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Falls in older adults

Fang-Chuan Kuo, Shin-Tsu Chang, Yin-Yin Liao, Cheng-Hung Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with vertebral compression fracture (VCF) usually exhibit impaired postural control and consequently are at an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to assess the sensory and kinematic components of the limits of stability (LOS) test in patients with VCF. METHODS: This study enrolled 13 adults with (VCF), 13 older adults without spinal deformity (NE), and 13 young adults (NY). The Biodex balance system was employed to calculate the balance score and the LOS of participants...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Rebekka M Lee, Shoba Ramanadhan, Gina R Kruse, Charles Deutsch
Background: Strong partnerships are critical to integrate evidence-based prevention interventions within clinical and community-based settings, offering multilevel and sustainable solutions to complex health issues. As part of Massachusetts' 2012 health reform, The Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF) funded nine local partnerships throughout the state to address hypertension, pediatric asthma, falls among older adults, and tobacco use. The initiative was designed to improve health outcomes through prevention and disease management strategies and reduce healthcare costs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Pilar Pérez-Ros, Francisco M Martínez-Arnau, Rafael M Orti-Lucas, Francisco J Tarazona-Santabalbina
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with an increased risk of accidental falls. Falls in older people have been widely studied in nursing homes and in the elderly with poor functionality, but there have been few investigations into functionally independent community-dwelling older adults. OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive factors for falls in functionally independent community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A cohort trial-nested case-control study was carried out...
June 8, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Patricia Hewston, Nandini Deshpande
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent in older adults (≥65 years of age) and increases fall risk. Fear of falling and low balance confidence are reported in both fallers and nonfallers and can potentially be more debilitating than a fall itself. Therefore, the objective of this scoping review was to examine and map the current research evidence of balance confidence and fear of falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes. A search of CINAHL, EMBASE and PubMed was conducted. The search included MeSH terms and the key terms diabet* AND fear OR falls AND self-efficacy OR balance confidence...
March 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Roberta Castilhos Detanico Bohrer, Gleber Pereira, Joice Katiane Mendes Beck, Angélica Lodovico, André Rodacki
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multicomponent training program, designed to improve the torque around the ankle joint performing high-speed movement execution, on healthy older adults. Participants were balanced by torque around the ankle joint and randomly allocated to either exercise (n=12, 69.7±4.8 years, 74.6±16.8 kg, 1.63±0.10 m) or control group (n=14, 70.86±6.48 years; 73.5±13.4 kg, 1.56±0.05 m). The exercise group performed a multicomponent training of resistance, agility and coordination exercises, focusing on the plantar flexor muscles during 12 weeks (3 days per week)...
June 18, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Vera Stara, Richard Harte, Mirko Di Rosa, Liam Glynn, Monica Casey, Patrick Hayes, Lorena Rossi, Anat Mirelman, Paul M A Baker, Leo R Quinlan, Gearóid ÓLaighin
BACKGROUND: User-centred design (UCD) is a process whereby the end-user is placed at the centre of the design process. The WIISEL (Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living) system is designed to monitor fall risk and to detect falls, and consists of a pair of instrumented insoles and a smartphone app. The system was designed using a three-phase UCD process carried out in Ireland, which incorporated the input of Irish end-users and multidisciplinary experts throughout. OBJECTIVE: In this paper we report the results of a usability and user experience (UX) assessment of the WIISEL system in multiple countries and thus establish whether the UCD process carried out in Ireland produced positive usability and UX results outside of Ireland...
August 2018: Maturitas
David Shulman, Abbigale Spencer, Lori Ann Vallis
BACKGROUND: A common technique to regain stability following an unexpected perturbation is reactive stepping, aimed to control the accelerated center of mass (COM). Many older adults (OA) struggle to execute the fast, coordinated stepping strategy required to arrest COM movement within the base of support (BOS) during these unexpected events, likely due to age-related physiological declines. Recent ecological data also suggests that many falls in OA occur due to errors in transferring or shifting body weight during activities of daily living...
June 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Rosangela Alice Batistela, Alison Oates, Renato Moraes
Understanding the effects of haptic input while performing a cognitive-visual task on postural control can broaden comprehension of the functional integration hypothesis in older adults with and without a history of falls. We aimed to investigate the effect of haptic input provided by light touch (LT) and the anchors while performing a cognitive-visual task in faller and non-faller older adults when standing upright. Twenty-two fallers and twenty-two non-fallers older adults participated in this study. They stood upright with feet together and performed six experimental conditions combining haptic cues (none, LT, and anchors) and the presence/absence of the cognitive-visual task (the adapted visual Stroop test)...
June 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Anna Hafström
Background: Severe diminished foot somatosensation, for example, caused by neuropathies and advanced aging, contributes to balance deficits and increased fall risk. However, little is known about somatosensory impairment and functional and subjective balance problems in relatively healthy elderly. Method: Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) were assessed with a biothesiometer and tactile pressure sensation thresholds (TPSTs) with 20 monofilaments in 34 relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults ( M = 69...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Kevin Yau, Janine F Farragher, S Joseph Kim, Olusegun Famure, Sarbjit V Jassal
Background: Functional disability is defined as the need for assistance with self-care tasks. Objective: To document changes in functional status over time among older prevalent renal transplant recipients. Design: Single center, prospective, follow-up study. Setting: Single center, tertiary care transplant center. Patients: Patients, with a functioning kidney transplant, aged 65 years or older who underwent assessment of functional status approximately 12 months previously...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Peggy M Cawthon, Eric S Orwoll, Katherine E Peters, Kristine E Ensrud, Jane A Cauley, Deborah M Kado, Marcia L Stefanick, James M Shikany, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Nancy W Glynn, Paolo Caserotti, Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Marc Hellerstein, Steven R Cummings, William J Evans
Background: Direct assessment of skeletal muscle mass in older adults is clinically challenging. Relationships between lean mass and late-life outcomes have been inconsistent. The D3-creatine dilution method provides a direct assessment of muscle mass. Methods: Muscle mass was assessed by D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution in 1,382 men (mean age, 84.2 yrs). Participants completed the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); usual walking speed (6 meters); and DXA lean mass...
June 12, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Daniel J Goble, Harsimran S Baweja
AIM: Postural sway measured using force plate technology is a known risk factor for falls in older adults, but is currently underutilized due to the high cost and lack of portability issues associated with most force plate systems. The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS) is a new force plate that alleviates these barriers and has potential for widespread use. The present study provides important normative data for the BTrackS Balance Test of postural sway that improves its translational value to the field of gerontology...
June 13, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Gianluca Testa, Alice Ceccofiglio, Chiara Mussi, Giuseppe Bellelli, Franco Nicosia, Mario Bo, Daniela Riccio, Francesco Curcio, Anna Maria Martone, Gabriele Noro, Francesco Landi, Andrea Ungar, Pasquale Abete
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether hypotensive drugs may play a pivotal role in inducing orthostatic hypotension (OH)-related syncope. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, multicenter study. SETTING: Acute care wards, syncope units, and centers for the diagnosis of dementia. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older with a diagnosis of dementia and 1 or more episodes of transient loss of consciousness of a suspected syncopal nature or unexplained falls during the previous 3 months MEASUREMENTS: Blood pressure was measured in the supine position and in the orthostatic position after 1 and 3 minutes...
June 13, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Samuel D Towne, Yajuan Li, Shinduk Lee, Matthew Lee Smith, Gang Han, Cindy Quinn, Yuxian Du, Mark Benden, Marcia G Ory
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity declines are seen with increasing age; however, the US CDC recommends most older adults (age 65 and older) engage in the same levels of physical activity as those 18-64 to lessen risks of injuries (e.g., falls) and slow deteriorating health. We aimed to identify whether older adults participating in a short (approx. 90-minute sessions) 20 session (approximately 10-weeks) health and wellness program delivered in a community setting saw improvements in physical activity and whether these were sustained over time...
2018: PloS One
Viral N Shah, Mengdi Wu, Nicole Foster, Ruban Dhaliwal, Mona Al Mukaddam
We evaluated fall frequency and factors affecting falls among middle-aged and older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from T1D Exchange Registry. Twenty-nine percent of T1D participants reported falls within the past 12 months. Severe hypoglycemia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and depression were associated with falls in adults with T1D. PURPOSE: Fall is an important risk factor for osteoporotic fracture; we evaluated fall frequency and factors affecting falls among middle-aged and older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
June 12, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Yanli Zeng, Xiaoyi Hu, Lingling Xie, Zengli Han, Yun Zuo, Ming Yang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia defined by different criteria in nursing home residents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Four nursing homes in Chengdu, China. PARTICIPANTS: Elderly adults aged 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: We applied 4 diagnostic criteria [European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS), International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH)] to define sarcopenia...
June 8, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Melissa J Black, Adam A Lucero, Philip W Fink, Lee Stoner, Sarah P Shultz, Sally D Lark, David S Rowlands
The increased risk of falls associated with advancing age has increased demand for methods to improve balance and mobility. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether wearing Aqua Titan-treated stockings could improve balance and walking performance in an older population; secondary was to elucidate the mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind crossover, 16 healthy older adults (age, 67.9 ± 4.2 years; BMI, 24.8 ± 3.1 kg/m²) performed two 4-day trials composed of baseline measures and fatiguing exercise on Day 1, with recovery measures at 14, 38 and 62 h post-exercise, wearing Aqua Titan and control stockings...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Somayeh Fahimnia, Hadi Mirhedayati Roudsari, John Doucette, Armin Shahrokni
Falls are common among older adults. However, not much is known about the prevalence of falls among older patients with cancer. In 2015, older patients with cancer referred to Geriatrics service for preoperative evaluation were assessed for fall history, basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL and IADL), KPS, and use of assistive device. Of 806 patients, 215 (26.7%) patients reported fall. Incidence of last fall inside and outside home was 54.4% and 45.5%, respectively. Among patients with no falls, 33...
2018: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Sobhan Sobhani, Ehsan Sinaei, Alireza Motealleh, Fatemeh Hooshyar, Niloofar Sami Kashkooli, Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 4 weeks of whole body vibration training on balance in older adults who word two different types of shoes: unstable (unstable group) versus standard shoes (stable group). DESIGN: Randomized, single-blind clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy eight eligible older adults were initially enrolled; 59 participants (mean age 69.7±5.3 years) completed the program. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized 1:1 to an intervention group that received whole body vibration with unstable shoes, and a control group that received whole body vibration with standard shoes...
May 30, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Kim T J Bongers, Yvonne Schoon, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert
PURPOSE OF STUDY: The first aim is to evaluate, in a sub-study, the recruitment process of the Senior Step Study, which was an intervention study on the self-management of mobility and fall risk; the second aim is to explore the reasons mentioned by older people, from three different settings, for (not) participating. METHODS: Subjects were community-dwelling older persons, residents of homes for the elderly, and older persons regularly visiting community centres...
May 31, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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