, D E Newman, J A Mier
Fractional transport equations are used to build an effective model for transport across the running sandpile cellular automaton [Hwa et al., Phys. Rev. A 45, 7002 (1992)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.45.7002]. It is shown that both temporal and spatial fractional derivatives must be considered to properly reproduce the sandpile transport features, which are governed by self-organized criticality, at least over sufficiently long or large scales. In contrast to previous applications of fractional transport equations to other systems, the specifics of sand motion require in this case that the spatial fractional derivatives used for the running sandpile must be of the completely asymmetrical Riesz-Feller type...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Yosef Kornbluth, Gilad Barach, Yaakov Tuchman, Benjamin Kadish, Gabriel Cwilich, Sergey V Buldyrev
We study the cascading failure of networks due to overload, using the betweenness centrality of a node as the measure of its load following the Motter and Lai model. We study the fraction of survived nodes at the end of the cascade p_{f} as a function of the strength of the initial attack, measured by the fraction of nodes p that survive the initial attack for different values of tolerance α in random regular and Erdös-Renyi graphs. We find the existence of a first-order phase-transition line p_{t}(α) on a p-α plane, such that if p<p_{t}, the cascade of failures leads to a very small fraction of survived nodes p_{f} and the giant component of the network disappears, while for p>p_{t}, p_{f} is large and the giant component of the network is still present...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Naftali R Smith, Baruch Meerson
We determine the exact short-time distribution -lnP_{f}(H,t)=S_{f}(H)/sqrt[t] of the one-point height H=h(x=0,t) of an evolving 1+1 Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) interface for flat initial condition. This is achieved by combining (i) the optimal fluctuation method, (ii) a time-reversal symmetry of the KPZ equation in 1+1 dimension, and (iii) the recently determined exact short-time height distribution -lnP_{st}(H,t)=S_{st}(H)/sqrt[t] for stationary initial condition. In studying the large-deviation function S_{st}(H) of the latter, one encounters two branches: an analytic and a nonanalytic...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Enaam Jamal Al Dine, Sophie Marchal, Raphaël Schneider, Batoul Hamie, Jaafar Ghanbaja, Thibault Roques-Carmes, Tayssir Hamieh, Joumana Toufaily, Eric Gaffet, Halima Alem
Biocompatible thermo-responsive copolymers based on 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA) were grown from the surface of ZnO Quantum Dots (QDs) by Surface Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization with Activators Regenerated by electron Transfer (SI-ARGET ATRP) in order to design smart and fluorescent core/shell nanosystems to be used towards cancer cells. Tunable lower critical solution temperature (LCST) values were obtained and studied in water and in culture medium...
June 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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