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Autistic spectrum disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538871/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-interventions-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Larissa Lyra, Luiz Eduardo Rizzo, Camila Sá Sunahara, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524230/the-etiology-of-autistic-traits-in-preschoolers-a-population-based-twin-study
#2
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Rosa A Hoekstra, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable, but the exact etiological mechanisms underlying the condition are still unclear. METHODS: Using a multiple rater twin design in a large sample of general population preschool twins, this study aimed to (a) estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to autistic traits, controlling for the possible effects of rater bias, (b) to explore possible sex differences in etiology and (c) to investigate the discordance in autistic traits in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516421/differential-fairness-decisions-and-brain-responses-after-expressed-emotions-of-others-in-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Eduard T Klapwijk, Moji Aghajani, Gert-Jan Lelieveld, Natasja D J van Lang, Arne Popma, Nic J A van der Wee, Olivier F Colins, Robert R J M Vermeiren
Little is known about how emotions expressed by others influence social decisions and associated brain responses in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying fairness decisions in response to explicitly expressed emotions of others in boys with ASD and typically developing (TD) boys. Participants with ASD adjusted their allocation behavior in response to the emotions but reacted less unfair than TD controls in response to happiness. We also found reduced brain responses in the precental gyrus in the ASD versus TD group when receiving happy versus angry reactions and autistic traits were positively associated with activity in the postcentral gyrus...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513607/variants-in-ttc25-affect-autistic-trait-in-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-general-population
#4
Dina Vojinovic, Nathalie Brison, Shahzad Ahmad, Ilse Noens, Irene Pappa, Lennart C Karssen, Henning Tiemeier, Cornelia M van Duijn, Hilde Peeters, Najaf Amin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic architecture. To identify genetic variants underlying ASD, we performed single-variant and gene-based genome-wide association studies using a dense genotyping array containing over 2.3 million single-nucleotide variants in a discovery sample of 160 families with at least one child affected with non-syndromic ASD using a binary (ASD yes/no) phenotype and a quantitative autistic trait. Replication of the top findings was performed in Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) cohort study...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513182/-it-just-opens-up-their-world-autism-empathy-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-equine-interactions
#5
Roslyn Malcolm, Stefan Ecks, Martyn Pickersgill
Experiences of autism-spectrum disorder are now increasingly studied by social scientists. Human-animal relations have also become a major focus of social inquiry in recent years. Examining horse-assisted therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, this is the first paper that brings these fields together. Drawing on participant observation and interviews at a UK horse therapy Centre, this article examines how staff and the parents of riders account for the successes and limitations of equine therapy. To the respondents, horses 'open up' autistic children and make possible interactions that seemed impossible before...
May 17, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507316/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-autistic-traits-share-genetics-and-biology
#6
J Bralten, K J van Hulzen, M B Martens, T E Galesloot, A Arias Vasquez, L A Kiemeney, J K Buitelaar, J W Muntjewerff, B Franke, G Poelmans
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and autistic traits in the general population may share genetic susceptibility factors. In this study, we investigated such potential overlap based on common genetic variants. We developed and validated a self-report questionnaire of autistic traits in adults. We then conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of six trait scores derived from the questionnaire through exploratory factor analysis in 1981 adults from the general population. Using the results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS of ASDs, we observed genetic sharing between ASDs and the autistic traits 'childhood behavior', 'rigidity' and 'attention to detail'...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506622/meta-analyses-of-reln-variants-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#7
Na Chen, Yanping Bao, Yanxue Xue, Yan Sun, Die Hu, Shiqiu Meng, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Reelin is a critical extracellular matrix glycoprotein and implicated in neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders in animal model studies. The genetic polymorphism of RELN has also been reported to be associated with several psychiatric disorders, but the results remain controversial. Here, we conducted meta-analyses of RELN gene SNPs and related neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, autistic spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorders). A total of 12 SNPs (rs736707, rs362691, rs607755, rs2229864, rs7341475, rs262355, rs362719, rs11496125, g...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503910/post-zygotic-single-nucleotide-mosaicisms-contribute-to-the-etiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-autistic-traits-and-the-origin-of-mutations
#8
Yanmei Dou, Xiaoxu Yang, Ziyi Li, Sheng Wang, Zheng Zhang, Adam Yongxin Ye, Linlin Yan, Changhong Yang, Qixi Wu, Jiarui Li, Boxun Zhao, August Yue Huang, Liping Wei
The roles and characteristics of post-zygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms (pSNMs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain unclear. In this study of the whole-exomes of 2,321 families in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC), we identified 1,248 putative pSNMs in children and 285 de novo SNPs in children with detectable parental mosaicism. Ultra-deep amplicon resequencing suggested a validation rate of 51%. Analyses of validated pSNMs revealed that missense/loss-of-function (LoF) pSNMs with a high mutant allele fraction (MAF> = 0...
May 14, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502607/increased-serum-zonulin-levels-as-an-intestinal-permeability-marker-in-autistic-subjects
#9
Erman Esnafoglu, Selma Cırrık, Sema Nur Ayyıldız, Abdullah Erdil, Emine Yurdakul Ertürk, Abdullah Daglı, Tevfik Noyan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum levels of zonulin, which regulates tight junctions between enterocytes and is a physiological modulator controlling intestinal permeability, in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). STUDY DESIGN: Serum zonulin levels were determined in 32 patients with ASD and 33 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of ASD symptoms was assessed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. RESULTS: Serum zonulin levels were significantly higher in the patients with ASD (122...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492151/secretagogin-scgn-plasma-levels-and-their-association-with-cognitive-and-social-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#10
Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Laila Al -Ayadhi, Dost Muhammad Halepoto
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the secretagogin (SCGN) plasma levels in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to age and gender-matched healthy control, and its association with cognitive and social behaviors by using childhood autism rating scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS). STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2015 to May 2016...
April 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488981/a-survey-of-parents-with-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-experience-with-services-and-treatments
#11
Tracy A Becerra, Maria L Massolo, Vincent M Yau, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Frances L Lynch, Phillip M Crawford, Kathryn A Pearson, Magdalena E Pomichowski, Virginia P Quinn, Cathleen K Yoshida, Lisa A Croen
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lifelong neurodevelopmental disorders, and little is known about how parents address the health and psychosocial consequences of ASD. Few studies have examined use of various treatments and services in a large, diverse sample of children with ASD and their families. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents methods to create an autism research resource across multiple large health delivery systems and describes services and treatments used by children with ASD and their families...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485374/serum-glycopattern-and-maackia-amurensis-lectin-ii-binding-glycoproteins-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Yannan Qin, Yanni Chen, Juan Yang, Fei Wu, Lingyu Zhao, Fuquan Yang, Peng Xue, Zhuoyue Shi, Tusheng Song, Chen Huang
The pathophysiology of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood and there are no diagnostic or predictive biomarkers. Glycosylation modified as many as 70% of all human proteins can sensitively reflect various pathological changes. However, little is known about the alterations of glycosylation and glycoproteins in ASD. In this study, serum glycopattern and the maackia amurensis lectin-II binding glycoproteins (MBGs) in 65 children with ASD and 65 age-matched typically developing (TD) children were compared by using lectin microarrays and lectin-magnetic particle conjugate-assisted LC-MS/MS analyses...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484884/neuropilin-2-rs849563-gene-variations-and-susceptibility-to-autism-in-iranian-population-a-case-control-study
#13
Marziyeh Hosseinpour, Farhad Mashayekhi, Elham Bidabadi, Zivar Salehi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disruptions usually diagnosed in the first three years of child's life that characterized by some impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, problems in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. The neuropilin-2 (NRP2) gene has been shown to both guide axons and control neuronal migration in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study the association between the NRP2 gene and autism using a cohort of 120 Iranian children (50 cases with autism and 70 control cases) was analyzed...
May 8, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484720/eeg-based-computer-aided-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-wavelet-entropy-and-ann
#14
Ridha Djemal, Khalil AlSharabi, Sutrisno Ibrahim, Abdullah Alsuwailem
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder with core impairments in the social relationships, communication, imagination, or flexibility of thought and restricted repertoire of activity and interest. In this work, a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of autism ‎based on electroencephalography (EEG) signal analysis is investigated. The proposed method is based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT), entropy (En), and artificial neural network (ANN). DWT is used to decompose EEG signals into approximation and details coefficients to obtain EEG subbands...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484366/serum-oxytocin-levels-and-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism-rs2254298-indicate-social-deficits-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Shuhan Yang, Xiaopeng Dong, Xuan Guo, Yu Han, Hanbing Song, Lei Gao, Wei Dai, Yuanyuan Su, Xin Zhang
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) and its receptor (OXTR) have been predicted to be involved in the regulation of social functioning in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objective of the study was to investigate serum OT levels and the OXTR rs2254298 polymorphism in Chinese Han children and adolescents with ASD as well as to identify their social deficits relevant to the oxytocinergic system. We tested serum OT levels using ELISA in 55 ASD subjects and 110 typically developing (TD) controls as well as genotyped the OXTR rs2254298 polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 100 ASD subjects and 232 TD controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476357/a-sound-advantage-increased-auditory-capacity-in-autism
#16
Anna Remington, Jake Fairnie
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has an intriguing auditory processing profile. Individuals show enhanced pitch discrimination, yet often find seemingly innocuous sounds distressing. This study used two behavioural experiments to examine whether an increased capacity for processing sounds in ASD could underlie both the difficulties and enhanced abilities found in the auditory domain. Autistic and non-autistic young adults performed a set of auditory detection and identification tasks designed to tax processing capacity and establish the extent of perceptual capacity in each population...
April 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468556/suicidality-in-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#17
Sofia Zahid, Rachel Upthegrove
BACKGROUND: It is suggested that people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may be at increased risk of suicide; however, research on this topic has been minimal and there are conflicting reports in existing studies. AIM: To bring together research investigating the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbid factors of suicidality in ASD. METHOD: A systematic search was performed of Medline, Psych Info, Embase, and the Web of Science following PRISMA guidelines...
May 3, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457143/typical-skin-injuries-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Brett Slingsby, Yvette Yatchmink, Amy Goldberg
Pediatric skin injuries have primarily been described in typically developing children. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and pattern of skin injuries of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), to describe how this compared with previously demonstrated skin injury locations in typically developing children, and to identify differences in skin injury frequency and locations between autistic children with and without self-injurious behaviors (SIBs). Children with ASD were recruited between September of 2011 and September of 2014...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450094/adverse-effects-of-prenatal-and-early-postnatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs-validation-from-clinical-and-basic-researches
#19
REVIEW
Kimino Fujimura, Takayuki Mitsuhashi, Takao Takahashi
Epilepsy requires the long-term administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and thus, we must consider the effects of prenatal AED exposure on fetus when treating female patients of child bearing age. Large prospective clinical researches in humans have demonstrated the following: (1) prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), carbamazepine, and phenobarbital increases the risk of congenital malformations in a dose-dependent manner and (2) prenatal exposure to VPA increases the risk of higher brain function impairments including intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders in the offspring...
April 24, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448061/grand-maternal-smoking-in-pregnancy-and-grandchild-s-autistic-traits-and-diagnosed-autism
#20
Jean Golding, Genette Ellis, Steven Gregory, Karen Birmingham, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Dheeraj Rai, Marcus Pembrey
Although there is considerable research into the genetic background of autism spectrum disorders, environmental factors are likely to contribute to the variation in prevalence over time. Rodent experiments indicate that environmental exposures can have effects on subsequent generations, and human studies indicate that parental prenatal exposures may play a part in developmental variation. Here we use the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test the hypothesis that if the mother or father (F1) had been exposed to their own mother's (F0) smoking during pregnancy, the offspring (F2) would be at increased risk of autism...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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