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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818953/new-horizons-for-precision-medicine-in-biliary-tract-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Juan W Valle, Angela Lamarca, Lipika Goyal, Jorge Barriuso, Andrew X Zhu
Biliary tract cancers (BTC), including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, are poor-prognosis and low-incidence cancers, although the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising. A minority of patients present with resectable disease but relapse rates are high; benefit from adjuvant capecitabine chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Cisplatin/gemcitabine combination chemotherapy has emerged as the reference first-line treatment regimen; there is no standard second-line therapy. Selected patients may be suitable for liver-directed therapy (e...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817838/pharmacogenetic-determinants-of-outcomes-on-triplet-hepatic-artery-infusion-and-intravenous-cetuximab-for-liver-metastases-from-colorectal-cancer-european-trial-optiliv-nct00852228
#2
Francis Lévi, Abdoulaye Karaboué, Raphaël Saffroy, Christophe Desterke, Valerie Boige, Denis Smith, Mohamed Hebbar, Pasquale Innominato, Julien Taieb, Carlos Carvalho, Rosine Guimbaud, Christian Focan, Mohamed Bouchahda, René Adam, Michel Ducreux, Gérard Milano, Antoinette Lemoine
BACKGROUND: The hepatic artery infusion (HAI) of irinotecan, oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil with intravenous cetuximab achieved outstanding efficacy in previously treated patients with initially unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. This planned study aimed at the identification of pharmacogenetic predictors of outcomes. METHODS: Circulating mononuclear cells were analysed for 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 34 pharmacology genes...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816550/a-review-on-biosynthesis-analytical-techniques-and-pharmacological-activities-of-trigonelline-as-a-plant-alkaloid
#3
Neda Mohamadi, Fariba Sharififar, Mostafa Pournamdari, Mehdi Ansari
Trigonelline (TRG) as a polar hydrophilic alkaloid is extracted from many plant species, for example, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sepapea, Coffea sp, Pissum sativum, Glycine max, and Lycopersicon esculentum. Numerous biological activities have been reported for TRG such as protection of heart and liver and treatment of hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, nervous and hormonal disorders, and cancers. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize some information about TRG's biosynthesis pathway, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, and analytical techniques to introduce TRG as an alternative choice to treat the various diseases...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814828/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-oral-agents-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Guarnera, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In the therapeutic scenario of disease-modifying therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the introduction of oral agents, starting in 2010 with fingolimod, has been a huge step forward in therapeutic options due to the easier administration route. Three oral drugs fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, which are clinically approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in this work. Results of Phase III clinical trials and their extension studies showed that the three oral agents significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate - a superior efficacy compared to placebo...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809384/the-impact-of-cholecystectomy-after-endoscopic-sphincterotomy-for-complicated-gallstone-disease
#5
B Joseph Elmunzer, Mohamed Noureldin, Katherine A Morgan, David B Adams, Gregory A Coté, Akbar K Waljee
OBJECTIVES: Cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is associated with improved outcomes compared to ES alone, however randomized trials have included mainly fit surgical candidates. Our objective was to assess the impact of cholecystectomy after ES among elderly patients, in whom the perceived risks of surgery may be increased and the prevailing bias may be to defer cholecystectomy. METHODS: We performed adjusted analyses comparing clinical outcomes in patients ≥65 years of age who did and did not undergo follow-up cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis, ascending cholangitis, or gallstone pancreatitis...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804570/value-of-quality-of-life-analysis-in-liver-cancer-a-clinician-s-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Leung Li, Winnie Yeo
Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognized as an important clinical parameter and research endpoint in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HRQOL in HCC patients is multifaceted and affected by medical factor which encompasses HCC and its complications, oncological and palliative treatment for HCC, underlying liver disease, as well as the psychological, social or spiritual reaction to the disease. Many patients presented late with advanced disease and limited survival, plagued with multiple symptoms, rendering QOL a very important aspect in their general well being...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803082/addressing-patient-emotional-and-existential-needs-during-serious-illness-results-of-the-outlook-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Karen E Steinhauser, Stewart Alexander, Maren K Olsen, Karen M Stechuchak, Jennifer Zervakis, Natalie Ammarell, Ira Byock, James A Tulsky
CONTEXT: Few interventions exist to address patients' existential needs. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether an intervention to address seriously-ill patients' existential concerns improves preparation, completion (elements of quality-of-life at end-of-life) and reduces anxiety and depression. METHODS: A randomized control trial comparing: 1)Outlook intervention, 2)Relaxation meditation (RM); and 3)Usual care (UC). Measures included: primary - quality-of-life (QUAL-E) and secondary - FACT-G, anxiety (POMS), depression (CES-D), and spiritual well-being (FACIT-sp)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801869/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-hepatic-metastases-from-colorectal-cancer
#8
E Shaw, N Massaro, N T Brockton
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a significant health burden worldwide, comprising approximately 10% of annual cancer cases globally. Hepatic metastases are the most common site of CRC metastasis, and are the leading cause of death in CRC patients. There is strong epidemiologic evidence for an inverse association between vitamin D status and risk of CRC; however, the role of vitamin D in the natural history of liver metastases has not yet been investigated. Several researchers have proposed hallmarks of metastases; crucially, metastases can be blocked by interrupting just one rate-limiting step...
August 11, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801373/metformin-and-melatonin-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma-morphoproteomics-and-biomedical-analytics-provide-proof-of-concept-in-a-case-study
#9
Robert E Brown, Jamie Buryanek, Mary F McGuire
Metformin has been proposed as a novel anti-cancer drug for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based upon Poli's recent preclinical studies that 1. "in vitro" metformin modulates the ACC cell model H295R and 2. "in vivo" metformin inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft model as confirmed by a significant reduction of Ki67 [1]. Here we report on our prior clinical case study that provides proof of concept for Poli's studies. We were requested to perform morphoproteomic analysis to further define the biology of, and raise targeted therapeutic options, for a case of post-treatment and chemoresistant ACC metastatic to the liver and the lung...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796864/individualized-adaptive-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-liver-tumors-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-liver-damage-a-phase-2-clinical-trial
#10
Mary Feng, Krithika Suresh, Matthew J Schipper, Latifa Bazzi, Edgar Ben-Josef, Martha M Matuszak, Neehar D Parikh, Theodore H Welling, Daniel Normolle, Randall K Ten Haken, Theodore S Lawrence
Importance: Patients with preexisting liver dysfunction could benefit the most from personalized therapy for liver tumors to balance maximal tumor control and minimal risk of liver failure. We designed an individualized adaptive trial testing the hypothesis that adapting treatment based on change in liver function could optimize the therapeutic index for each patient. Objective: To characterize the safety and efficacy of individualized adaptive stereotactic body radiotherapy (SRBT) for liver tumors in patients who have preexisting liver dysfunction...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781171/first-line-selective-internal-radiotherapy-plus-chemotherapy-versus-chemotherapy-alone-in-patients-with-liver-metastases-from-colorectal-cancer-foxfire-sirflox-and-foxfire-global-a-combined-analysis-of-three-multicentre-randomised-phase-3-trials
#11
Harpreet S Wasan, Peter Gibbs, Navesh K Sharma, Julien Taieb, Volker Heinemann, Jens Ricke, Marc Peeters, Michael Findlay, Andrew Weaver, Jamie Mills, Charles Wilson, Richard Adams, Anne Francis, Joanna Moschandreas, Pradeep S Virdee, Peter Dutton, Sharon Love, Val Gebski, Alastair Gray, Guy van Hazel, Ricky A Sharma
BACKGROUND: Data suggest selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) in third-line or subsequent therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer has clinical benefit in patients with colorectal liver metastases with liver-dominant disease after chemotherapy. The FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global randomised studies evaluated the efficacy of combining first-line chemotherapy with SIRT using yttrium-90 resin microspheres in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with liver metastases. The studies were designed for combined analysis of overall survival...
August 3, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771247/clinical-penetrance-in-hereditary-hemochromatosis-estimates-of-the-cumulative-incidence-of-severe-liver-disease-among-hfe-c282y-homozygotes
#12
REVIEW
Scott D Grosse, Lyle C Gurrin, Nadine A Bertalli, Katrina J Allen
Iron overload (hemochromatosis) can cause serious, symptomatic disease that is preventable if detected early and managed appropriately. The leading cause of hemochromatosis in populations of predominantly European ancestry is homozygosity of the C282Y variant in the HFE gene. Screening of adults for iron overload or associated genotypes is controversial, largely because of a belief that severe phenotypes are uncommon, although cascade testing of first-degree relatives of patients is widely endorsed. We contend that severe liver disease (cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer) is not at all uncommon among older males with hereditary hemochromatosis...
August 3, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770975/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson, David G Williams, Christopher Eccleston
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765324/glesatinib-exhibits-antitumor-activity-in-lung-cancer-models-and-patients-harboring-met-exon-14-mutations-and-overcomes-mutation-mediated-resistance-to-type-i-met-inhibitors-in-nonclinical-models
#14
Lars Engstrom, Ruth Aranda, Matthew Lee, Elizabeth A Tovar, Curt Essenburg, Zachary B Madaj, Harrah Chiang, David Briere, Jill Hallin, Pedro P Lopez-Casas, Natalia Banos, Camino Menéndez, Manuel Hidalgo, Vanessa Tassell, Richard Chao, Darya I Chudova, Richard B Lanman, Peter Olson, Lyudmila Bazhenova, Sandip P Patel, Carrie R Graveel, Mizuki Nishino, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Nir Peled, Mark M Awad, Pasi A Janne, James G Christensen
MET exon 14 deletion (METex14 del) mutations represent a novel class of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) driver mutations.  We evaluated glesatinib, a spectrum-selective MET inhibitor exhibiting a type II binding mode, in METex14 del-positive nonclinical models and NSCLC patients and assessed its ability to overcome resistance to type I MET Inhibitors.<br /><br />Experimental Design: As most MET inhibitors in clinical development bind the active site with a type I binding mode, we investigated mechanisms of acquired resistance to each MET inhibitor class utilizing in vitro and in vivo models and in glesatinib clinical trials...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765194/effect-of-green-tea-supplements-on-liver-enzyme-elevation-results-from-a-randomized-intervention-study-in-the-united-states
#15
Zheming Yu, Hamed Samavat, Allison Dostal, Renwei Wang, Carolyn J Torkelson, Chung S Yang, Lesley M Bulter, Thomas W Kensler, Anna H Wu, Mindy S Kurzer, Jian-Min Yuan
Liver injury effects of green tea-based products have been reported in sporadic case reports. However, no study has examined systematically such adverse effects in an unbiased manner. We examined the potential effects of a high, sustained oral dose of green tea extract (GTE) on liver injury measures in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded phase II clinical trial, which enrolled 1,075 women with the original aim to assess the effect of daily GTE consumption for 12 months on biomarkers of breast cancer risk...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759385/physical-activity-sedentary-behaviour-diet-and-cancer-an-update-and-emerging-new-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kerr, Cheryl Anderson, Scott M Lippman
The lifestyle factors of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and diet are increasingly being studied for their associations with cancer. Physical activity is inversely associated with and sedentary behaviour is positively (and independently) associated with an increased risk of more than ten types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (and advanced adenomas), endometrial cancers, and breast cancer. The most consistent dietary risk factor for premalignant and invasive breast cancer is alcohol, whether consumed during early or late adult life, even at low levels...
August 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758319/treatment-options-for-unresectable-hcc-with-a-focus-on-sirt-with-yttrium-90-resin-microspheres
#17
REVIEW
Eric A Wang, Jeff P Stein, Ross J Bellavia, Scott R Broadwell
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths across the globe. Only a small percentage of HCC patients (~20%-30%) are diagnosed at an early stage when first-line treatment options may be effective. The majority of HCC patients (>70%) are diagnosed with unresectable disease and given a poor overall prognosis. Current treatment guidelines recommend locoregional therapy with transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and systemic therapy with sorafenib as first-line treatment for patients with intermediate and advanced stage HCC...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747010/traditional-knowledge-to-clinical-trials-a-review-on-therapeutic-actions-of-emblica-officinalis
#18
REVIEW
Suraj Singh Yadav, Manish Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh, Vipin Kumar
Plants are the integral part of the traditional indigenous healthcare system and are becoming concrete source of new drug discovery, evident by the increasing numbers of modern drugs derived from the phytochemicals. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn (family Phyllanthaceae) has been explained extensively and well documented for its therapeutic efficacies in indigenous system of medicine, in India. Every part of this plant possesses high medicinal value but fruits are the most valuable part in folklore and therapeutic uses...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739160/using-heat-maps-to-assess-the-multidimensional-association-of-comorbidities-with-survival-in-older-cancer-patients-treated-with-chemotherapy
#19
Jae Jin Lee, Jongphil Kim, Marina Sehovic, Lu Chen, Martine Extermann
OBJECTIVE: To date, most comorbidity studies have analyzed either a subgroup of frequent diseases, or used summary instruments such as the Charlson score or the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric (CIRS-G). Yet, comorbidity is a multidimensional construct and impacts function, treatment tolerance, and survival. We assessed how heat maps can unveil specific patterns of comorbidities associated with overall survival (OS) in older cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed four trials that prospectively evaluated comorbidities using CIRS-G...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728751/a-phase-ii-evaluation-of-brivanib-in-the-treatment-of-persistent-or-recurrent-carcinoma-of-the-cervix-an-nrg-oncology-gynecologic-oncology-group-study
#20
John K Chan, Wei Deng, Robert V Higgins, Krishnansu S Tewari, Albert J Bonebrake, Michael Hicks, Stephanie Gaillard, Pedro T Ramirez, Weldon Chafe, Bradley J Monk, Carol Aghajanian
BACKGROUND: Brivanib is an oral, tyrosine kinase inhibitor against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). We studied its efficacy and tolerability in persistent or recurrent cervical cancer patients. METHODS: Eligible patients had at least one prior cytotoxic regimen for recurrence and with measurable disease. Brivanib 800mg was administered orally every day (1cycle=28days) until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity...
July 17, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
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