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Critical values

Joseph O Okeme, Eva M Webster, J Mark Parnis, Miriam L Diamond
Partition coefficients between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPUF-Air) are important when using PUF as a passive air sampler for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and when considering the fate of SVOCs indoors where PUF is a common material. Here, KPUF-Air for selected SVOCs was estimated using published methods, since measured data are unavailable for most of these compounds. Estimates of KPUF-Air were within one order of magnitude for SVOCs having values of log octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) of 5, but differed by nearly three orders of magnitude for SVOCs with log KOA of 12...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Erica H Craig, Jennifer R Adams, Lisette P Waits, Mark R Fuller, Diana M Whittington
Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles...
2016: PloS One
Maria João Janeiro, David W Coltman, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Fanie Pelletier, Michael B Morrissey
Integral projection models (IPMs) are extremely flexible tools for ecological and evolutionary inference. IPMs track the distribution of phenotype in populations through time, using functions describing phenotype-dependent development, inheritance, survival and fecundity. For evolutionary inference, two important features of any model are the ability to (i) characterize relationships among traits (including values of the same traits across ages) within individuals, and (ii) characterize similarity between individuals and their descendants...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Praveenkumar Sappidi, Upendra Natarajan
The intermolecular structure and solvation enthalpy of anionic polyelectrolyte atactic Na(+)-polyethacrylate (PEA) in aqueous solution, as a function of added salt concentration C s (dilute to concentrated) and valency (NaCl versus CaCl2), were investigated via molecular dynamics simulations with explicit-ion-solvent and atomistic polymer description. An increase in C s leads to a decrease in α, which stabilizes to a constant value beyond critical C s. A significant reduction in R g in the presence of CaCl2 salt was observed, due to ion bridging of PEA by Ca(2+) ions, in agreement with results available in literature on other similar polycarboxylates...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
William P Adams, Daniel Mckee
BACKGROUND: For primary breast augmentation, several implant selection systems have been described to guide the surgeon with choosing from a variety of manufactured implant dimensions and properties. Controversy exists regarding the most efficacious method of selecting an appropriate implant size that best matches the patient's breast. METHODS: The goal of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive list of documented implant size selection systems, and to critically evaluate them...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ryan A Whitehead, Nicholas L Lam, Melody S Sun, Joshua Sanchez, Shahani Noor, Arden G Vanderwall, Timothy R Petersen, Hugh B Martin, Erin D Milligan
BACKGROUND: Animal models of peripheral neuropathy produced by a number of manipulations are assessed for the presence of pathologic pain states such as allodynia. Although stimulus-induced behavioral assays are frequently used and important to examine allodynia (ie, sensitivity to light mechanical touch; von Frey fiber test), other measures of behavior that reflect overall function are not only complementary to stimulus-induced responsive measures, but are also critical to gain a complete understanding of the effects of the pain model on quality of life, a clinically relevant aspect of pain on general function...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Alfonse T Masi, Azeem A Rehman, Laura C Jorgenson, Jean C Aldag
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to critically investigate all-cause and major-cause mortality of incident rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cases versus matched non-RA comparison (CN) subjects in a long-term prospective cohort. METHODS: Baseline 1974 cohort entry demographic and serum biomarker data on 54 incident RA patients and 216 matched CN subjects were related to their mortality from 1995 through 2015. Mortality of RA patients was also analysed by 3 categories of course responses to therapy assigned by the sole community rheumatologist in 1995 (19 good, 23 fair, and 12 limited)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Dan Nguyen, David Thomas, Minsong Cao, Daniel O'Connor, James Lamb, Ke Sheng
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Co-60 provides daily and intrafractional MRI soft tissue imaging for improved target and critical organ tracking. To increase delivery efficiency, the system uses three Co-60 sources at 120° apart, allowing up to 600 cGy combined dose rate at isocenter. Despite the potential tripling in output, creating a delivery plan that uses all three sources is considerably unintuitive. Here, the authors computerize the triplet orientation optimization using column generation, an approach that was demonstrated effective in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for noncoplanar therapies...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Yachao Zhang
A reliable prediction of magnetic properties of surface-supported molecules containing 3d/4f spin carriers has challenged the electronic structure theory for decades. Here we tackle this problem with Hubbard-U corrected van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF), incorporating strong correlation effects of the localized electrons and dispersion interactions involved in the molecule-surface binding. By fitting the spin state energetics of a series of Fe(ii) compounds with varying ligand field strength, we find that the optimal U value for vdW-DF is much smaller than that for the local density approximation (LDA) while quite similar to that for the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Giovanni Di Liberto, Michele Ceotto
This paper deals with the critical issue of approximating the pre-exponential factor in semiclassical molecular dynamics. The pre-exponential factor is important because it accounts for the quantum contribution to the semiclassical propagator of the classical Feynman path fluctuations. Pre-exponential factor approximations are necessary when chaotic or complex systems are simulated. We introduced pre-exponential factor approximations based either on analytical considerations or numerical regularization. The approximations are tested for power spectrum calculations of more and more chaotic model systems and on several molecules, for which exact quantum mechanical values are available...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sutapa Roy, S Dietrich, Felix Höfling
The dynamic and static critical behavior of a family of binary Lennard-Jones liquid mixtures, close to their continuous demixing points (belonging to the so-called model H' dynamic universality class), are studied computationally by combining semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPU). The symmetric binary liquid mixtures considered cover a variety of densities, a wide range of compressibilities, and various interactions between the unlike particles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Paul McKenna, Brent Thoma, Ken Milne, Chris Bond
As part of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine's (CJEM) developing social media strategy, 1 we are collaborating with the Skeptics' Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) to summarize and critically appraise the current emergency medicine (EM) literature using evidence-based medicine principles. In the "Hot Off the Press" series, we select original research manuscripts published in CJEM to be featured on the SGEM website/podcast 2 and discussed by the study authors and the online EM community. A similar collaboration is underway between the SGEM and Academic Emergency Medicine...
October 26, 2016: CJEM
Eleni Vrontaki, Georgia Melagraki, Antreas Afantitis, Thomas Mavromoustakos, George Kolliasc
The Janus kinases (JAKs) play a pivotal role in cytokine receptor signaling pathways via activation of downstream signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway. Intracellular pathways that include JAKs are critical to immune cell activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Selective inhibitors of JAKs are potentially disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Each of the four members of the JAK family plays an individual role in the oncogenesis of the immune system, and therefore, the development of potent and specific inhibitors for each member is needed...
October 24, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Anantharaman Ayyalusamy, Subramani Vellaiyan, Subramanian Shanmugam
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to use deformable mapping of planning CT electron density values on weekly cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to quantify the anatomical changes and determine the dose volume relationship in offline adaptive volumetric modulated arc therapy. METHODS: Ten patients treated with RapidArc plans who had weekly CBCTs were selected retrospectively. Planning CT was deformed to weekly CBCTs and the deformed contours were checked for any discrepancies...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Brendan G McBennett, Daniel M Harris
We present an investigation of a partially elastic ball bouncing on a vertically vibrated concave parabolic surface in two dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that simple vertical motion, wherein the ball bounces periodically at the parabola's vertex, is unstable to horizontal perturbations when the parabolic coefficient defining the surface shape exceeds a critical value. The result is a new periodic solution where the ball bounces laterally over the vertex. As the parabola is further steepened, this new solution also becomes unstable which gives rise to other complex periodic and chaotic bouncing states, all characterized by persistent lateral motion...
September 2016: Chaos
Xiliang Cong, Sen Li, Yingwei Xue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of preoperative lymphocyte to monocyte ratio on the prognosis of elderly patients with stage II(-III( gastric cancer. METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 188 patients with stage II(-III( gastric cancer aged≥75 years undergoing radical gastrectomy in our department from January 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The optimal critical value of preoperative peripheral blood LMR in prediction of overall survival was determined through the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Roswitha Runge, Jana Arlt, Liane Oehme, Robert Freudenberg, Jörg Kotzerke
AIM: Ionizing radiation produces DNA lesions among which DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most critical events. Radiation of various energy types might differ in their biological effectiveness. Here, we compared cell survival and DNA damage induced by (188)Re and X-rays using γH2AX foci as a measure of DSB. The correlation between survival and residual foci was also analyzed. METHODS: PCCl3 cells were irradiated with 200 kV X-rays (1.2 Gy/min) or 0.5-25 MBq/ml (188)Re (1 h irradiation) achieving doses up to 10 Gy...
October 26, 2016: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Jonathan B Shurin, Michael D Burkart, Stephen P Mayfield, Val H Smith
Modern society is fueled by fossil energy produced millions of years ago by photosynthetic organisms. Cultivating contemporary photosynthetic producers to generate energy and capture carbon from the atmosphere is one potential approach to sustaining society without disrupting the climate. Algae, photosynthetic aquatic microorganisms, are the fastest growing primary producers in the world and can therefore produce more energy with less land, water, and nutrients than terrestrial plant crops. We review recent progress and challenges in developing bioenergy technology based on algae...
2016: F1000Research
Xiaoke Zeng, Aaron M Kociolek, Muhammad Idrees Khan, Stephan Milosavljevic, Brenna Bath, Catherine Trask
Whole body vibration is a significant physical risk factor associated with low back pain. This study assessed farmers' exposure to whole body vibration on the Canadian Prairies according to ISO 2631-1. Eighty-seven vibration measurements were collected with a triaxial accelerometer embedded in a rubber seat pad at the operator-seat interface of agricultural machinery, including tractors, combines, pickup trucks, grain trucks, sprayers, swathers, all-terrain vehicles, and skid steers. Whole body vibration was highest in the vertical axis, with a mean (range) frequency-weighted root mean squared acceleration of 0...
October 26, 2016: Ergonomics
Negar Seyedhassantehrani, Roya Karimi, Gholamreza Tavoosidana, Amir Amani
Problems commonly associated with using nanoemulsions are their cytotoxic effects and low stability profiles. Here, for the first time, concentrations of ingredients of a nanoemulsion system were investigated to obtain the most stable nanoemulsion system with the least cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell line. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to model the experimentally obtained data. Surfactant concentration was found to be the dominant factor in determining the stability - surfactant concentration above a critical point made the preparation unstable, while it appeared not to be influencing the cytotoxicity...
October 25, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
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