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Obesity Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334717/-the-ten-year-retrospect-of-nutrition-and-health-status-of-pregnant-women-in-china
#1
C X Dong, S A Yin
Improvement of the nutrition and health status of pregnant women should be one of the top priority strategies of improving the physical fitness of next generation and reserve of talented person for national sustainable development. This paper reviews the nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China over the recent ten years and discusses the underlying factors and changing trends. The most popular nutrition-related problem is dietary imbalance, and many micronutrient intakes are lower than the recommended dietary intakes or adequate intakes, and some of nutrient intakes are still at a very low level for a long time such as vitamin D and calcium...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334695/complex-interplay-among-adiposity-insulin-resistance-and-bone-health
#2
REVIEW
C Ma, K T Tonks, J R Center, D Samocha-Bonet, J R Greenfield
Obesity and osteoporosis are common public health problems. Paradoxically, while obesity is associated with higher bone density, type 2 diabetic obese individuals have an increased fracture risk. Although obesity and insulin resistance co-exist, some obese individuals remain insulin-sensitive. We suggest that the apparent paradox relating obesity, bone density and fracture risk in type 2 diabetes may be at least partly influenced by differences in bone strength and quality between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive obese individuals...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334265/prevalence-and-covariates-of-uncontrolled-hypertension-in-ischemic-stroke-survivors-the-norwegian-stroke-in-the-young-study
#3
Åshild Oftedal, Eva Gerdts, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Annette Fromm, Halvor Naess, Anja Linde, Sahrai Saeed
PURPOSE: Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke. Few data are available on control of hypertension in younger ischemic stroke survivors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements in 320 patients aged 15-60 years (mean 48 ± 10) included in the Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study during 3-months follow-up after the index stroke. Controlled hypertension was defined as ambulatory BP <130/80 mmHg...
January 15, 2018: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333826/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#4
Gustavo Cediel, Johanna Pacheco-Acosta, Carlos CastiUo-Durdn
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D research suggests it has a role in disorders other than bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To update the information on vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pediatric clinical disorders. METHODS: Search in virtual libraries, giving priority to clinical and longitudinal studies and meta-analyses on VDD in the pediatric age group published in the past 20 years. The terms "vitamin D deficiency", "children and adolescents" (both in Spanish and English) were used as search descriptors...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333376/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-obesity-properties-of-food-bioactive-components-effects-on-adipose-tissue
#5
REVIEW
Shasika Jayarathne, Iurii Koboziev, Oak-Hee Park, Wilna Oldewage-Theron, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity is an epidemic and costly disease affecting 13% of the adult population worldwide. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as pathologic endocrine alterations of adipose tissue including local and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, this inflammation is a risk factor for both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance. Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that foods containing bioactive compounds are capable of preventing both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving obesity-associated MetS in human subjects and animal models of obesity...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333341/preventive-effects-of-salvia-officinalis-leaf-extract-on-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-a-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-that-responds-to-rosiglitazone
#6
Mohamed R Ben Khedher, Mohamed Hammami, Jonathan R S Arch, David C Hislop, Dominic Eze, Edward T Wargent, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Mohamed S Zaibi
Background: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg-1/day bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg kg-1/day bid), as a positive control...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333111/diet-gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-prevention-a-review-of-potential-mechanisms-and-promising-targets-for-future-research
#7
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333102/an-amino-acids-mixture-attenuates-glycemic-impairment-but-not-affects-adiposity-development-in-rats-fed-with-ages-containing-diet
#8
Yi-Hung Liao, Chung-Yu Chen, Chiao-Nan Chen, Chia-Ying Wu, Shiow-Chwen Tsai
Background: Unhealthy western dietary patterns lead to over-consumption of fat and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and these account for the developments of obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. Certain amino acids (AAs) have been recently demonstrated to improve glycemia and reduce adiposity. Therefore, our primary aims were to examine whether feeding an isoleucine-enriched AA mixture (4.5% AAs; Ile: 3.0%, Leu: 1.0%, Val: 0.2%, Arg: 0.3% in the drinking water) would affect adiposity development and prevent the impairments of glycemic control in rats fed with the fat/AGE-containing diet (FAD)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332935/novel-treatment-strategies-for-chronic-kidney-disease-insights-from-the-animal-kingdom
#9
REVIEW
Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332042/protective-effects-of-indian-spice-curcumin-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Mary Catherine Grady, Andrew Mitchell, Sahil Tonk, Chandra Sekhar Kuruva, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Ramesh Kandimalla, Murali Vijayan, Subodh Kumar, Rui Wang, Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran, Gilbert Ogunmokun, Kavya Thamarai, Kandi Quesada, Annette Boles, Arubala P Reddy
The purpose of our article is to assess the current understanding of Indian spice, curcumin, against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Natural products, such as ginger, curcumin, and gingko biloba have been used as diets and dietary supplements to treat human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndromes, and neurological disorders. Products derived from plants are known to have protective effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-arthritis, pro-healing, and boosting memory cognitive functions...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332017/insulin-resistance-and-lung-function-in-obese-asthmatic-pre-pubertal-children
#11
Paola Di Filippo, Alessandra Scaparrotta, Daniele Rapino, Tommaso de Giorgis, Marianna Immacolata Petrosino, Marina Attanasi, Sabrina Di Pillo, Francesco Chiarelli, Angelika Mohn
BACKGROUND: Recent findings have supposed that the underlying association between the increased prevalence of both asthma and obesity may be insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: Insulin and glucose serum levels were analyzed to calculate the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for IR in 98 pre-pubertal children. Lung function and allergy status evaluation were performed. The study population was divided into four groups: (1) obese asthmatic children (ObA); (2) normal-weight asthmatic children (NwA); (3) normal-weight non-asthmatic children (Nw) and (4) obese non-asthmatic children (Ob)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331993/increased-leisure-time-physical-activity-associated-with-lower-onset-of-diabetes-in-44%C3%A2-828-adults-with-impaired-fasting-glucose-a-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Xiang Qian Lao, Han-Bing Deng, Xudong Liu, Ta-Chien Chan, Zilong Zhang, Ly-Yun Chang, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Tony Tam, Martin Chi Sang Wong, G Neil Thomas
AIMS: To evaluate the effects of habitual leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on incident type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort of Chinese adults with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: 44 828 Chinese adults aged 20-80 years with newly detected IFG but free from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Incident type 2 diabetes was identified by fasting plasma glucose ≥7 mmol/L. The participants were classified into four categories based on their self-reported weekly LTPA: inactive, low, moderate, or high...
January 13, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331761/prevention-of-articular-cartilage-degeneration-in-a-rat-model-of-monosodium-iodoacetate-induced-osteoarthritis-by-oral-treatment-with-withaferin-a
#13
Dharmendra Choudhary, Sulekha Adhikary, Naseer Ahmad, Priyanka Kothari, Ashwni Verma, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra, Ritu Trivedi
Withaferin A (WFA), a highly oxygenated withanolide is used for anti-osteoporotic, fracture healing, obesity control as medicine and dietary supplement in Ayurveda and Unani medicine but its potential remains to be investigate for the osteoarthritis studies. In the present study, chondro-protective effects of WFA, under in vitro and in vivo conditions were evaluated. In-vitro pharmacological activity of WFA was tested on rat articular chondrocytes through MTT, DPPH, different staining, FACS and translation studies...
January 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331698/exploring-metabolic-factors-and-health-behaviors-in-relation-to-suicide-attempts-a-case-control-study
#14
Stefan Perera, Rebecca B Eisen, Meha Bhatt, Brittany B Dennis, Monica Bawor, Wala El-Sheikh, Jane DeJesus, Sumathy Rangarajan, Heather Sholer, Elisabeth Iordan, Pam Mackie, Shofiqul Islam, Mahshid Dehghan, Jennifer Brasch, David Meyre, Russell de Souza, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts are a serious public health concern with devastating global impact, thereby necessitating the development of an adequate prevention strategy. Few known risk factors of suicide attempts are directly modifiable. This study sought to investigate potential associations between health behaviors and suicide attempts, identifying novel opportunities for clinicians to help prevent suicidal behavior. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to compare body weight, serum total cholesterol, physical activity, tobacco use, and dietary food groups among adults who had made a suicide attempt (n = 84) to psychiatric inpatients (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) without history of suicide attempt...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331535/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiometabolic-dysfunction-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats-through-the-impairment-of-cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics
#15
Wanitchaya Minta, Siripong Palee, Duangkamol Mantor, Wissuta Sutham, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Sasiwan Kerdpoo, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Sirinart Kumfu, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
The incidence of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome increases after the onset of menopause, suggesting estrogen has a vital role in their prevention. Mitochondrial dynamics are known to play an important role in the maintenance of cardiac physiological function. However, the effects of estrogen deprivation on cardiometabolic status and cardiac mitochondrial dynamics under conditions of obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. We hypothesized that estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac dysfunction through increased cardiac mitochondrial fission in obese-insulin resistant rats...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330646/potential-impact-of-sglt2-inhibitors-on-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Hidekazu Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Hirata
The pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM)-related cardiac dysfunction is thought to be multifactorial, and possibly a key factor for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in patients with DM and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for HFpEF, which is presented as LV diastolic dysfunction. Furthermore, it is well known that, in addition to DM, hypertension and overweight/obesity are also important factors associated with HFpEF...
January 12, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330025/the-role-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-perspectives-and-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Maria Dalamaga, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Christos S Mantzoros
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (Nampt) or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin represents a pleiotropic molecule acting as an enzyme, a cytokine and a growth factor. Intracellular Nampt plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, particularly NAD biosynthesis. NAD biosynthesis is critical in DNA repair, oncogenic signal transduction, transcription, genomic integrity and apoptosis. Although its insulin-mimetic function remains a controversial issue, extracellular Nampt presents proliferative, anti-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and metastatic properties...
January 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#18
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328940/first-trimester-serum-biomarkers-to-predict-gestational-diabetes-in-a-high-risk-cohort-striving-for-clinically-useful-thresholds
#19
Siobhan M Corcoran, Natalie Achamallah, John O' Loughlin, Philip Stafford, Pat Dicker, Fergal D Malone, Fionnuala Breathnach
OBJECTIVES: Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been a source of controversy. The prevalence has increased in line with an obesity epidemic and a trend towards delayed child-bearing. Treatment of even modest glycaemic impairment in pregnancy has been shown to be beneficial in preventing its clinical sequalae. However the cumbersome nature and timing of the oral glucose tolerance test coupled with debate around universal versus risk factor based screening have been problematic...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328039/influence-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-condition-of-microcirculatory-bed-of-oral-cavity
#20
O Denga, T Pyndus, V Gargin, S Schneider
Metabolic syndrome (MS) can be characterized as the clustering of combination of impaired glucose regulation, metabolic disorders accompanied by abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Detection of changes in microcirculatory bed (MCB) of oral cavity in metabolic syndrome could be important for completion of gap for developing of adequate therapeutical measure for prevention of pathological periodontal disorder that was the purpose of our study. We performed experimental investigation with modulation of MS (on white male rats 1...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
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