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liver trials cancer

Pavan Tenneti, Mitesh J Board, Hani M Babiker
The standard of care for early hepatobiliary cancers (HBC) includes surgical resection. Liver transplantations or locoregional therapies are beneficial in early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under certain circumstances. Systemic treatments have some benefit in advanced HBC, though long-term prognosis remains poor. We evaluated the role of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of HBCs through a systematic literature review. The recombinant vaccinia virus JX-594 improved median survival in patients with local/metastatic HCC more strongly at high dose than at low dose (14...
June 14, 2018: Immunotherapy
Edward Hammond, Nicole M Haynes, Carleen Cullinane, Todd V Brennan, Darryn Bampton, Paul Handley, Tomislav Karoli, Fleur Lanksheer, Liwen Lin, Yiping Yang, Keith Dredge
BACKGROUND: Pixatimod (PG545) is a novel clinical-stage immunomodulatory agent capable of inhibiting the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) yet also stimulate dendritic cells (DCs), leading to activation of natural killer (NK) cells. Preclinically, pixatimod inhibits heparanase (HPSE) which may be associated with its inhibitory effect on TAMs whereas its immunostimulatory activity on DCs is through the MyD88-dependent TLR9 pathway. Pixatimod recently completed a Phase Ia monotherapy trial in advanced cancer patients...
June 14, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
E Pestine, A Stokes, L Trinquart
Background: Obesity is a risk factor for numerous cancer types, and may influence cancer treatment outcomes. Underrepresentation of obese patients in obesity-related cancer randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may affect generalizability of results. We aimed to assess the reporting of information about eligibility and enrollment of obese participants in obesity-related cancer RCTs. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of RCTs of 10 obesity-related cancer types (esophagus, colon/rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney, and thyroid cancer)...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Tina T Thomas, Sahiti Chukkapalli, Raelene A Van Noord, Melanie Krook, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Jonathan R Dillman, Elizabeth R Lawlor, Valerie P Opipari, Erika A Newman
Preclinical testing of anticancer therapies relies on relevant xenograft models that mimic the innate tendencies of cancer. Advantages of standard subcutaneous flank models include procedural ease and the ability to monitor tumor progression and response without invasive imaging. Such models are often inconsistent in translational clinical trials and have limited biologically relevant characteristics with low proclivity to produce metastasis, as there is a lack of a native microenvironment. In comparison, orthotopic xenograft models at native tumor sites have been shown to mimic the tumor microenvironment and replicate important disease characteristics such as distant metastatic spread...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jordan Levy, Jesse Zuckerman, Richard Garfinkle, Sergio A Acuna, Jacynthe Touchette, Tsafrir Vanounou, Jean-Sebastien Pelletier
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) not amenable to curative liver resection will progress on systemic therapy. Intra-arterial therapies (IAT) including conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE), drug eluting beads (DEB-TACE) and yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y-90) are indicated to prolong survival and palliate symptoms. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the survival benefit and radiologic response of three intra-arterial therapies in patients with chemorefractory and unresectable CRCLM...
June 7, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Matthias F Froelich, Volker Heinemann, Wieland H Sommer, Julian W Holch, Franziska Schoeppe, Nina Hesse, Alena B Baumann, Wolfgang G Kunz, Maximilian F Reiser, Jens Ricke, Melvin D'Anastasi, Sebastian Stintzing, Dominik P Modest, Philipp M Kazmierczak, Felix O Hofmann
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic value of pre-therapeutic computed tomography (CT) attenuation of liver metastases for overall survival (OS) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: In the open-label, randomised, prospective phase-III FIRE-3 trial, patients with histologically confirmed mCRC received fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with either cetuximab or bevacizumab. Participating patients gave written informed consent prior to study entry...
June 7, 2018: European Radiology
Shreyas S Joshi, Elizabeth A Handorf, Matthew Zibelman, Elizabeth R Plimack, Robert G Uzzo, Alexander Kutikov, Marc C Smaldone, Daniel M Geynisman
BACKGROUND: Higher treatment facility (TF) volume has been linked with improved oncologic treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between TF volume and overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for all patients with mRCC with survival data available (2004-2013, cohort A). Overall survival was assessed based on TF volumes, and increasingly narrow inclusion criteria were used to confirm the cohort A association: cohort B=mRCC patients with active treatment; cohort C=mRCC patients with systemic therapy; cohort D=mRCC patients with systemic therapy at the reporting institution; and cohort E=mRCC patients with systemic therapy at the reporting institution with known liver and lung metastatic status...
June 4, 2018: European Urology
A Wale, E Van Cutsem, S Rao, D Cunningham, G Brown
There have been no randomized trial data to guide teams with regard to the order of surgery in patients with synchronous metastatic disease. On the one hand patients with borderline resectable liver metastases may lose the opportunity to undergo curative liver resection if the primary is resected first. For other patients, a symptomatic primary cancer may not be amenable to a delay. In the absence of clear evidence-based outcomes, Professor Van Cutsem shares the recent expert consensus opinions on the current recommendations and an overview of the limited evidence base available...
May 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Le-Xing Yu, Yan Ling, Hong-Yang Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a leading cause of cancer-related death, making the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms an urgent priority. Inflammation is an adaptive response to infection and tissue injury under strict regulations. When the host regulatory machine runs out of control, nonresolving inflammation occurs. Nonresolving inflammation is a recognized hallmark of cancer that substantially contributes to the development and progression of HCC. The HCC-associated inflammation can be initiated and propagated by extrinsic pathways through activation of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) derived from gut microflora or damage-associated molecule patterns (DAMPs) released from dying liver cells...
2018: NPJ Precision Oncology
Doaa A Abdel Fadeel, Ghada Muneer, Asma M Elsharif, Suhailah S Al-Jameel, Hanan H Mohamed, Tamer E Youssef
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to modify the structural activity of zinc(II)phthalocyanine by combining it with thiophenyl groups then loaded in lipid nano-carriers and evaluates its parameters required for the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. METHODS: Tetra (4-Thiophenyl) sulphonated phthalocyaninatozinc(II) (PhS.SO3 Na)4 ZnPc 5 was synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods as a test compound...
June 2, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Yuanwei Liang, Wei Huang, Delong Zeng, Xiaoting Huang, Leung Chan, Chaoming Mei, Pengju Feng, Choon-Hong Tan, Tianfeng Chen
Chemical drug design based on the biochemical characteristics of cancer cells has become an important strategy for discovery of novel anticancer drugs to enhance the cancer targeting effects and biocompatibility, and decrease toxic side effects. Camptothecin (CPT) demonstrated strong anticancer activity in clinical trials but also notorious adverse effects. In this study, we presented a smart targeted delivery system (Biotin-ss-CPT) that consists of cancer-targeted moiety (biotin), a cleavable disulfide linker (S-S bond) and the active drug CPT...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Tatiana Strava Corrêa, Gustavo Duarte Ramos Matos, Marcos Segura, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos
Patients with salivary duct cancer (SDC) and HER2 overexpression could receive trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy for metastatic disease. No standard treatment exists for patients with HER2-positive metastatic SDC after progression. We report an excellent patient response to second-line treatment with T-DM1 after progression on paclitaxel plus trastuzumab. Case Report: In June 2014, a 79-year-old male patient underwent right parotidectomy and ipsilateral radical neck dissection after the diagnosis of parotid carcinoma...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Asunción Martín-Ruiz, Laura Peña, Alfredo González-Gil, Lucía Teresa Díez-Córdova, Sara Cáceres, Juan Carlos Illera
BACKGROUND: Indole-3-carbinol, derived from Cruciferous vegetables is an estrogen receptor antagonist considered a preventive agent that is naturally present in diet. There are no previous studies on its effects in human inflammatory breast cancer or canine inflammatory mammary cancer that is the most aggressive type of breast cancer. METHODS: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of indole-3-carbinol on a SCID mice xenograft model of canine inflammatory mammary cancer, using equivalent human oral dose as a preventive therapy in humans for 3 weeks...
June 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Eiji Oki, Koji Ando, Ryota Nakanishi, Masahiko Sugiyama, Yuichiro Nakashima, Nobuhide Kubo, Kensuke Kudou, Hiroshi Saeki, Tadahiro Nozoe, Yasunori Emi, Yoshihiko Maehara
A major challenge for the management of colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is the multidisciplinary approach including surgery. Resection is the most important treatment strategy to prolong the survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Even when resection is not possible as a primary treatment, it may still be carried out for curative intent after effective chemotherapy. Therefore, resection should always be considered when conducting chemotherapy for CRLM. Neoadjuvant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody has shown a high response rate for RAS wild CRC...
May 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Yang Chen, Chang-Yong E, Zhi-Wen Gong, Shui Liu, Zhen-Xiao Wang, Yong-Sheng Yang, Xue-Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a newly developed immunotherapy used in the treatment of cancers. Because CAR-T therapy has shown great success in treating CD19-positive hematological malignancies, its application has been explored in the treatment of solid tumors, such as liver cancer. In this review, we discuss the immune characteristics of liver cancer, the obstacles encountered during the application of CAR-T therapy, and preclinical and clinical progress in the use of CAR-T therapy in patients with liver cancer...
May 24, 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Clemens Grassberger, Theodore S Hong, Tai Hato, Beow Y Yeap, Jennifer Y Wo, Mark Tracy, Thomas Bortfeld, John A Wolfgang, Christine E Eyler, Lipika Goyal, Jeffrey W Clark, Christopher H Crane, Eugene J Koay, Mark Cobbold, Thomas F DeLaney, Rakesh K Jain, Andrew X Zhu, Dan G Duda
PURPOSE: Irradiation may have significant immunomodulatory effects that impact tumor response and could potentiate immunotherapeutic approaches. The purposes of this study were to prospectively investigate circulating lymphoid cell population fractions during hypofractionated proton therapy (HPT) in blood samples of liver cancer patients and to explore their association with survival. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We collected serial blood samples before treatment and at days 8 and 15 of HPT from 43 patients with liver cancer-22 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 21 with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC)-enrolled in a phase 2 clinical trial...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Xuanrong Sun, Guowei Wang, Hao Zhang, Shiqi Hu, Xin Liu, Jianbin Tang, Youqing Shen
Polymer micelles are one of the most investigated nanocarriers for drug delivery; many have entered clinical trials and some are in clinic use, but their delivery systems have not yet shown the expected high therapeutic efficacy in clinics. Further understanding their in vivo behaviors, particularly how quickly and by what mechanism polymer micelles are cleared (i.e., via micelles or unimers) once injected, is key to solving this dilemma. Herein, we hope to answer these questions for the clinically relevant polyethylene glycol-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) and PEG-block-poly(DL-lactide) (PEG-PDLLA) micelles...
May 30, 2018: ACS Nano
Feng Xu, Tianqiang Jin, Yuwen Zhu, Chaoliu Dai
Immune checkpoints include stimulatory and inhibitory checkpoint molecules. In recent years, inhibitory checkpoints, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), have been identified to suppress anti-tumor immune responses in solid tumors. Novel drugs targeting immune checkpoints have succeeded in cancer treatment. Specific PD-1 blockades were approved for treatment of melanoma in 2014 and for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer in 2015 in the United States, European Union, and Japan...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Luxana Laithavewat, Carl Grundy-Warr, Narong Khuntikeo, Ross H Andrews, Trevor N Petney, Puangrat Yongvanit, Pannee Banchonhattakit, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is the major causative factor inducing cholangiocarcinoma in the Mekong region of Southeast Asia. Northeast Thailand has the highest incidence of this cancer worldwide leading to about 20,000 deaths every year. Infection with the liver fluke comes from eating raw or undercooked fish, a tradition in this area that can potentially be countered by education programs at school level. Here we develop a school-based health education model, based on protection motivation theory (PMT), including module design, learning materials, student activities, and capacity building amongst teachers...
May 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
Seddik Hammad, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Julia Werle, Maria Lucia Caruso, Anne Dropmann, Antonia Ignazzi, Matthias Philip Ebert, Steven Dooley, Gianluigi Giannelli
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β stimulates extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition during development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, the most important risk factor for the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. In liver cancer, TGF-β is responsible for a more aggressive and invasive phenotype, orchestrating remodeling of the tumor microenvironment and triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. This is the scientific rationale for targeting the TGF-β pathway via a small molecule, galunisertib (intracellular inhibitor of ALK5) in clinical trials to treat liver cancer patients at an advanced disease stage...
May 28, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
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