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Anand Aggarwal, Kanika Chhabra, Prempal Kaur, Karamjit Singh, Indu Khosa, Pulkit Bansal
Visual field (VF) testing is an important diagnostic tool for Glaucoma. The current gold standard for VF testing is automated perimetry. This article is an attempt to familiarize the reader with components of an achromatic (white on white) automated perimetry printout. It addresses use of Humphrey perimeter to interpret the results. For the purpose of this review, a PubMed search was made using perimetry, Humphrey VFs review as key words and the relevant articles were studied. The references appended with these articles were also analyzed, and any appropriate article was also included...
January 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Brigid Ky Ning, Simon P Kelly, Celia Chu, Emile Morgan
A retired woman with left ophthalmic shingles of over 2 years' duration attended with bilateral vision loss and systemic upset. Acute retinal necrosis with detachment was detected on right fundus examination. Cataract in left eye precluded funduscopy. Ocular ultrasonography revealed fibrotic retinal detachment in the left eye. MRI brain and orbits also showed signals of retinal detachment. No abnormal MRI signal within the optic nerve or brain was found. Varicella zoster virus was detected in ocular aqueous and blood samples...
March 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ji Won Kim, JaeSang Ko, Young Jun Woo, Hyoung Won Bae, Jin Sook Yoon
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in patients with GO and to investigate the associations between clinical features of the disease and the prevalence of OHT and OAG. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among a total of 1128 patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including intraocular pressure, optic disc photography, visual field testing using a Humphrey visual field analyzer, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Andrew Bastawrous, Wanjiku Mathenge, John Buchan, Fatima Kyari, Tunde Peto, Hillary Rono, Helen A Weiss, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Matthew Burton, Hannah Kuper
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in people of African descent. Minimal data is available from African population-based cohort studies. The primary aims of this study were to describe the normative distribution of glaucoma features to enable glaucoma classification and to assess risk factors for those with glaucoma at follow-up among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Random cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size was used to select a representative cross-sectional sample of adults aged ≥50 years in 2007-8 in Nakuru District, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Lyndsay Brown, William Foulsham, Savva Pronin, Andrew J Tatham
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained using a rebound self-tonometer (Icare HOME) compared to Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). METHODS: An observational study of 100 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. All had a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and standard automated perimetry. IOP was assessed by GAT, Icare HOME and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), which was also used to assess corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Hessa S Alsaif, Arif O Khan, Nisha Patel, Hisham Alkuraya, Mais Hashem, Firdous Abdulwahab, Niema Ibrahim, Mohammed A Aldahmesh, Fowzan S Alkuraya
Primary congenital glaucoma is a trabecular meshwork dysgenesis with resultant increased intraocular pressure and ocular damage. CYP1B1 mutations remain the most common identifiable genetic cause. However, important questions about the penetrance of CYP1B1-related congenital glaucoma remain unanswered. Furthermore, mutations in other genes have been described although their exact contribution and potential genetic interaction, if any, with CYP1B1 mutations are not fully explored. In this study, we employed modern genomic approaches to re-examine CYP1B1-related congenital glaucoma...
March 19, 2018: Human Genetics
Rit Bahadur Gurung, Dae Hee Kim, Lila Kim, Albert W Lee, Yonglin Gao, Zhenhua Wang
We performed a series of toxicity studies on the safety of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt as a food ingredient. 6'-SL sodium salt, up to a maximum dose of 5000 μg/plate, did not increase the number of revertant colonies in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. A chromosomal aberration assay (using Chinese hamster lung cells) found no clastogenic effects at any concentration of 6'-SL sodium salt in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation...
March 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Flore De Bats, Pierre-Loïc Cornut, Benjamin Wolff, Laurent Kodjikian, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse
PURPOSE: To describe abnormal dark (hyposignal) and white (hypersignal) lesions observed on optical coherence tomography angiography in central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, and descriptive study including patients with active or quiescent central serous chorioretinopathy. All patients had undergone a complete ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Abnormal dark lesions were detected as "dark spots" and "dark areas" on optical coherence tomography angiography...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Nina Hautala, Mira Siiskonen, Virva Hannula, Kaisu Järvinen, Aura Falck
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual function and the ophthalmic status of young Finnish adults with long duration of type 1 diabetes in relation to the history of the metabolic control. METHODS: A population-based cohort of children with type 1 diabetes examined in the Northern Ostrobothnia hospital district in 1989 (n = 216) was re-examined 18 years later. High-contrast visual acuity (best-corrected visual acuity), contrast sensitivity, refractive error, lens status, intraocular pressure, stage of diabetic retinopathy and received treatments were evaluated...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Rohan Chawla, Amar Pujari, Kanhaiya Mittal, Vaishali Rakheja, Ashish Markan
Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) is a promising new imaging modality for assessing retinal and choroidal vasculature. Faster scanning speed, large number of A-scan acquisition, and enhanced depth penetration has enhanced the detailed analysis of retinal layers. The authors discuss SS-OCTA features of a rare case of retinal arteriovenous malformation. Image analysis revealed the anomalous large-caliber vessels occupying up to the entire retinal thickness with associated echolucent changes in the inner retinal layers surrounding the retinal vessels, along with disruption of the outer retinal layers, including the inner/outer segments of photoreceptors beneath the large tortuous vessels outside the foveola in absence of any capillary nonperfusion areas or lack of significant macular edema...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Roger A Goldberg, Katherine M Raja
The retinal lesion known as the presumed solitary circumscribed retinal astrocytic proliferation (pSCRAP) is a benign retinal tumor. Although many of the clinical characteristics of the lesion have been described, much about the pathogenesis of this uncommon tumor is not yet known. Here, the authors report a pSCRAP lesion in the fovea with secondary vision loss occurring in middle age. Structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans indicate that the lesion arises from the deep retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), whereas OCT angiography characteristics of the lesion show a lack of intrinsic or paralesional vascular flow, indicating that this lesion is fibrous and likely derived from the RPE or deep retina and not the retinal astrocytes...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Mahesh Shanmugam, Surabhi Ruia, Rajesh Ramanjulu, Divyansh Mishra
Scleral cyst is an unusual, rare clinical condition. Most of the cases reported have described the cyst to occur at the limbus, with or without involvement of the cornea. Posterior scleral cysts have seldom been reported in literature. This case report describes a postequatorial scleral cyst that may mimic a choroidal melanoma. Certain clinical features and swept-source optical coherence tomography are useful for elucidating the location of intraocular lesions anatomically, as well as distinguishing their structural characteristics...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Elie Motulsky, Fang Zheng, Guanghui Liu, Giovanni Gregori, Philip J Rosenfeld
To avoid fluorescein angiography in a pregnant woman diagnosed with a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) was performed and showed no evidence of decreased central retinal perfusion leading to the diagnosis of a nonischemic CRVO. Five months after an intravitreal injection of steroid, both her vision and the retinal appearance had returned to normal. This case demonstrates how a noninvasive, safe, 12 mm × 12 mm SS-OCTA image of a CRVO is useful in evaluating the retinal perfusion at presentation and follow-up during pregnancy...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Christiane Al-Haddad, Carl-Joe Mehanna, Karine Ismail
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated macular thickness in deprivational amblyopia and compared it to matched controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors present a cross-sectional study of patients with amblyopia from pediatric cataract and matched controls. Macular high-definition optical coherence tomography scans of each eye were acquired. Central macular thickness (CMT) and parafoveal thicknesses at 500 μm, 1,000 μm, and 1,500 μm in the nasal, temporal, inferior, and superior locations were measured...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Roy Tan, Rupesh Agrawal, Swathi Taduru, Arushi Gupta, Kiran Vupparaboina, Jay Chhablani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate structural changes in the choroid of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted comparing 35 eyes of 35 patients with RP and 26 eyes of 26 normal patients. OCT images of the choroid were binarized into luminal and stromal areas to derive choroidal vascularity index (CVI). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) was also measured and compared...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Michael E Jansen, Chelsey J Krambeer, Daniel S Kermany, Jana N Waters, Wayne Tie, Sepehr Bahadorani, Julia Singer, Jordan M Comstock, Kendall W Wannamaker, Michael A Singer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare cancellation and no-show rates in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and exudative macular degeneration (wet AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: An anonymous survey was sent to 1,726 retina specialists inquiring as to the number of appointments their patients with DME and wet AMD attended, cancelled, or did not show up for in 2014 and 2015. RESULTS: Data were obtained on 109,599 appointments...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Felipe F Conti, Fabiana Q Silva, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Andrew P Schachat, Rishi P Singh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the ASSESS study, patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration transitioned from other anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies to intravitreous aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY) injections (IAI). The purpose was to determine the 36-month outcomes following the change from a fixed 24-month IAI dosing regimen to a routine clinical practice regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were treated with a fixed bimonthly regimen for the first 2 years...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Zeynep Gursel Ozkurt, Naziha Salimani, Hakan Demirci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) features of choroidal hemangioma and changes following photodynamic therapy (PDT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 21 choroidal hemangiomas. RESULTS: On EDI-OCT, choroidal hemangioma showed low internal reflectivity in 47% of lesions and high internal reflectivity in 53%. The most common associated features were normal-looking honeycomb-like pattern in choriocapillaris in all lesions, inner segment/outer segment abnormality in 62%, photoreceptor outer segment abnormality in 62%, subretinal fluid with speckles in 62%, and shaggy photoreceptors in 57% of lesions...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Mohammed Ashraf, Touka Banaee, Fabiana Q Silva, Rishi P Singh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy is the treatment of choice for cases with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Switching to an alternate anti-VEGF has been suggested as a possible option for resistant cases. The purpose of this review is to evaluate whether the timing of switching affects treatment outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A review of published literature was performed looking at all studies where patients with refractory neovascular AMD were switched to an alternative anti-VEGF...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Gabriel Costa de Andrade, João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, André Maia, Michel Eid Farah, Somaia Mitne, Eduardo Büchele Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To describe the visual, tomographic, and electroretinographic findings in a patient with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion who was submitted to three consecutive intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept. METHODS: The patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, as well as optical coherence tomography and full-field electroretinography at baseline and 90 days after the first injection. RESULTS: The best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/400 to 20/40, and the central retinal thickness decreased from 791 μm to 198 μm after three consecutive intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept...
April 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
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