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Non-Dieting Approaches to Weight Release

Paula Alves Monteiro, Wagner Prado, Thiago Ricardo Dos Santos Tenório, Luciane Magri Tomaz, David H St-Pierre, Fabio Santos Lira
Over the recent years, a particular interest was shown towards understanding the roles of excessive hepatic fat accumulation and the development of obesity-related diseases. While hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation seems to be a response to the systemic increase of insulin release, fatty acid metabolites contribute to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is widely accepted that NAFLD is a polygenic and multifactorial disease under the influence of critical behavioral factors such as overeating and sedentary lifestyles...
May 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
A J Desai, M Dong, K G Harikumar, L J Miller
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a central role in nutritional homeostasis, as location for food ingestion, digestion and absorption, with the gut endocrine system responding to and regulating these events, as well as influencing appetite. One key GI hormone with the full spectrum of these activities is cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide released from neuroendocrine I cells scattered through the proximal intestine in response to fat and protein, with effects to stimulate gall bladder contraction and pancreatic exocrine secretion, to regulate gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and to induce satiety...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
Bernadette E Grayson, Andrew P Hakala-Finch, Melani Kekulawala, Holly Laub, Ann E Egan, Ilana B Ressler, Stephen C Woods, James P Herman, Randy J Seeley, Stephen C Benoit, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in five groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n = 7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n = 11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n = 11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n = 11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n = 12)...
December 2014: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
María Jesús Rodríguez San Felipe, Alicia Aguilar Martínez, Begoña Manuel-y-Keenoy
Obesity combined with breast cancer is a public health problem, given the high incidence and prevalence of both diseases. The aim of this review is to determine the current status of research on the relationship between the body weight of breast cancer patients and their prognosis. Overweight and obesity at the time of diagnosis are associated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer survivors. Observational studies show that breast cancer mortality is 33% higher in obese than in non-obese survivors. Furthermore, weight gain after diagnosis is common in these patients and is even greater in those receiving chemotherapy...
November 2013: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Fei Wang, De Run Tian, Patrick Tso, Ji Sheng Han
Obesity is a major health problem in the world. Since effective remedies are rare, researchers are trying to discover new therapies for obesity, and acupuncture is among the most popular alternative approaches. This study investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of EA, using a rat model of diet-induced obesity. After feeding with a high-fat diet for 9 weeks, a number of rats who gained weight that surpassed the maximal body weight of rats in the chow-fed group were considered obese and employed in the study...
December 2011: Peptides
Brigitta Kleessen, Michael Blaut
Non-digestible inulin-type fructans, such as oligofructose and high-molecular-weight inulin, have been shown to have the ability to alter the intestinal microbiota composition in such a way that members of the microbial community, generally considered as health-promoting, are stimulated. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are the most frequently targeted organisms. Less information exists on effects of inulin-type fructans on the composition, metabolism and health-related significance of bacteria at or near the mucosa surface or in the mucus layer forming mucosa-associated biofilms...
April 2005: British Journal of Nutrition
Thomas H Bothwell, A Patrick MacPhail
Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a hexadentate chelator, which can combine with virtually every metal in the periodic table. CaNa2EDTA and Na2EDTA (ADI 2.5 mg EDTA/kg body weight/day) are widely used as sequestering agents in canned products, while NaFeEDTA is a promising iron fortificant. Binding of EDTA with iron is favored in the acid milieu of the stomach, irrespective of whether the EDTA is administered as CaNa2EDTA, Na2EDTA, or NaFeEDTA, but in the more alkaline medium of the duodenum the iron is exchanged, in part, with other metals...
November 2004: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
C A Reasner
Insulin resistance in liver and muscle tissue, together with beta-cell secretory defects, leads to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the early stages of this progressive disorder, glycaemic control can be established through diet and exercise alone. Indeed, in some patients, marked weight reduction can lead to normalized fasting blood glucose. As a consequence, pharmacological approaches to weight loss have been investigated as a new option for the management of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. The serotonin- and noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitor sibutramine has emerged as the most promising agent in the treatment of obesity, although it appears to be less effective in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients...
May 1999: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
A Melander
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) progresses to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many but not all IGT subjects. It remains unsettled whether long-term antidiabetic (i.e. antihyperglycaemic) pharmacotherapy delays the development of NIDDM, and whether such treatment influences macrovascular morbidity and mortality. This report summarizes the results from long-term (> 4 years) antihyperglycaemic interventions addressing these issues. In an American study, tolbutamide (0.5 g 2-3 times daily) promoted a 4-year improvement of glucose tolerance in young, non-obese, mildly diabetic asymptomatic subjects who apparently comprised a mixture of IGT and NIDDM...
September 1998: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
P Rösen, P Ohly, H Gleichmann
OBJECTIVE: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is often associated with hypertension leading to a specifically high cardiovascular risk in these patients. However, there is evidence that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia are not only characteristic for diabetic patients but also for some non-diabetic populations in which a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors is observed (hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, obesity). Therefore, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance have been suggested to be of major pathophysiological importance for the development of this syndrome (syndrome X)...
January 1997: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
I Singh, P K Khanna, M C Srivastava, R S Hoon
Sixty unselected survivors from ischaemic heart disease, all male service personnel, were treated, within 1 to 6 months of recovery from the acute episode, by promotion of physical activity, correction of coronary risk factors, and routine use of nicoumalone and prenylamine lactate. The results showed that this approach was conducive to more rewarding rehabilitation than was obtained in 89 patients who, in the past, were on conventional treatment based on advice regarding weight, diet, and physical and mental activity...
September 1970: British Heart Journal
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