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Fungal rhinosinusitis

Ozge Turhan, Asli Bostanci, Irem Hicran Ozbudak, Murat Turhan
Chronic invasive nongranulomatous fungal rhinosinusitis is a well-described but uncommon type of fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). While the prevalence of chronic FRS is 0.11% in healthy individuals, only 1.3% of them are in nongranulomatous invasive nature. The majority of the cases in the literature have been reported from developing countries mostly located in the tropical regions, as typically occurring in the background of diabetes mellitus or corticosteroid treatment. The current paper reports four consecutive cases, who were diagnosed within a short period of six months at a single center of a country located outside the tropical climate zone...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Jagdish Chander, Nidhi Singla, Mandeep Kaur, Rajpal Singh Punia, Ashok Attri, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, José F Cano-Lira, Alberto Miguel Stchigel, Josep Guarro
BACKGROUND: Saksenaea erythrospora is an emerging and recently described pathogenic fungus mainly causing invasive cutaneous infections. Globally, very few human cases, caused by S. erythrospora, have been reported. In India, among the genus Saksenaea, S. vasiformis was the only reported pathogenic species, until recently when a case of fungal rhinosinusitis was reported to be caused by S. erythrospora. We observed five human cases of necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections caused by S...
October 4, 2016: Infectious Diseases
R Xu, L Ma, G Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
W Zhou, Q Liu, W D Zhao, H P Yu, X C Sun, J J Wang, Z F Liu, H Y Li, C Q Zheng, S Y Wang, D H Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival outcomes of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by analyzing the clinical features. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for cases of invasive fungal sinusitis proved by histological analysis between March 2006 and November 2015. All relevant factors including interval from the onset of symptoms to initiation of diagnosis, clinical characteristics, features of CT and MRI, treatment and prognosis were collected. A total of 18 patients (10 males; 8 females) were identified...
August 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
G G Shi, L Shi, Z Y Zhang, Y Z Wan, B Li, L Yu, E P Zhang, H S Ju, M Q He, H Z Ji
OBJECTIVE: Through the retrospective analysis of the clinical data in 14 cases of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS), the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of this disease were evaluated. METHODS: Fourteen clinically confirmed cases of IFRS since January 2008 to October 2015 were evaluated.collected, the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis were analyzed to obtain a more comprehensive understanding for clinical reference. Fourteen patients were confirmed by pathological examination as IFRS, including 9 cases of aspergillus, 4 cases of mucor, and 1 case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis; including 5 cases of acute IFRS, 9 cases of chronic IFRS...
August 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Robert J Lee, Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Bei Chen, Phillip L Rosen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Noam A Cohen
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ritesh Agarwal, Sandeep Bansal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Aspergillus fumigatus can cause several allergic disorders including Aspergillus-sensitized asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). ABPA is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by allergic reactions mounted against antigens of A. fumigatus colonizing the airways of patients with asthma (and cystic fibrosis). Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis is an allergic fungal airway disease caused by thermotolerant fungi other than A. fumigatus On the other hand, AFRS is a type of chronic rhinosinusitis that is also a result of hypersensitivity reactions to the presence of fungi that become resident in the sinuses...
September 6, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Ramzi T Younis, Jamal Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis consists of several disease processes. Eosinophilic mucin is found in the subtypes of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) and eosinophilic mucin chronic rhinosinusitis (EMCRS). These entities frequently require surgical intervention and have high recurrence rates. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine factors in patients with AFS and EMCRS that may be associated with a higher rate of revision surgeries. Our hypothesis is that patients who have polyps, high Lund-Mackay score (LMS), and fungus may have higher revision rates...
August 31, 2016: Laryngoscope
Mayara Tabai, Igor Moreira Hazboun, Emerson Taro Inoue Sakuma, Marcelo Hamilton Sampaio, Eulalia Sakano
Introduction. A range of traumatic, vascular, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic processes can affect the orbit and its structures. In the area of otolaryngology, the rhino-orbital-cerebral involvement of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis can affect the orbit, which may look like initially a rhinosinusitis or even mimic malignancy. Case Presentation. Female patient, 32 years old, with headache and ocular proptosis. She was using prednisone in immunosuppressive doses for a year and had breast cancer treated three years earlier...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Andrew J Thomas, Jeremiah A Alt
Oral therapeutics for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) include oral corticosteroids (OCS), antibiotics, antifungals and anti-leukotrienes. Of these treatments, the strongest evidence exists to support the use of a short course of OCS for treatment of CRSwNP, and OCS are the most consistently recommended oral therapy in practice guidelines. Antibiotics have demonstrated some utility, which appears more likely related to an anti-inflammatory rather than antimicrobial effect. The non-macrolide antibiotics lack sufficient evidence to support their use, though among this class doxycycline has some limited evidence of benefit in CRSwNP...
2016: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Patricia A Loftus, Sarah K Wise
Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is the most common form of fungal sinusitis in the United States. Its pathophysiological basis is associated with a predisposed person's type I IgE-mediated allergic response to inhaled mold spores that are ubiquitous in the environment. AFRS is a well-recognized type of chronic, recurrent, and non-invasive hypertrophic sinus disease that affects immunocompetent hosts, most commonly young African American males. There are 5 main criteria used for the diagnosis of AFRS, one being the presence of nasal polyposis...
2016: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Nyall R London, Douglas D Reh
Nasal polyps are semi-translucent mucosal outgrowths of the paranasal sinuses which typically arise in the setting of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal polyps are also associated with asthma, aspirin sensitivity, cystic fibrosis and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFS). The majority of nasal polyps are bilateral and characterized by tissue edema and eosinophil infiltration. Patients with nasal polyps often present with complaints including nasal obstruction, congestion, rhinorrhea or altered sense of smell...
2016: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Tara F Carr
BACKGROUND: Sinusitis is a common disorder associated with significant patient symptomatology that adversely affects quality of life. Sinusitis can cause further morbidity and mortality through its impact on comorbid disorders, progression of inflammation, and extension of infection. OBJECTIVE: This review highlights common complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). RESULTS: ABRS is complicated by orbital infections, such as pre- or postseptal cellulitis, and by intracranial infections, including abscesses of the epidural and subdural spaces...
July 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Manvinder S Kumar, Nicholas J Panella, Kelly R Magliocca, Esther X Vivas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to report a case of otopolyposis and middle ear allergic mucin in a patient with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) and no history of middle ear disease and introduce these as possible otologic manifestations of the AFRS. METHODS: A case of a 31-year-old female with the aforementioned findings is reported. A review of the pertinent literature was performed. RESULTS: We report a case of a 31-year-old female with a history of AFRS but no history of middle ear disease or hearing loss who presented to our institution complaining of aural fullness...
October 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Aradhana Masih, Pradeep K Singh, Shallu Kathuria, Kshitij Agarwal, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary
Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jose Gavito-Higuera, Carola Birgit Mullins, Luis Ramos-Duran, Hugo Sandoval, Nassim Akle, Ramon Figueroa
Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Alice E W Hoyt, Larry Borish, José Gurrola, Spencer Payne
This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Sandeep Suresh, Dayanand Arumugam, George Zacharias, Sengottaiah Palaninathan, Ravisankar Vishwanathan, Vaidyanathan Venkatraman
BACKGROUND: There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. METHODS: This was a prospective study in which evaluation of 100 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis was done...
January 2016: Allergy & Rhinology
Pauline Comacle, Sorya Belaz, Franck Jegoux, Christophe Ruaux, François Le Gall, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Florence Robert-Gangneux
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) rank second at chronic inflammatory diseases in industrialized countries and are an important public health concern. Diagnosis relies on a set of arguments including clinical signs, imaging, histopathologic and mycological analyses of sinus specimens, collected during nasal endoscopy. The sensitivity of fungal cultures is reported to be poor, even when direct examination is positive, thus the epidemiology of fungal chronic sinusitis is ill-known. This study evaluated the sensitivity of molecular diagnosis in 70 consecutive samples (61 patients with CRS) analysed at the University Hospital of Rennes during a 3-year period...
November 1, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
S Erskine, C Hopkins, N Kumar, J Wilson, A Clark, A Robertson, N Kara, V Sunkaraneni, S Anari, C Philpott
BACKGROUND: The Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) has been used as a patient reported outcome measure to grade symptom severity before and after treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODOLOGY: This analysis uses data from the CRS Epidemiology Study (CRES). The overarching aim of CRES was to determine factors that influence the onset and severity of CRS. A study-specific questionnaire including SNOT-22 was distributed to patients with CRS attending ENT clinics across 30 centres in the United Kingdom...
June 18, 2016: Rhinology
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