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Katherine R Grey, Erin M Warshaw
Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
Do Yeh Yoon, Se Joon Woo
PURPOSE: To report a case of a choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to ocular toxocariasis treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. METHODS: A 66-year-old woman presented with decreased vision (20/40) and metamorphopsia in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed inferotemporal retinal whitish lesion and subretinal hemorrhage in the right eye. RESULTS: She was diagnosed with ocular toxocariasis based on the clinical features and positive serological anti-toxocara antibody test result...
October 24, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Michele Lanza, Stefania Iaccarino, Gilda Varricchi, Tito D'Errico, Ugo Antonello Gironi Carnevale, Mario Bifani
PURPOSE: To evaluate light backscattering (LB) in corneal layers in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) utilizing in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to determine the eventual association with the lacrimal functional test values. METHODS: A complete ophthalmic evaluation, Schirmer test with and without stimulation, break-up time (BUT) and IVCM were performed on 55 patients affected by SSDE and in an age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy participants (HP)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Barbara McKenzie, Graeme Kay, Kerr H Matthews, Rachel Knott, Donald Cairns
Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterised by raised lysosomal levels of cystine in the cells of all organs. It is treated by regular administration of the aminothiol, cysteamine. Corneal crystal deposition is one of the most troublesome complications affecting patients and requires the hourly administration of cysteamine eye drops. In an attempt to reduce this frequency and improve the treatment, the preformulation and evaluation of cysteamine containing gels is reported. Suitability for ophthalmic delivery was determined by analysis of rheology, bioadhesion, dissolution and stability...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Christopher Schulz
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that there is greater benefit in a dissection-based anatomy course among those participants with clinical experience in the relevant field, and those without. DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study. SETTING: Brighton and Sussex Medical School Anatomy Department: an educational facility that provides undergraduate and postgraduate anatomy teaching using cadaveric specimens. PARTICIPANTS: All attendees (n = 40) to a postgraduate course in eye and orbital anatomy completed course evaluation forms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Roberta Carvalho Basile, Natalino Hajime Yoshinari, Elenice Mantovani, Virgínia Nazário Bonoldi, Delphim da Graça Macoris, Antonio de Queiroz-Neto
Borreliosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called Lyme disease in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Lyme-like or Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome in Brazil. However, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in Brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. Brazilian Lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. Thus, domestic animals can serve as key carriers in pathogen dissemination...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Michael X Repka, Trevano W Dean, Elizabeth L Lazar, Kimberly G Yen, Phoebe D Lenhart, Sharon F Freedman, Denise Hug, Bahram Rahmani, Serena X Wang, Raymond T Kraker, David K Wallace
OBJECTIVE: To describe baseline characteristics, initial postoperative refractive errors, operative complications, and magnitude of the intraocular lens (IOL) prediction error for refractive outcome in children undergoing lensectomy largely in North America. DESIGN: Prospective registry study of children from birth to <13 years of age who underwent lensectomy for any reason within 45 days preceding enrollment. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1266 eyes of 994 children; 49% female and 59% white...
October 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
Ademar Wong, Tiago Almeida Silva, Fernando Campanhã Vicentini, Orlando Fatibello-Filho
New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work by exploring the interesting properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ionic liquids (ILs). An electrochemical sensor based on the carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with GO and IL was developed for the sensitive detection of ofloxacin using square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry (SWAdASV). GO sheets were obtained from the acid treatment of graphene and characterized by scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the electrochemical behavior of the modified GO-IL/CPE was explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Hongli Li, Victoria M Hitchins, Samanthi Wickramasekara
Bacterial endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides bound to the bacterial cell wall and released when bacteria rupture or disintegrate. Possible contamination of endotoxin in ophthalmic devices can cause a painful eye inflammation or result in toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery. Measurement of bacterial endotoxin in medical device materials is difficult since endotoxin binds with polymer matrix and some of the materials are very viscous and non-water soluble, where traditional enzyme-based Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay cannot be applied...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Bo Li, Dustin Curts, Yiannis Iordanous, Alain Proulx, Sapna Sharan
To assess and evaluate the current level of ophthalmology knowledge and teaching curriculum in undergraduate year 3 (MS-3) at Western University. The Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum at Western University has instituted additional ophthalmology lecture series to all MS-3 students. A test on basic ophthalmic knowledge was administered to MS-3 students immediately before and after lecture series to evaluate the level of knowledge at baseline and after ophthalmology didactic teaching. An evaluation survey was also given to MS-3 students to assess students' self-perceived level of competency, exposure, and interests in ophthalmology...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Zainab Khan, Jordan Milko, Munir Iqbal, Moness Masri, David R P Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the power of unpaired t tests in prospective, randomized controlled trials when these tests failed to detect a statistically significant difference and to determine the frequency of type II errors. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We examined all prospective, randomized controlled trials published between 2010 and 2012 in 4 major ophthalmology journals (Archives of Ophthalmology, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, and American Journal of Ophthalmology)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Eddie Y Liu, Bo Li, Cindy M L Hutnik
Wet lab and surgical simulation can reduce the learning curve of difficult surgical techniques, accelerate the rate for trainees to achieve surgical competency, and improve patient safety. To provide the most up-to-date information and hands-on experiences with novel ophthalmic surgical techniques and instruments, the Department of Ophthalmology at Western University has created a wet lab-based, multilevel microsurgery skills transfer course through collaboration with various industry partners. Several elements in the course goal and design differentiate this type of surgical course from typical wet labs: the format is multileveled surgical training, with a beginner level targeting undergraduate medical students, an intermediate level for ophthalmology residents, and an advanced level for trained ophthalmologist...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Chai Kobkitsuksakul, Pakorn Jiarakongmun, Ekachat Chanthanaphak, Sirintara Pongpech
PURPOSE: The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinüs with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages...
October 21, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Rachel B Matusow, Ian P Herring, J Phillip Pickett, Natalia Henao-Guerrero, Stephen R Werre
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride-0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification. DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study. ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes). PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Saleem I Abdulrauf, Peter Vuong, Ritesh Patel, Raghu Sampath, Ahmed M Ashour, Lauren M Germany, Jonathon Lebovitz, Colt Brunson, Yuvraj Nijjar, J Kyle Dryden, Maheen Q Khan, Mihaela G Stefan, Evan Wiley, Ryan T Cleary, Connor Reis, Jodi Walsh, Paula Buchanan
OBJECTIVE Risk of ischemia during aneurysm surgery is significantly related to temporary clipping time and final clipping that might incorporate a perforator. In this study, the authors attempted to assess the potential added benefit to patient outcomes of "awake" neurological testing when compared with standard neurophysiological testing performed under general anesthesia. The procedure is performed after the induction of conscious sedation, and for the neurological testing, the patient is fully awake. METHODS The authors conducted an institutional review board-approved prospective study of clipping unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in 30 consecutive adult patients who underwent awake clipping...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Natasha Kishore Pahuja, Rohit Shetty, Abhijit Sinha Roy, Maithil Mukesh Thakkar, Chaitra Jayadev, Rudy Mma Nuijts, Harsha Nagaraja
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of corneal laser ablation with Q factor modification for vision correction in patients with progressive keratoconus. METHODS: In this prospective study, 50 eyes of 50 patients were divided into two groups based on Q factor (>-1 in Group I and ≤-1 in Group II). All patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination including uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), subjective acceptance and corneal topography using the Pentacam...
October 21, 2016: Current Eye Research
I Bravo-Osuna, V Andrés-Guerrero, P Pastoriza Abal, I T Molina-Martínez, R Herrero-Vanrell
Efficient treatment of ocular diseases can be achieved thanks to the proper use of ophthalmic formulations based on emerging pharmaceutical approaches. Among them, microtechnology and nanotechnology strategies are of great interest in the development of novel drug delivery systems to be used for ocular therapy. The location of the target site in the eye as well as the ophthalmic disease will determine the route of administration (topical, intraocular, periocular, and suprachoroidal administration) and the most adequate device...
October 20, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Dilsher S Dhoot, Robert L Avery
The prevalence of diabetes is growing at epidemic rates in the USA. Diabetic retinopathy develops in a large proportion of patients and is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Systemic management of diabetic retinopathy has included glycemic, hypertension, and lipid control. Local ophthalmic treatment in the form of focal/grid or panretinal laser photocoagulation has been shown to prevent vision loss in diabetic edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, respectively. The introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema and retinopathy has provided clinicians with improved clinical outcomes with potentially less damaging effects than laser...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Saieede Soltani, Parvin Zakeri-Milani, Mohammad Barzegar-Jalali, Mitra Jelvehgari
Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop, characterize, and comparatively investigate the ketotifen fumarate (KF) nanosuspensions (NSS) to enhance the permeability of KF. Methods: In the present work, the NSP and NSE were prepared by double-emulsion solvent evaporation/nanoprecipitation methods with poly (D,Llactide-co-glycolide) and Eudragit RL100 polymers, respectively. The loading efficiency, particle size, and polydispersity index of prepared different NSs were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and in vitro release and transcorneal permeation ...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Jinlu Yu, Yunbao Guo, Baofeng Xu, Kan Xu
The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is a very important artery in neurosurgery. Many diseases, including dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), pseudoaneurysm, true aneurysm, traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF), moyamoya disease (MMD), recurrent chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), migraine and meningioma, can involve the MMA. In these diseases, the lesions occur in either the MMA itself and treatment is necessary, or the MMA is used as the pathway to treat the lesions; therefore, the MMA is very important to the development and treatment of a variety of neurosurgical diseases...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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