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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898842/catalytic-production-of-1-4-pentanediol-from-corn-stover
#1
Yu-Chan Ahn, Jeehoon Han
A novel strategy of large-scale 1,4-pentanediol (1,4-PDO) production derived from corn stover is presented based on catalytic conversion experiments. In this strategy, cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover are catalytically converted to GVL by using corn stover derived GVL asa reaction solvent, and GVL asa reaction intermediate is then upgraded to 1,4-PDO. In the strategy, three possible designs consisting of conversion and separation subsystems are developed in terms of biomass residues as electricity or fuel sources (A: electricity source, B: electricity and fuel sources, and C: fuel source)...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892699/enhanced-furfural-production-from-raw-corn-stover-employing-a-novel-heterogeneous-acid-catalyst
#2
Wenzhi Li, Yuanshuai Zhu, Yijuan Lu, Qiyu Liu, Shennan Guan, Hou-Min Chang, Hasan Jameel, Longlong Ma
With the aim to enhance the direct conversion of raw corn stover into furfural, a promising approach was proposed employing a novel heterogeneous strong acid catalyst (SC-CaCt-700) in different solvents. The novel catalyst was characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, FT-IR, XPS, TEM and SEM. The developed catalytic system demonstrated superior efficacy for furfural production from raw corn stover. The effects of reaction temperature, residence time, catalyst loading, substrate concentration and solvent were investigated and optimized...
August 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856818/insight-into-aluminium-sulfate-catalyzed-xylan-conversion-to-furfural-in-%C3%AE-valerolactone-water-biphasic-solvent-under-microwave-condition
#3
Tao Yang, Yi-Han Zhou, Sheng-Zhen Zhu, Hui Pan, Yao-Bing Huang
A simple and efficient biphasic system with earth-abundant metal salt catalyst was reported to produce furfural from xylan with a high yield up to 87.8% under microwave condition. Strikingly, the metal salt Al2(SO4)3 exhibited excellent catalytic activity for xylan conversion due to its appropriate combination of Lewis and Brønsted acidity, and as well as a good phase separation promoter. The critical role of SO42- anion was firstly emphasized, which determined the aforementioned characteristic when combining with Al3+ cation...
August 30, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807569/il-10-engineered-human-cd4-tr1-cells-eliminate-myeloid-leukemia-in-an-hla-class-i-dependent-mechanism
#4
Grazia Locafaro, Grazia Andolfi, Fabio Russo, Luca Cesana, Antonello Spinelli, Barbara Camisa, Fabio Ciceri, Angelo Lombardo, Attilio Bondanza, Maria Grazia Roncarolo, Silvia Gregori
T regulatory cells (Tregs) play a key role in modulating T cell responses. Clinical trials showed that Tregs modulate graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, their ability to mediate anti-leukemic activity (graft-versus-leukemia [GvL]) is largely unknown. Enforced interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression converts human CD4(+) T cells into T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)-like (CD4(IL-10)) cells that suppress effector T cells in vitro and xenoGvHD in humanized mouse models...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729148/clinical-grade-expanded-regulatory-t-cells-prevent-graft-versus-host-disease-while-allowing-a-powerful-t-cell-dependent-graft-versus-leukemia-effect-in-murine-models
#5
Beatrice Del Papa, Loredana Ruggeri, Elena Urbani, Stefano Baldoni, Debora Cecchini, Tiziana Zei, Roberta Iacucci Ostini, Barbara Crescenzi, Alessandra Carotti, Antonio Pierini, Paolo Sportoletti, Paolo Di Bartolomeo, Franca Falzetti, Cristina Mecucci, Andrea Velardi, Massimo F Martelli, Mauro Di Ianni
We developed a good manufacturing practices-compatible expansion protocol to improve number and purity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) available for clinical trials. Six clinical-grade separation procedures were performed, followed by expansion with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2, anti-CD3/anti-CD28 TCR stimulation, and rapamycin for 19 days achieving a median of 8.5-fold (range, 6.25 to 13.7) expansion. FOXP3 expression was stably maintained over the culture period, while the percentage of CD127 was significantly reduced...
July 17, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721499/treg-protected-donor-lymphocyte-infusions-a-new-tool-to-address-the-graft-versus-leukemia-effect-in-the-absence-of-graft-versus-host-disease-in-patients-relapsed-after-hsct
#6
Mauro Di Ianni, Paola Olioso, Raffaella Giancola, Stella Santarone, Annalisa Natale, Gabriele Papalinetti, Ida Villanova, Stefano Baldoni, Ambra Di Tommaso, Tiziana Bonfini, Patrizia Accorsi, Paolo Di Bartolomeo
In high-risk acute leukemia patients undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), adoptive immunotherapy with T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T conventional cells (Tcons) prevented acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), favored post-transplant immunological reconstitution and was associated with a powerful graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. With a particularly innovative approach, we developed a treatment with a Treg-protected donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for patients with early relapse after HSCT and we report here the results obtained in the first patient with APL (M3v) relapsed after a second matched allogeneic HSCT (15% blasts and 75% of donor cells in bone marrow)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713380/targeting-the-human-t-cell-inducible-costimulator-molecule-with-a-monoclonal-antibody-prevents-graft-vs-host-disease-and-preserves-graft-vs-leukemia-in-a-xenograft-murine-model
#7
Aude Burlion, Simon Brunel, Nicolas Y Petit, Daniel Olive, Gilles Marodon
BACKGROUND: Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Targeting costimulatory molecules with antagonist antibodies could dampen the excessive immune response that occurs, while preserving the beneficial graft vs leukemia (GVL) of the allogeneic response. Previous studies using a mouse model of GVHD have shown that targeting the T-cell Inducible COStimulator (ICOS, CD278) molecule is beneficial, but it is unclear whether the same applies to human cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681413/re-evaluating-the-stability-of-comu-in-different-solvents
#8
Ashish Kumar, Yahya E Jad, Beatriz G de la Torre, Ayman El-Faham, Fernando Albericio
COMU is uronium-type coupling reagent based on OxymaPure. It showed several advantages over classical benzotriazole-based coupling reagents such as higher solubility, water-soluble byproduct, and monitoring the reaction by changing of color. Although COMU is well known to perform excellent in solution, but its hydrolytic stability in DMF limits its use in automatic peptide synthesizer. Herein, we evaluated the hydrolytic stability of COMU in γ-valerolactone (GVL), acetonitrile (ACN) and N-formylmorpholine (NFM) and compared its stability against DMF...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680749/tumor-priming-converts-nk-cells-to-memory-like-nk-cells
#9
Marina Pal, Lisa Schwab, Anastasiya Yermakova, Emily M Mace, Rainer Claus, Ann-Christin Krahl, Jeanette Woiterski, Udo F Hartwig, Jordan S Orange, Rupert Handgretinger, Maya C André
Fascinating earlier evidence suggests an intrinsic capacity of human natural killer (NK) cells to acquire adaptive immune features in the context of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Since the role of memory NK cells in cancer has so far remained elusive and adoptive NK cell transfer in relapsing pediatric acute B cell precursor leukemia (BCP-ALL) patients awaits improvement, we asked the question whether tumor-priming could promote the generation of memory NK cells with enhanced graft-vs...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678237/new-catalytic-strategies-for-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-diols-production-from-lignocellulosic-biomass
#10
Jiayue He, Kefeng Huang, Kevin J Barnett, Siddarth H Krishna, David M Alonso, Zachary J Brentzel, Samuel P Burt, Theodore Walker, Williams F Banholzer, Christos T Maravelias, Ive Hermans, James A Dumesic, George W Huber
Catalytic strategies for the synthesis of 1,5-pentanediol (PDO) with 69% yield from hemicellulose and the synthesis of 1,6-hexanediol (HDO) with 28% yield from cellulose are presented. Fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass (white birch wood chips) in gamma-valerolactone (GVL)/H2O generates a pure cellulose solid and a liquid stream containing hemicellulose and lignin, which is further dehydrated to furfural with 85% yield. Furfural is converted to PDO with sequential dehydration, hydration, ring-opening tautomerization, and hydrogenation reactions...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652579/hla-dpb1-mismatch-induces-a-graft-versus-leukemia-effect-without-severe-acute-gvhd-after-single-unit-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation
#11
T Yabe, F Azuma, K Kashiwase, K Matsumoto, T Orihara, H Yabe, S Kato, K Kato, S Kai, T Mori, S Morishima, M Satake, M Takanashi, K Nakajima, Y Morishima
Although it is known that human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 disparity has a strong impact on outcomes in unrelated hematopoietic transplantation with induction of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, its role in unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UR-CBT) has yet to be fully clarified. Our current study is being conducted to elucidate the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatch, along with the effect of other HLA loci mismatches at the allele level. HLA six loci alleles were retrospectively typed in 1157 Japanese donors and patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent transplantation with a single unit of cord blood...
June 27, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646023/amlexanox-downregulates-s100a6-to-sensitize-kmt2a-aff1-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-to-tnf%C3%AE-treatment
#12
Hayato Tamai, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Koichi Miyake, Miyuki Takatori, Tomoaki Kitano, Satoshi Yamanaka, Syunsuke Yui, Keiko Fukunaga, Kazutaka Nakayama, Koiti Inokuchi
Acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) positive for KMT2A/AFF1 (MLL/AF4) translocation, which constitute 60% of all infant ALL cases, have a poor prognosis even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This poor prognosis is due to one of two factors, either resistance to TNFα, which mediates a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response after allo-HSCT, or immune resistance due to upregulated expression of the immune escape factor S100A6. Here, we report an immune stimulatory effect against KMT2A/AFF1-positive ALL cells by treatment with the anti-allergy drug amlexanox, which we found to inhibit S100A6 expression in the presence of TNF-α...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641099/reduced-intensity-versus-myeloablative-allogeneic-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Daniel J Weisdorf
Allotransplantation cures patients by cytoreduction and the graft-versus-tumor (leukemia; graft-versus-leukemia [GVL]) alloresponse; both eliminate residual disease. The spectrum of conditioning intensity influences toxicities and non-relapse mortality. The spectrum of tumor sensitivity to the GVL response influences relapse. Balancing tolerable toxicities (influenced by patients' performance status and comorbidities) is also influenced by the graft. Intense immunosuppression (for engraftment and graft-versus-host disease prevention) may constrain the immunologic potency of the graft and limit the antineoplastic capacity of the transplant, thus requiring more intense or more effective conditioning regimens to limit the risks of relapse and permit satisfactory disease-free survival...
June 14, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638735/maternal-microchimerism-is-prevalent-in-cord-blood-in-memory-t-cells-and-other-cell-subsets-and-persists-post-transplant
#14
Sami B Kanaan, Hilary S Gammill, Whitney E Harrington, Stephen C De Rosa, Philip A Stevenson, Alexandra M Forsyth, Judy Allen, Emma Cousin, Koen van Besien, Colleen S Delaney, J Lee Nelson
Among reported advantages of umbilical cord blood (CB) in transplantation is lower leukemia relapse probability. Underlying cellular mechanisms of graft-vs.-leukemia (GVL) are thought to include a prominent role for T cells. Cells of the CB's mother, maternal microchimerism (MMc), were recently strongly, but indirectly, implicated in this GVL benefit. We assayed MMc directly and hypothesized benefit accrues from CB maternal T cells. MMc was quantified in 51 CBs and, within memory T, naïve T, B, NK cells, and monocytes in 27 CBs...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638379/graft-versus-leukemia-effect-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-leukemia
#15
REVIEW
Anne M Dickinson, Jean Norden, Shuang Li, Ilona Hromadnikova, Christoph Schmid, Helga Schmetzer, Hans Jochem-Kolb
The success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) lies with the ability of the engrafting immune system to remove residual leukemia cells via a graft-versus-leukemia effect (GvL), caused either spontaneously post-HSCT or via donor lymphocyte infusion. GvL effects can also be initiated by allogenic mismatched natural killer cells, antigen-specific T cells, and activated dendritic cells of leukemic origin. The history and further application of this GvL effect and the main mechanisms will be discussed and reviewed in this chapter...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636890/memory-t-cells-a-helpful-guard-for-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-without-causing-graft-versus-host-disease
#16
REVIEW
Wei Huang, Nelson J Chao
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) and the major cause of nonrelapse morbidity and mortality of AHSCT. In AHSCT, donor T cells facilitate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment, contribute to anti-infection immunity, and mediate graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) responses. However, activated alloreactive T cells also attack recipient cells in vital organs, leading to GVHD. Different T-cell subsets, including naïve T (TN) cells, memory T (TM) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells mediate different forms of GVHD and GVL; TN cells mediate severe GVHD, whereas TM cells do not cause GVHD, but preserve T-cell function including GVL...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618178/decarboxylation-of-lactones-over-zn-zsm-5-elucidation-of-the-structure-of-the-active-site-and-molecular-interactions
#17
Lin Ye, Qi Song, Benedict T W Lo, Junlin Zheng, Dejing Kong, Claire A Murray, Chiu C Tang, S C Edman Tsang
Herein, we report the catalytic decarboxylation of γ-valerolactone (GVL) over Zn/ZSM-5 to butene, followed by aromatization at high yield with co-feeding of water. An evaluation of the catalytic performance after prolonged periods of time showed that a water molecule is essential to maintain the decarboxylation and aromatization activities and avoid rapid catalyst deactivation. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement were then used to elucidate the structures of adsorbed GVL and immobilized Zn species in combination with EXAFS and NMR spectroscopy...
August 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604385/differential-requirements-for-myeloid-leukemia-ifn-%C3%AE-conditioning-determine-graft-versus-leukemia-resistance-and-sensitivity
#18
Catherine Matte-Martone, Jinling Liu, Meng Zhou, Maria Chikina, Douglas R Green, John T Harty, Warren D Shlomchik
The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is potent against chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CP-CML), but blast crisis CML (BC-CML) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML) are GVL resistant. To understand GVL resistance, we studied GVL against mouse models of CP-CML, BC-CML, and AML generated by the transduction of mouse BM with fusion cDNAs derived from human leukemias. Prior work has shown that CD4+ T cell-mediated GVL against CP-CML and BC-CML required intact leukemia MHCII; however, stem cells from both leukemias were MHCII negative...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587506/extracorporeal-photopheresis-for-gvhd-prophylaxis-after-reduced-intensity-conditioning-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-prospective-multicenter-phase-2-study
#19
Mauricette Michallet, Mohamad Sobh, Frederic Garban, Claude Eric Bulabois, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Valerie Coiteux, Remy Dulery, Pierre-Simon Rohrlich, Faezeh Legrand, Laurence Clement, Aline Praire, Marie Detrait, Fiorenza Barraco, Franck Emmanuel Nicolini, Olivier Hequet
We performed a prospective multicenter phase 2 study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic Extracorporeal Photopheresis (ECP) in adult patients with hematological malignancies early after RIC allo-HSCT on day 21 twice per week during the first two weeks and then once per week for the next four weeks for a total of eight ECP courses. A total of 20 patients were included; 10 were males, median age was 60 years. All patients engrafted, 17 (85%) received the total eight ECP courses. There were no adverse effects related to ECP...
June 7, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481352/partial-break-in-tolerance-of-nkg2a-lir-1-single-kir-nk-cells-early-in-the-course-of-hla-matched-kir-mismatched-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#20
S Rathmann, C Keck, C Kreutz, N Weit, M Müller, J Timmer, S Glatzel, M Follo, M Malkovsky, M Werner, R Handgretinger, J Finke, P Fisch
Natural killer (NK) cell subpopulations from 8 HLA-matched but killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/HLA-ligand-mismatched patient-donor pairs were analyzed in the course of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The patients' post-transplantation NKG2A(-)/LIR-1(-) NK cells, which expressed only inhibitory KIRs for which the patient had no HLA class I ligands, showed higher cytotoxic capacity than the NKG2A(-)/LIR-1(-) NK cells lacking any inhibitory KIRs that remained tolerant throughout the course of HCT...
August 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
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