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liver trial cancer

Miaomiao Gou, Haiyan Si, Yong Zhang, Niansong Qian, Zhikuan Wang, Weiwei Shi, Guanghai Dai
No definitive treatment strategy has been established for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who experienced progression after three or more lines of chemotherapy. A total of 36 mCRC patients were enrolled in this retrospective study who received apatinib therapy under non-clinical trial setting after progression in People's liberation army general Hospital from March 2015 and August 2017. Progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), objective response rate (ORR) and treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were reviewed and evaluated...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Myung Han Hyun, Young-Sun Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Chan Uk Lee, Young Kul Jung, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun
According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease treatment guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of surgery has been expanded beyond the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm. We compared primary hepatectomy (PH) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with intermediate to advanced (BCLC stage-B/C) stage HCC to determine the current evidence. Through database search, we included 18 high-quality studies (1 randomized controlled trial [RCT], 5 propensity-score matching non-randomized comparative trials [NRCT], and 12 NRCTs) that compared survival outcomes of 5,986 patients after PH and TACE...
March 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Qianjin Li, Omar Awad Alsaidan, Yongjie Ma, Sungjin Kim, Junchen Liu, Thomas Albers, Kebin Liu, Zanna Beharry, Shaying Zhao, Fen Wang, Iryna Lebedyeva, Houjian Cai
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling facilitates tumor initiation and progression. Although currently approved inhibitors of FGFR kinase have shown therapeutic benefit in clinical trials, over-expression or mutations of FGFRs eventually confer drug resistance and thereby abrogate the desired activity of kinase inhibitors in many cancer types. In this study, we report that loss of myristoylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2α), a scaffold protein essential for FGFR signaling, inhibits FGF/FGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling and FGF10-induced tumorigenesis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kevin Zarrabi, Shenhong Wu
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is approved for the treatment of many cancers. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the risk of hepatotoxicity with nivolumab therapy. METHODS: An analysis from all phase I-III clinical trials up to December 2016 examining nivolumab was conducted. Data on elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were extracted from the safety profiles of each trial. Incidence and relative risk (RR) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Chiara Cremolini, Massimo Milione, Federica Marmorino, Federica Morano, Gemma Zucchelli, Alessia Mennitto, Michele Prisciandaro, Sara Lonardi, Alessio Pellegrinelli, Daniele Rossini, Francesca Bergamo, Giuseppe Aprile, Lucio Urbani, Luca Morelli, Marta Schirripa, Giovanni Gerardo Cardellino, Matteo Fassan, Gabriella Fontanini, Filippo de Braud, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Alfredo Falcone, Filippo Pietrantonio
BACKGROUND: Many factors, including histopathologic parameters, seem to influence the prognosis of patients undergoing resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM), although their relative weight is unclear. Histopathologic growth patterns (HGPs) of CRCLM may affect sensitivity to antiangiogenics. We aimed at evaluating differences in histopathologic parameters of response according to the use of bevacizumab or cetuximab as first-line targeted agents, and at exploring the prognostic and predictive role of HGPs...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Arpad Ivanecz, Bojan Krebs, Andraz Stozer, Tomaz Jagric, Irena Plahuta, Stojan Potrc
Background: The aim of the study was to compare the outcome of pure laparoscopic and open simultaneous resection of both the primary colorectal cancer and synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCLM). Patients and methods: From 2000 to 2016 all patients treated by simultaneous resection were assessed for entry in this single center, clinically nonrandomized trial. A propensity score matching was used to compare the laparoscopic group (LAP) to open surgery group (OPEN)...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Wasila Mansouri, Samuel B Fordyce, Matthew Wu, David Jones, Douglas Cohn, Qishan Lin, Paul Feustel, Tanuj Sharma, James A Bennett, Thomas T Andersen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety profile of AFPep, a 9-amino acid cyclic peptide prior to its entry into pre-clinical toxicology analyses en route to clinical trials. METHODS: AFPep was assessed for anti-estrogenic activity in a mouse uterine growth assay and for breast cancer therapeutic efficacy in a human tumor xenograft model in mice. AFPep was assessed for tolerability in a variety of in vivo models, notably including assessment for effects on rat liver and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and xenografts...
March 5, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Yoko Yagishita, Marco Fazzari, Dushani L Palliyaguru, Uma Nm Rao, Apostolos Zaravinos, Nicholas Kh Khoo, Francisco J Schopfer, Kurt R Weiss, George K Michalopoulos, Ian Sipula, Robert M O'Doherty, Thomas W Kensler, Nobunao Wakabayashi
Insulin resistance is associated with increased incidence and enhanced progression of cancers. However, little is known about strategies that can effectively ameliorate insulin resistance and consequently halt cancer progression. Herein, we propose that the transcription factor Nrf2 (also known as Nfe2l2) may be such a target, given its central role in disease prevention. To this end, we developed a mouse that overexpresses the Notch intracellular domain in adipocytes (AdNICD), leading to lipodystrophy-induced severe insulin resistance and subsequent development of sarcomas, as a model reflecting that Notch signaling is deregulated in cancers and shows positive associations with insulin resistance and fatty liver disease in humans...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
David D Lee, Kristopher P Croome, Kaitlyn R Musto, Jose Melendez, Ghassan Tranesh, Raouf Nakhleh, C Burcin Taner, Justin H Nguyen, Tushar Patel, Denise M Harnois
Background While hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined-Hepatocellular-cholangiocarcioma (cHCC-CC) are historically contraindicated due to their aggressive behavior. Based on recent experiences, some groups have proposed a clinical trial investigating the role of LT for patients with early CC, defined as a single lesion ≤ 2cm. The purpose of this study is to assess the clinicopathologic features and outcomes following LT for patients who were initially diagnosed with HCC and subsequently found to have either ICC or cHCC-CC on explant...
March 7, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Ken Fujioka, Spencer Gordon
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 1 billion people in the world have a point mutation in the gene encoding the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme, the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde. The presence of this mutation is called ALDH2 deficiency. Because of limited ability to metabolize acetaldehyde, individuals with ALDH2 deficiency experience elevated levels of blood acetaldehyde after exposure to various common sources such as recreational alcohol. Because of higher levels of acetaldehyde, individuals with ALDH2 deficiency are at higher risk for numerous diseases, including liver cirrhosis, esophageal and gastric cancer, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer disease...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Bing Liu, Maoxi Yuan, Yi Sun, Ziming Cheng, Zaiyong Zhang, Shizheng Hou, Xiangdong Wang, Jingfeng Liu
Background: Two anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (-TKIs) have been approved for the treatment of patients with ALK-rearranged (ALK-positive) advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Severe hepatotoxicity has been observed in several clinical studies. We aim to assess the incidence and risk of liver toxicity with these drugs by a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Materials and Methods: The databases of PubMed, Web of Science and abstracts presented at oncology conferences' proceedings were searched for relevant studies from January 2000 to January 2017...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Jean-Charles Nault, Peter R Galle, Jens U Marquardt
Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are characterized by considerable phenotypic and molecular heterogeneity. Treatment and design of clinical trials are particularly challenging due a co-existing liver disease present in the majority of patients which limits aggressive therapeutic options. Despite positive results in recent phase III clinical trials, that confirmed the high value of antiangiogenic therapies for HCC in both first (sorafenib and lenvatinib) and second line (regorafenib and cabozantinib) treatment modalities, failure of several large randomized controlled clinical trials over the last 10 years underlines the necessity for innovative treatment strategies and implementation of findings from translational studies to overcome this unmet clinical need...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Irina A Tikhonova, Nicola Huxley, Tristan Snowsill, Louise Crathorne, Jo Varley-Campbell, Mark Napier, Martin Hoyle
BACKGROUND: Combination therapies with cetuximab (Erbitux® ; Merck Serono UK Ltd) and panitumumab (Vectibix® ; Amgen UK Ltd) are shown to be less effective in adults with metastatic colorectal cancer who have mutations in exons 2, 3 and 4 of KRAS and NRAS oncogenes from the rat sarcoma (RAS) family. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of these drugs in patients with previously untreated RAS wild-type (i.e. non-mutated) metastatic colorectal cancer, not eligible for liver resection at baseline, from the UK National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective...
March 1, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Bethsebie Lalduhsaki Sailo, Kishore Banik, Ganesan Padmavathi, Monisha Javadi, Devivasha Bordoloi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Despite the significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, it still remains one of the most fatal diseases in the world due to the lack of sensitive diagnosis methods and effective drugs. Therefore, discovering novel therapies that are safe, efficacious and affordable are required for the better management of this disease. Tocotrienols, analogues of Vitamin E have gained increased attention due to their safety and efficacy. Extensive research over the past several years has strongly indicated that tocotrienols can efficiently prevent/inhibit the growth of different cancers such as cancers of blood, brain, breast, cervical, colon, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach etc...
February 26, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Naohiro Okano, Akiyoshi Kasuga, Kirio Kawai, Yoshiya Yamauchi, Takaaki Kobayashi, Daisuke Naruge, Fumio Nagashima, Junji Furuse
BACKGROUND: No standard second-line chemotherapy has been yet established for gemcitabine-refractory biliary tract cancer (BTC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted multivariable Cox regression analysis to examine the prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients who had received gemcitabine-based treatment. RESULTS: Forty-six patients received second-line chemotherapy. The median serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) value was 487 U/ml...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Michael Lam, Jonathan M Loree, Allan Anderson Pereira Lima, Yun Shin Chun, Scott Kopetz
Current trial design is challenged by the advancement of technologies that have enabled deeper understanding of the molecular drivers of colorectal cancer (CRC). The speed of trial testing and the ability to test larger volumes of promising novel agents in the face of smaller populations identified by molecular profiling are challenges posed to clinical studies. Master protocols that utilize umbrella designs are equipped to deal with potential biomarker and matched treatments simultaneously. Although complex in nature, they increase trial efficiency by utilizing shared screening platforms, test multiple treatments together, and simplify regulatory submission and reporting under a common protocol...
February 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Bernhard Josef Eigl, Kim Chi, Dongsheng Tu, Sebastien J Hotte, Eric Winquist, Christopher M Booth, Christina Canil, Kylea Potvin, Richard Gregg, Scott North, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Susan Ellard, Joseph Dean Ruether, Lyly Le, A Saranya Kakumanu, Mohammad Salim, Alison L Allan, Harriet Feilotter, Ashley Theis, Lesley Seymour
Background: Pelareorep is an oncolytic virus with activity in many cancers including prostate. It has in vitro synergism with microtubule-targeted agents. We undertook a clinical trial evaluating pelareorep in mCRPC patients receiving docetaxel. Patients and Methods: In this randomized, open-label phase II study, patients received docetaxel 75mg/m2 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle and prednisone 5mg twice daily, in combination with pelareorep (arm A) or alone (arm B)...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Suguru Nukada, Tsutomu Sato, Toru Aoyama, Mariko Kamiya, Shinya Amano, Shuzo Tamura, Takanobu Yamada, Naoto Yamamoto, Hiroshi Harada, Takashi Oshima, Haruhiko Cho, Takaki Yoshikawa, Shoji Yamanaka, Yasushi Rino, Munetaka Masuda
The standard therapy for Stage IV gastric cancer is chemotherapy. It is not certain, but conversion surgery is expected to be effective. We report the cases of 3 patients who achieved long-term survival after conversion surgery. Case 1 was of a 59- year-old woman. The tumor was classified as L-Less Post, Type 2, tub1, cT3N2M1(#16a2lat), Stage IV. Then, we initiated S-1 plus cisplatin and the LN achieved PRafter 4 courses. We performed distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection in February 2011. It was classified as ypT2N2 and the primary lesion was histologically classified as Grade 1a...
February 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Jin Takano, Nobuhisa Matsuhashi, Takao Takahashi, Toshiyuki Tanahashi, Satoshi Matsui, Hisashi Imai, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Kazuya Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro Yoshida
A woman in her 70s was confirmed as presenting with multiple liver and lung metastases from transverse colon cancer. After undergoing resection of the primary lesion, partial response(PR)was achieved after undergoing the first regimen (sLV5FU2 and bevacizumab[Bmab]); therefore, partial hepatectomy was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered for 7 months, but liver metastasis recurrence, multiple lung metastases, and brain metastasis were confirmed. As the brain metastasis was a single lesion and was accompanied by symptoms, resection of the lesion was performed...
February 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio, Carl J Lavie
Coffee, a complex brew containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, exerts potent effects on long-term human health. Recently, a plethora of studies have been published focusing on health outcomes associated with coffee intake. An inverse association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality has been seen consistently in large prospective studies. Habitual coffee consumption is also associated with lower risks for cardiovascular (CV) death and a variety of adverse CV outcomes, including coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke; coffee's effects on arrhythmias and hypertension are neutral...
February 20, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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