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Obesity Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346924/early-life-antibiotic-exposure-gut-microbiota-development-and-predisposition-to-obesity
#1
Meghan B Azad, Shirin Moossavi, Arthur Owora, Shadi Sepehri
Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical periods of early development may influence weight gain and the development of obesity. Complementary research in both humans and rodents indicates that gut microbiota play a key role in this process, although further research is needed to confirm and characterize the causal mechanisms involved...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346921/bacterial-colonization-of-the-newborn-gut-immune-development-and-prevention-of-disease
#2
W Allan Walker
We now know that the fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment but is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut which cross the placenta and infiltrate the amniotic fluid. This exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life, and it has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Cross talk with colonizing bacteria in the developing neonatal intestine helps in the initial adaptation of the infant to extrauterine life, particularly in acquiring immune homeostasis, and provides protection against disease expression (e...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346564/the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-10-year-trajectories-of-physical-functioning-in-middle-aged-and-older-russians-prospective-results-of-the-russian-hapiee-study
#3
Y Hu, S Malyutina, H Pikhart, A Peasey, M V Holmes, J Hubacek, D Denisova, Y Nikitin, M Bobak
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of overweight and obesity with longitudinal decline in physical functioning (PF) among middle-aged and older Russians. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Four rounds of data collection in the Russian Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study with up to 10 years of follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: 9,222 men and women aged 45-69 years randomly selected from the population of two districts of Novosibirsk, Russia...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346348/vitamin-d-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis-patients
#4
REVIEW
Guillaume Jean, Jean Claude Souberbielle, Charles Chazot
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345769/best-practice-policy-statement-on-urodynamic-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-non-index-patient
#5
REVIEW
Anne P Cameron, Lysanne Campeau, Benjamin M Brucker, J Quentin Clemens, Gregory T Bales, Michael E Albo, Michael J Kennelly
AIMS: Antibiotic prophylaxis before urodynamic testing (UDS) is widely utilized to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) with only limited guidance. The Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine, and Urogenital Reconstruction (SUFU) convened a Best Practice Policy Panel to formulate recommendations on the urodynamic antibiotic prophylaxis in the non-index patient. METHODS: Recommendations are based on a literature review and the Panel's expert opinion, with all recommendations graded using the Oxford grading system...
March 27, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345766/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-exercise-training-independently-and-additively-decreases-blood-pressure-and-prevents-diastolic-dysfunction-in-obese-zucker-rats
#6
Pierre-Andre Barbeau, Tanya M Holloway, Jamie Whitfield, Brittany Baechler, Joe Quadrilatero, Luc J C van Loon, Adrian Chabowski, Graham P Holloway
While α-linolenic acid (ALA) and endurance exercise training independently attenuate hyperlipidemia-related cardiovascular derangements, there is a paucity of information pertaining to their mechanisms-of-action and efficacy when combined as a preventative therapeutic approach. Therefore, we used obese Zucker rats to investigate the independent and combined effects of these interventions on cardiovascular disease. Specifically, animals were randomly assigned to one of the following: control diet-sedentary (C-Sed), ALA supplemented-sedentary (ALA-Sed), control diet-exercise trained (C-Ex), or ALA supplemented-exercise trained (ALA-Ex)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345673/sex-dependent-effects-on-gut-microbiota-regulate-hepatic-carcinogenic-outcomes
#7
Guoxiang Xie, Xiaoning Wang, Aihua Zhao, Jingyu Yan, Wenlian Chen, Runqiu Jiang, Junfang Ji, Fengjie Huang, Yunjing Zhang, Sha Lei, Kun Ge, Xiaojiao Zheng, Cynthia Rajani, Rosanna A Alegado, Jiajian Liu, Ping Liu, Jeremy Nicholson, Wei Jia
Emerging evidence points to a strong association between sex and gut microbiota, bile acids (BAs), and gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we investigated the mechanistic link between microbiota and hepatocellular carcinogenesis using a streptozotocin-high fat diet (STZ-HFD) induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) murine model and compared results for both sexes. STZ-HFD feeding induced a much higher incidence of HCC in male mice with substantially increased intrahepatic retention of hydrophobic BAs and decreased hepatic expression of tumor-suppressive microRNAs...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345527/prevalence-and-factors-promoting-the-occurrence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-the-elderly
#8
Magdalena Wyskida, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Jerzy Chudek
Vitamin D deficiency affects a large part of the population of elderly people, especially women, who live in moderate climate countries due to a reduced amount of vitamin D in the diet (small sea fish consumption) and reduced content of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which causes decreased skin synthesis. The lowest seasonal concentration of 25(OH)D3 is usually observed during winter and spring. Sun exposure influences 25(OH)D3 concentration more strongly in men than in women. Sociodemographic factors that increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly include poor environmental conditions, low economic status, lower educational level, drug exposure (smoking), reduced physical activity, overall poor health and obesity, which causes reduced skin exposure to sunlight...
March 13, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344053/reduced-cancer-mortality-at-high-altitude-the-role-of-glucose-lipids-iron-and-physical-activity
#9
M Thiersch, E R Swenson, T Haider, M Gassmann
Residency at high altitude (HA) demands adaptation to challenging environmental conditions with hypobaric hypoxia being the most important one. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that chronic exposure to HA reduces cancer mortality and lowers prevalence of metabolic disorders like diabetes and obesity implying that adaption to HA modifies a broad spectrum of physiological, metabolic and cellular programs with a generally beneficial outcome for humans. However, the complexity of multiple, potentially tumor-suppressive pathways at HA impedes the understanding of mechanisms leading to reduced cancer mortality...
March 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344017/intranasal-delivery-of-n-terminal-modified-leptin-pluronic-conjugate-for-treatment-of-obesity
#10
Dongfen Yuan, Xiang Yi, Yuling Zhao, Chi-Duen Poon, Kristin M Bullock, Kim M Hansen, Therese S Salameh, Susan A Farr, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov
Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is delivered via a specific transport system across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the brain where it acts on the hypothalamus receptors to control appetite and thermogenesis. Peripheral resistance to leptin due to its impaired brain delivery prevents therapeutic use of leptin in overweight and moderately obese patients. To address this problem, we modified the N-terminal amine of leptin with Pluronic P85 (LepNP85) and administered this conjugate intranasally using the nose-to-brain (INB) route to bypass the BBB...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341623/twenty-miles-per-hour-speed-limits-a-sustainable-solution-to-public-health-problems-in-wales
#11
Sarah J Jones, Huw Brunt
BACKGROUND: Prevention, rather than treatment, is the key to longer healthier lives. Identifying interventions that will impact positively on road traffic injuries, air quality and encourage active travel is a significant public health challenge. This paper aimed to explore whether 20 mph limits could be useful in achieving this. METHODS: Research evidence was reviewed to identify the effect of 20 mph zones and limits on health and well-being. The evidence was then used to estimate the effect of a change to a 20 mph limit on road traffic casualties and air pollution...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341607/do-emotion-regulation-difficulties-when-upset-influence-the-association-between-dietary-restraint-and-weight-gain-among-college-students
#12
Tyler K Hunt, Kelsie T Forbush, Kelsey E Hagan, Danielle A N Chapa
Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects more than one-fifth of adolescents aged 12-19 in the United States. Theoretical models suggest that prolonged dietary restraint leads to binge-eating behaviors, which in turn increases individuals' risk for weight gain or obesity. Results from the literature indicate a potential role for negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) as a mediating variable that explains the link between dietary restraint and binge-eating episodes. The current study tested short-term, prospective longitudinal associations among dietary restraint, binge eating, negative urgency, and weight gain among college students - a population at increased risk for the development of overweight and obesity...
March 22, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341541/pro-resolving-actions-of-spm-in-adipose-tissue-biology
#13
REVIEW
Joan Clària, Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, Esther Titos
White adipose tissue plays an important endocrine role in balancing metabolic homeostasis. During conditions of nutrient excess, as occurs in obesity, there is an expansion of adipose tissue mass that triggers a state of "low-grade" inflammation in this tissue. This chronic, unresolved inflammation of adipose tissue is deleterious and leads to many pathological sequelae associated with obesity including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recently, a novel genus of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators endogenously generated from membrane phospholipid-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids has been identified during the resolution phase of acute inflammation...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341330/community-perspectives-on-the-use-of-regulation-and-law-for-obesity-prevention-in-children-a-citizens-jury
#14
Jackie M Street, Jana Sisnowski, Rebecca Tooher, Lucy C Farrell, Annette J Braunack-Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is a significant challenge for public health internationally. Regulatory and fiscal measures propagated by governments offer a potentially effective response to this issue. Fearing public criticism, governments are often reluctant to use such measures. In this study we asked a descriptively representative and informed group of Australians their views on the use of legislation and fiscal measures by governments to address childhood obesity. METHODS: A citizens' jury, held in South Australia in April 2015, was asked to consider the question: What laws, if any, should we have in Australia to address childhood obesity? RESULTS: The jury agreed that prevention of obesity was complex requiring multifaceted government intervention...
March 12, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341271/obesity-and-kidney-disease-from-population-to%C3%A2-basic-science-and-the-search-for-new-therapeutic%C3%A2-targets
#15
REVIEW
Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
The global burden of kidney disease is increasing strikingly in parallel with increases in obesity and diabetes. Indeed, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) coupled with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension cost the health care system hundreds of billions of dollars in the US alone. The progression to ESRD in patients with obesity and diabetes continues despite widespread use of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) along with aggressive blood pressure and glycemic control in these high-risk populations...
March 21, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340973/multilevel-interventions-targeting-obesity-research-recommendations-for-vulnerable-populations
#16
June Stevens, Charlotte Pratt, Josephine Boyington, Cheryl Nelson, Kimberly P Truesdale, Dianne S Ward, Leslie Lytle, Nancy E Sherwood, Thomas N Robinson, Shirley Moore, Shari Barkin, Ying Kuen Cheung, David M Murray
INTRODUCTION: The origins of obesity are complex and multifaceted. To be successful, an intervention aiming to prevent or treat obesity may need to address multiple layers of biological, social, and environmental influences. METHODS: NIH recognizes the importance of identifying effective strategies to combat obesity, particularly in high-risk and disadvantaged populations with heightened susceptibility to obesity and subsequent metabolic sequelae. To move this work forward, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and NIH Office of Disease Prevention convened a working group to inform research on multilevel obesity interventions in vulnerable populations...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340870/collaboration-is-key-for-successful-treatment-of-youth-onset-type-2-diabetes
#17
Lisal J Folsom, Tamara S Hannon
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in U.S. adolescents, particularly those of ethnic and racial minority groups. Risk factors for youth-onset T2D include obesity, family history of T2D, poor diet, lack of exercise, and poverty. The onset of diabetes-related complications is accelerated in adolescents with T2D compared to adults, and knowledge regarding the optimal way to prevent and slow complications is lacking. Existing treatment options are limited, and research into novel pharmacologic treatments is hindered by lack of sufficient patient population for clinical trials...
April 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337849/early-infancy-interventions-to-prevent-childhood-obesity
#18
Matthew W Gillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337245/multifarious-beneficial-effect-of-nonessential-amino-acid-glycine-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Meerza Abdul Razak, Pathan Shajahan Begum, Buddolla Viswanath, Senthilkumar Rajagopal
Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337143/anti-adipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-pre-adipocytes-and-obese-mice
#20
Longyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Hongwei Si
Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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