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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913878/piroplasms-in-brown-hyaenas-parahyaena-brunnea-and-spotted-hyaenas-crocuta-crocuta-in-namibia-and-south-africa-are-closely-related-to-babesia-lengau
#1
Richard E J Burroughs, Barend L Penzhorn, Ingrid Wiesel, Nancy Barker, Ilse Vorster, Marinda C Oosthuizen
The objective of our study was identification and molecular characterization of piroplasms and rickettsias occurring in brown (Parahyaena brunnea) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) from various localities in Namibia and South Africa. Whole blood (n = 59) and skin (n = 3) specimens from brown (n = 15) and spotted hyaenas (n = 47) were screened for the presence of Babesia, Theileria, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization technique. PCR products of 52/62 (83...
December 2, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913822/more-than-just-scanning-the-importance-of-cap-independent-mrna-translation-initiation-for-cellular-stress-response-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Rafaela Lacerda, Juliane Menezes, Luísa Romão
The scanning model for eukaryotic mRNA translation initiation states that the small ribosomal subunit, along with initiation factors, binds at the cap structure at the 5' end of the mRNA and scans the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) until an initiation codon is found. However, under conditions that impair canonical cap-dependent translation, the synthesis of some proteins is kept by alternative mechanisms that are required for cell survival and stress recovery. Alternative modes of translation initiation include cap- and/or scanning-independent mechanisms of ribosomal recruitment...
December 2, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913643/biogenesis-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-the-human-immune-system
#3
REVIEW
Charles F Spurlock, Philip S Crooke, Thomas M Aune
The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA makes RNA makes protein. Discoveries over the last quarter of a century found that the process of DNA transcription into RNA gives rise to a diverse array of functional RNA species, including genes that code for protein and noncoding RNAs. For decades, the focus has been on understanding how protein-coding genes are regulated to influence protein expression. However, with the completion of the Human Genome Project and follow-up ENCODE data, it is now appreciated that only 2-3% of the genome codes for protein-coding gene exons and that the bulk of the transcribed genome, apart from ribosomal RNAs, is at the level of noncoding RNA genes...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911920/sirna-targeting-mtor-effectively-prevents-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-lens-epithelial-cells
#4
Chunmei Zhang, Jingjing Liu, Na Jin, Guiming Zhang, Yahui Xi, Hongling Liu
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication that causes visual decrease after extracapsular cataract surgery. The primary cause of PCO formation is the proliferation of the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in the growth and migration of LECs. In the current study, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically attenuate mTOR in human lens epithelial B3 cells (HLE B3). We aimed to examine the effect of mTOR-siRNA on the proliferation, migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HLE B3 cells and explore the underlying mechanisms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911848/global-analysis-of-genomic-instability-caused-by-dna-replication-stress-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Dao-Qiong Zheng, Ke Zhang, Xue-Chang Wu, Piotr A Mieczkowski, Thomas D Petes
DNA replication stress (DRS)-induced genomic instability is an important factor driving cancer development. To understand the mechanisms of DRS-associated genomic instability, we measured the rates of genomic alterations throughout the genome in a yeast strain with lowered expression of the replicative DNA polymerase δ. By a genetic test, we showed that most recombinogenic DNA lesions were introduced during S or G2 phase, presumably as a consequence of broken replication forks. We observed a high rate of chromosome loss, likely reflecting a reduced capacity of the low-polymerase strains to repair double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs)...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911317/alzheimer-s-disease-histological-and%C3%A2-behavioral-manifestations-in%C3%A2-transgenic-mice-correlate-with%C3%A2-specific%C3%A2-gut-microbiome-state
#6
Liang Shen, Lu Liu, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disease and is the most common form of dementia. In recent years, many studies indicated the association of gut microbiota changes with metabolic diseases. However, the gut microbiota of AD has not been investigated. The present study aims to compare the gut microbiota in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of AD and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) mice by pyrosequencing the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The 3-, 6-, and 8-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice were used to explore the effects of age on the gut microbiota...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911188/tuning-the-ribosome-the-influence-of-rrna-modification-on-eukaryotic-ribosome-biogenesis-and-function
#7
Katherine E Sloan, Ahmed S Warda, Sunny Sharma, Karl-Dieter Entian, Denis L J Lafontaine, Markus T Bohnsack
Ribosomal RNAs are extensively modified during their transcription and subsequent maturation in the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm. RNA modifications, which are installed either by snoRNA-guided or by stand-alone enzymes, generally stabilise the structure of the ribosome. However, they also cluster at functionally important sites of the ribosome, such as the peptidyltransferase centre and the decoding site, where they facilitate efficient and accurate protein synthesis. The recent identification of sites of substoichiometric 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation has overturned the notion that all rRNA modifications are constitutively present on ribosomes, highlighting nucleotide modifications as an important source of ribosomal heterogeneity...
December 2, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909749/diversity-of-total-bacterial-communities-and-chemoautotrophic-populations-in-sulfur-rich-sediments-of-shallow-water-hydrothermal-vents-off-kueishan-island-taiwan
#8
Li Wang, Man Kit Cheung, Rulong Liu, Chong Kim Wong, Hoi Shan Kwan, Jiang-Shiou Hwang
Shallow-water hydrothermal vents (HTVs) are an ecologically important habitat with a geographic origin similar to that of deep-sea HTVs. Studies on shallow-water HTVs have not only facilitated understanding of the influences of vents on local ecosystems but also helped to extend the knowledge on deep-sea vents. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities in the sediments of shallow-water HTVs off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, was investigated by examining the 16S ribosomal RNA gene as well as key functional genes involved in chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (aclB, cbbL and cbbM)...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908735/unr-csde1-drives-a-post-transcriptional-program-to-promote-melanoma-invasion-and-metastasis
#9
Laurence Wurth, Panagiotis Papasaikas, David Olmeda, Nadine Bley, Guadalupe T Calvo, Santiago Guerrero, Daniela Cerezo-Wallis, Javier Martinez-Useros, María García-Fernández, Stefan Hüttelmaier, Maria S Soengas, Fátima Gebauer
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) modulate cancer progression through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we show that the RBP UNR/CSDE1 is overexpressed in melanoma tumors and promotes invasion and metastasis. iCLIP sequencing, RNA sequencing, and ribosome profiling combined with in silico studies unveiled sets of pro-metastatic factors coordinately regulated by UNR as part of RNA regulons. In addition to RNA steady-state levels, UNR was found to control many of its targets at the level of translation elongation/termination...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908532/ram-589-555-a-new-polymerase-1-inhibitor-as-innovative-targeted-treatment-for-multiple-sclerosis
#10
A Achiron, R Zilkha-Falb, R Mashiach, M Gurevich
Targeting Polymerase-1 (POL1) transcription machinery is a new strategy for suppression of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity that is based on suppression of ribosomal biogenesis and subsequent activation of apoptosis. We developed an oral POL1 inhibiting compound RAM-589.555, that suppress ribosomal biogenesis as an innovative therapeutic approach to ameliorate MS. RAM-589.555 shows high permeability, specificity to POL1 pathway, ability to induce apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation and viability of activated lymphocytes both in-vitro and in-vivo...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906650/structure-of-the-70s-ribosome-from-human-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Iskander Khusainov, Quentin Vicens, Anthony Bochler, François Grosse, Alexander Myasnikov, Jean-François Ménétret, Johana Chicher, Stefano Marzi, Pascale Romby, Gulnara Yusupova, Marat Yusupov, Yaser Hashem
Comparative structural studies of ribosomes from various organisms keep offering exciting insights on how species-specific or environment-related structural features of ribosomes may impact translation specificity and its regulation. Although the importance of such features may be less obvious within more closely related organisms, their existence could account for vital yet species-specific mechanisms of translation regulation that would involve stalling, cell survival and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the first full 70S ribosome structure from Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium, solved by cryo-electron microscopy...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906161/structural-basis-for-arfa-rf2-mediated-translation-termination-on-mrnas-lacking-stop-codons
#12
Paul Huter, Claudia Müller, Bertrand Beckert, Stefan Arenz, Otto Berninghausen, Roland Beckmann, Daniel N Wilson
In bacteria, ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs lacking a stop codon are rescued by either the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), alternative rescue factor A (ArfA) or ArfB rescue systems(1). While tmRNA- and ArfB-ribosome structures have been elucidated(2-7), structural insight into how ArfA recognizes the presence of truncated mRNAs and recruits the canonical termination release factor RF2 to rescue the stalled ribosomes is lacking. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a ribosome stalled on a truncated mRNA in the presence of ArfA and RF2...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905873/comparative-genomics-of-beauveria-bassiana-uncovering-signatures-of-virulence-against-mosquitoes
#13
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903898/transfer-rna-is-highly-unstable-during-early-amino-acid-starvation-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Sine Lo Svenningsen, Mette Kongstad, Thomas Søndergaard Stenum, Ana J Muñoz-Gómez, Michael A Sørensen
Due to its long half-life compared to messenger RNA, bacterial transfer RNA is known as stable RNA. Here, we show that tRNAs become highly unstable as part of Escherichia coli's response to amino acid starvation. Degradation of the majority of cellular tRNA occurs within twenty minutes of the onset of starvation for each of several amino acids. Both the non-cognate and cognate tRNA for the amino acid that the cell is starving for are degraded, and both charged and uncharged tRNA species are affected. The alarmone ppGpp orchestrates the stringent response to amino acid starvation...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#15
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902365/the-oral-cavities-of-healthy-infants-harbor-high-proportions-of-streptococcus-salivarius-strains-with-phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-to-multiple-classes-of-antibiotics
#16
Thaís H Palma, Erika Harth-Chú, Jodie Scott, Rafael N Stipp, Heike Boisvert, Mariana F Salomão, Jéssica D Theobaldo, Rosana F Possobon, Leandro C Nascimento, Jonathan W McCafferty, Lina Faller, Margaret J Duncan, Renata O Mattos-Graner
Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating pediatric populations. In this study, we investigated the role of S. salivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analyzing 95 S. salivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2 to 16 months of age). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902296/allostreptomyces-psammosilenae-gen-nov-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-the-roots-of-psammosilene-tunicoides-and-emended-description-of-the-family-streptomycetaceae-waksman-and-henrici-1943-al-emend-rainey-et-al-1997-emend-kim-et-al-2003-emend
#17
Mei-Juan Huang, Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao, Nimaichand Salam, Min Xiao, Hai-Quan Huang, Wen-Jun Li
A Gram-staining positive actinobacterium, designated strain YIM DR4008T was isolated from the root sample of Psammosilene tunicoides collected from Lijiang, Yunnan, China. Strain YIM DR4008T could grow at temperature ranging from 10 to 50 °C (optimum at 28-30 °C), pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of up to 4 % (w/v) NaCl. Sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that strain YIM DR4008T shared highest similarity (95.0 %) with Streptomyces griseoplanus NBRC 12779T and < 95 % similarity with other known members of the genera Streptomyces, Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902246/allodekkera-sacchari-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-yeast-species-in-the-saccharomycetales-isolated-from-a-sugar-factory-in-thailand
#18
Rumpa Jutakanoke, Rikiya Endoh, Masako Takashima, Moriya Ohkuma, Somboon Tanasupawat, Ancharida Akaracharanya
Three yeast isolates, G5-5(5), G5-9(3) and G5-9(4), were obtained from the sugarcane juice and waste from sugar production plant (Korach Industry Co., Ltd.) in Korach province, Thailand. They were found to be the same species based on DNA sequence identity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU) and the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene (LSU D1/D2). A BLASTn search of the GenBank database revealed they had 93% nucleotide sequence identity to D. bruxellensis for the SSU (1742 bp), but their LSU D1/D2 sequence (572 bp) showed less than 90% identity to all available sequences in the database...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901505/first-isolation-of-miamiensis-avidus-ciliophora-scuticociliatida-associated-with-skin-ulcers-from-reared-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis
#19
Zhen Tao, Lu Liu, Xiangrui Chen, Suming Zhou, Guoliang Wang
In the winter of 2015, a skin ulcer disease outbreak occurred in a pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis population cultured on a land-based fish farm in China. Affected cuttlefish (about 60% of the population) were characterized as having developed ulcers on the dorsal skin, fin fringe, or distal mantle tip. Masses of a ciliated protozoan were isolated from skin ulcers. The ciliate was identified as Miamiensis avidus based on the morphological features of living and protargol-impregnated specimens. This identification was also supported by high sequence similarity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (100%) and another ribosomal DNA region (including the 2 internal transcribed spacers and the 5...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900551/transcriptional-regulation-of-snrnas-and-its-significance-for-plant-development
#20
Misato Ohtani
Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) represents a distinct class of non-coding RNA molecules. As these molecules have fundamental roles in RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing and ribosomal RNA processing, it is essential that their transcription be tightly regulated in eukaryotic cells. The genome of each organism contains hundreds of snRNA genes. Although the structures of these genes are highly diverse among organisms, the trans-acting factors that regulate snRNA transcription are evolutionarily conserved. Recent studies of the Arabidopsis thaliana srd2-1 mutant, which is defective in the snRNA transcription factor, provide insight into the physiological significance of snRNA regulation in plant development...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
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