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Canan Sener, Ali Hussain Motagamwala, David Martin Alonso, James Dumesic
High yields of furfural (>90%) were achieved from xylose dehydration in a sustainable solvent system composed of -valerolactone (GVL), a biomass derived solvent, and water. It is identified that high reaction temperatures (e.g., 498 K) are required to achieve high furfural yield. Additionally, it is shown that the furfural yield at these temperatures is independent of the initial xylose concentration, and high furfural yield is obtained for industrially relevant xylose concentrations (10 wt%). A reaction kinetics model is developed to describe the experimental data obtained with solvent system composed of 80 wt% GVL and 20 wt% water across the range of reaction conditions studied (473 - 523 K, 1-10 mM acid catalyst, 66 - 660 mM xylose concentration)...
May 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
Jaebok Choi, Matthew L Cooper, Karl Staser, Kidist Ashami, Kiran R Vij, Bing Wang, Lynne Marsala, Jessica Niswonger, Julie Ritchey, Bader Alahmari, Samuel Achilefu, Ikuo Tsunoda, Mark A Schroeder, John F DiPersio
The therapeutic benefits of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are derived from the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects of the procedure. There is a strong association between the GvL effects and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a major life-threatening complication of allo-HSCT. The limiting of GvHD while maintaining the GvL effect remains the goal of allo-HSCT. Therefore, identifying optimal therapeutic targets to selectively suppress GvHD while maintaining the GvL effects represents a significant unmet medical need...
April 2, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Libo Zhang, Wenxiu Zheng, Ziming Wang, Yubo Ma, Ling Jiang, Tianfu Wang
The aim of this work was to study the degradation of lignin in raw wood via pretreatment with heteropoly acids as substitutes for traditional H2 SO4 in γ-valerolactone/water. By optimizing catalyst concentration, reaction time and temperature, the optimal lignin degradation conditions are obtained (130 °C, 3 h and 20 mM silicotungstic acid). SEM and FTIR measurements demonstrated the efficient lignin degradation ability of HPAs in the GVL/H2 O solvent, with negligible damage to cellulose within the raw wood...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jing Feng, Xiaochao Gu, Yudan Xue, Yiwen Han, Xuebin Lu
Conversion of levulinic acid (LA) to γ-valerolactone (GVL) over a ruthenium-carbon (Ru/C) catalyst using formic acid (FA) as the sole hydrogen source in cellulose hydrolysis process was investigated. The reaction was accelerated using Ru(5wt%)/C as the catalyst and by adding triethylamine. The highest LA conversion (87.26%) and GVL yield (80.75%) were obtained using 10g/mol (LA) catalyst and 150mL/mol (LA) triethylamine at 160°C for 180min. In this reaction, the hydrogenation process can only be accomplished in the presence of FA, which is the byproduct of LA production from cellulose hydrolysis...
March 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christianne Bourlon, Dennis Lacayo-Leñero, Sergio I Inclán-Alarcón, Roberta Demichelis-Gómez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for Philadelphia-negative (Ph- ) adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first complete remission (CR1) in the era of minimal residual disease (MRD). RECENT FINDINGS: Allo-HSCT continues to have a role in the therapy of a selected group of high-risk adult patients with ALL in CR1. Although the clinical significance of MRD has been studied less extensively in adults with ALL than in children, recent studies support its role as the strongest prognostic factor that can identify patients that are unlikely to be cured by standard chemotherapy and benefit from undergoing allo-HSCT...
March 26, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Yuxuan Yi, Huiying Liu, Ling-Ping Xiao, Bo Wang, Guoyong Song
The search for nonprecious metal catalysts for the synthesis of γ-valerolactone (GVL) through hydrogenation of levulinic acid and its derivative in an efficient fashion is of great interest and importance, as GVL is an important a sustainable liquid. We herein report a pincer iron complex can efficiently catalyze the hydrogenation of levulinic acid and methyl levulinate into GVL, achieved up to 23000 turnover numbers and 1917 h-1 turnover frequencies. This iron catalyst also enabled the formation of GVL from various biomass-derived carbohydrates in aqueous solution, thus paving a new way toward a renewable chemical industry...
March 25, 2018: ChemSusChem
Frédéric Baron, Myriam Labopin, Annalisa Ruggeri, Jan J Cornelissen, Ellen Meijer, Henrik Sengeloev, Dietger Niederwieser, Marco R De Groot, Harry C Schouten, Noel Milpied, Didier Blaise, Bipin N Savani, Eliane Gluckman, Mohamad Mohty, Arnon Nagler
Background: We assessed the impact of donor type in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients transplanted with 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI)-based nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. Experimental Design: Data from 1,715 adult patients, with AML in CR1 or CR2 were included in this retrospective survey. Results: Donors consisted either of HLA-matched sibling donors (MSD, n = 701), 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUD, n = 611), HLA-haploidentical donors (haplo, n = 112) or single or double umbilical cord bloods (CBT, n = 291)...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Xia Zhou, Dayong Ding, Tingting You, Xun Zhang, Keiji Takabe, Feng Xu
As the main hemicellulose of poplar, the interaction of xylan with lignin was expected to have profound effect on biomass recalcitrance. In this paper, the dynamic changes of xylan and lignin in poplar cell wall during a mild pretreatment using γ-valerolactone (GVL) was investigated using chemical and microscopic techniques. Synergetic dissolution of branched xylan and lignin from the secondary wall of the fiber cell was found to play a major role in opening the cell wall structure for enzymatic attack. In the case of the removal of xylan and lignin reaching a certain level, β-O-4' cleavage of lignin which destroyed its interaction with hydrophobic cellulose face was found to make great contribution to the enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ugur Sahin, Klara Dalva, Funda Gungor, Celalettin Ustun, Meral Beksac
Impact of donor-recipient killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene-gene matching on transplant outcomes is still inconclusive. Recent data suggest that killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) regulated natural killer cell (NK cell) activity may contribute to graft versus leukemia (GvL) effects and graft versus host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This case-control study aims to evaluate the effects of both aKIR and iKIR donor-recipient genotype matching on the outcomes of T cell replete HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCTs in a homogenous young patient population with myeloid leukemias...
June 2018: Annals of Hematology
Hui Zhang, Xudong Liu, Jianmei Li, Zhicheng Jiang, Changwei Hu
The performances of solvents, including γ-butyrolactone (GBL), γ-valerolactone (GVL), tetrahydrofuran (THF), ethyl acetate (EAC), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF), and the corresponding mixtures with H2 O, on the cleavage of inter- and intramolecular linkages of lignin in corncob residue were investigated. At 200 °C, miscible cosolvents (H2 O-GBL, H2 O-GVL, and H2 O-THF) exhibited much better efficiency for lignin dissolution than that of both immiscible cosolvents (H2 O-EAC and H2 O-2-MeTHF) and pure solvents...
May 9, 2018: ChemSusChem
Nina Müller, Katharina Landwehr, Kirsten Langeveld, Joanna Stenzel, Walter Pouwels, Menno A W G van der Hoorn, Erhard Seifried, Halvard Bonig
BACKGROUND AIMS: For patients needing allogeneic stem cell transplantation but lacking a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched donor, haplo-identical (family) donors may be an alternative. Stringent T-cell depletion required in these cases to avoid lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can delay immune reconstitution, thus impairing defense against virus reactivation and attenuating graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Several groups reported that GVHD is caused by cells residing within the naive (CD45RA+ ) T-cell compartment and proposed use of CD45RA-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to accelerate immune reconstitution...
April 2018: Cytotherapy
Steven D Schutt, Yongxia Wu, Chih-Hang Anthony Tang, David Bastian, Hung Nguyen, M Hanief Sofi, MengMeng Zhang, Chen Liu, Kris Helke, Carole Wilson, Lynn M Schnapp, Juan R Del Valle, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Xue-Zhong Yu
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative procedure for hematological malignancies, but chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major complication after allogeneic HCT. Because donor B cells are essential for cGVHD development and B cells are sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we hypothesized that the IRE-1α/XBP-1 pathway is required for B-cell activation and function and for the development of cGVHD. To test this hypothesis, we used conditional knock-out mice deficient of XBP-1 specifically in B cells...
February 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Long Liu, Ying-Jun Chang, Lan-Ping Xu, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Yu Wang, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang
Acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) relapse contributes predominantly to the mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the mechanism of B-ALL relapse after allo-HSCT remains unknown. The eradication of leukemia after allo-HSCT largely relies on graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects mediated by donor T cells. T cell exhaustion, characterized by the increased expression of inhibitory receptors and impaired function, may suppress GVL effects. In this study, we evaluated whether T cell exhaustion was involved in B-ALL relapse after allo-HSCT...
May 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Laura Cudillo, Raffaella Cerretti, Alessandra Picardi, Benedetta Mariotti, Gottardo De Angelis, Maria Cantonetti, Massimiliano Postorino, Eleonora Ceresoli, Giovanna De Santis, Daniela Nasso, Francesco Pisani, Enrico Scala, Fabio Di Piazza, Alessandro Lanti
In our retrospective study, 16 patients affected by advanced cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Two patients (12.5%) were in complete remission (CR), nine (56.3%) in partial remission (PR), and five (31.2%) with active disease. The patients were transplanted from an HLA-identical (n = 7) from a mismatched (n = 1) or haploidentical (n = 1) sibling, from matched unrelated donor (n = 5), or from a single cord blood unit (n = 2)...
June 2018: Annals of Hematology
Akiyoshi Takami
Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) yields a high rate of curability for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it is also associated with transplant-related morbidity and mortality (TRM). The risk and severity of TRM increase with the use of an alternative donor graft in the absence of an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD). With the declining birthrate and aging of the population, the numbers of patients with an MSD are decreasing, and alternative donor transplants, including the post-transplant cyclophosphamide method using haplo-identical donors, are increasing...
May 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Ali Hussain Motagamwala, Wangyun Won, Canan Sener, David Martin Alonso, Christos T Maravelias, James A Dumesic
We report a process for converting fructose, at a high concentration (15 weight %), to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a monomer used in the production of polyethylene furanoate, a renewable plastic. In our process, fructose is dehydrated to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yields (70%) using a γ-valerolactone (GVL)/H2 O solvent system. HMF is subsequently oxidized to FDCA over a Pt/C catalyst with 93% yield. The advantage of our system is the higher solubility of FDCA in GVL/H2 O, which allows oxidation at high concentrations using a heterogeneous catalyst that eliminates the need for a homogeneous base...
January 2018: Science Advances
Marcel van den Brink, Markus Uhrberg, Lorenz Jahn, John F DiPersio, Michael A Pulsipher
The graft vs. leukemia (GvL) effect as a method of preventing relapse is well described after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but the mechanisms to this effect and how tumor sometimes develops resistance to GvL are just beginning to be understood. This article reviews and expands upon data presented at the Third International Workshop on Biology, Prevention and Treatment of Relapse after Stem Cell Transplantation held in Hamburg, Germany, in November 2016. We first discuss in detail the role that T-cell impairment early after HCT plays in relapse by looking at data from T cell-depleted approaches as well as the clear role that early T-cell recovery has shown in improving outcomes...
January 24, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Kate Markey, Rachel D Kuns, Daniel J Browne, Kate H Gartlan, Renee J Robb, J Paulo Martins, Andrea S Henden, Simone A Minnie, Melody Cheong, Motoko Koyama, Mark J Smyth, Raymond J Steptoe, Gabrielle Belz, Thomas Brocker, Mariapia A Degli-Esposti, Steven W Lane, Geoffrey R Hill
PURPOSE: Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) provides curative therapy for leukemia via immunological graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. In practice, this must be balanced against life threatening pathology induced by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recipient dendritic cells (DC) are thought to be important in the induction of GVL and GVHD. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have utilized preclinical models of allogeneic BMT to dissect the role and modulation of recipient DC in controlling donor T cell mediated GVHD and GVL...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Stella Robert, Jörn C Albring, Karin Frebel, Corinna Opitz, Jennifer Urh, Claudia Wolf, Christine Heinrich, Wolfgang E Berdel, Matthias Stelljes
Durable remissions of hematological malignancies regularly observed following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) are due to the conditioning regimen, as well as an immunological phenomenon called graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) or graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. The development of GVL is closely linked to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the main side effect associated with aHSCT. Both, GVHD and GVL are mediated by donor T cells that are initially activated by antigen-presenting cells that present recipient-derived alloantigens in the context of either matched or mismatched MHC class I molecules...
January 23, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Robert Zeiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Blood
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