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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456638/biobran-mgn-3-an-arabinoxylan-rice-bran-enhances-nk-cell-activity-in-geriatric-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
Ahmed F Elsaid, Magda Shaheen, Mamdooh Ghoneum
Aging is associated with a decline in natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell function that may contribute to increased susceptibility to malignancy and infection. A preliminary investigation was conducted examining the hypothesis that arabinoxylan rice bran (Biobran/MGN-3), a denatured hemicellulose with known immunomodulatory activity, could counteract this decline in NK/NKT cell activity in geriatrics. A total of 12 healthy geriatric subjects of both sexes and over 56 years old, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451701/phase-1b-study-of-pasireotide-everolimus-and-selective-internal-radioembolization-therapy-for-unresectable-neuroendocrine-tumors-with-hepatic-metastases
#2
Hyun S Kim, Walid L Shaib, Chao Zhang, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju, Christina Wu, Olatunji B Alese, Zhengjia Chen, Edith Brutcher, Meredith Renfroe, Bassel F El-Rayes
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) metastasize to the liver. Everolimus and selective internal radioembolization (SIRT) are approved treatments. Pasireotide is a somatostatin analogue with an affinity for somatostatin receptors 1, 2, 3, and 5. Everolimus and pasireotide may potentiate SIRT radiosensitization and inhibit rebound angiogenesis. This study evaluated the safety of pasireotide, everolimus, and SIRT. METHODS: This 3 + 3 phase 1 trial evaluated 3 dose levels of everolimus (2...
February 16, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446675/colorectal-liver-metastasis-overview-of-treatment-paradigm-highlighting-the-role-of-ablation
#3
Shree R Venkat, Prasoon P Mohan, Ripal T Gandhi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to discuss the current treatment options for colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases and the role of ablation. CONCLUSION: A randomized control trial of ablation combined with chemotherapy showed improved overall survival compared with chemotherapy alone. Local recurrence rates are comparable to those associated with resection when ablative margins of more than 5 mm are achieved and target lesions are smaller than 3 cm...
February 15, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438522/ras-mutation-analysis-in-circulating-tumor-dna-from-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-the-ageo-rasanc-prospective-multicenter-study
#4
J B Bachet, O Bouché, J Taieb, O Dubreuil, M L Garcia, A Meurisse, C Normand, J M Gornet, P Artru, S Louafi, F Bonnetain, A Thirot-Bidault, I Baumgaertner, R Coriat, D Tougeron, T Lecomte, F Mary, T Aparicio, L Marthey, V Taly, H Blons, D Vernerey, P Laurent-Puig
Background: RAS mutations are currently sought for in tumor samples, which takes a median of almost 3 weeks in western European countries. This creates problems in clinical situations that require urgent treatment and for inclusion in therapeutic trials that need RAS status for randomization. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA might help to shorten the time required to determine RAS mutational status prior to anti-EGFR antibody therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Here we compared plasma versus tissue RAS analysis in a large prospective multicenter cohort...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437041/preoperative-exercise-halves-the-postoperative-complication-rate-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-exercise-on-complications-length-of-stay-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Daniel Steffens, Paula R Beckenkamp, Mark Hancock, Michael Solomon, Jane Young
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of preoperative exercises interventions in patients undergoing oncological surgery, on postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and quality of life. DESIGN: Intervention systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase and PEDro. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Trials investigating the effectiveness of preoperative exercise for any oncological patient undergoing surgery were included...
February 1, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435042/investigation-into-metastatic-processes-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-gemcitabine-on-human-pancreatic-cancer-using-an-orthotopic-suit-2-pancreatic-cancer-mouse-model
#6
Tamami Higuchi, Takehiko Yokobori, Tomoharu Naito, Chihaya Kakinuma, Shinji Hagiwara, Masahiko Nishiyama, Takayuki Asao
Prognosis of pancreatic cancer is poor, thus the development of novel therapeutic drugs is necessary. During preclinical studies, appropriate models are essential for evaluating drug efficacy. The present study sought to determine the ideal pancreatic cancer mouse model for reliable preclinical testing. Such a model could accurately reflect human pancreatic cancer phenotypes and predict future clinical trial results. Systemic pathology analysis was performed in an orthotopic transplantation model to prepare model mice for use in preclinical studies, mimicking the progress of human pancreatic cancer...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430789/intratumoral-delivery-of-interferon-%C3%AE-secreting-mscs-repolarizes-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-suppresses-neuroblastoma-proliferation-in-vivo
#7
Theresa Relation, Tai Yi, Adam J Guess, Krista La Perle, Satoru Otsuru, Suheyla Hasgur, Massimo Dominici, Christopher Breuer, Edwin M Horwitz
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, remains a therapeutic challenge. However, one promising patient treatment strategy is the delivery of anti-tumor therapeutic agents via mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy. MSCs have been safely utilized to treat genetic bone diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) has been shown to decrease tumor proliferation by altering the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
February 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427492/future-therapy-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Danny Issa, Vaishali Patel, Arun J Sanyal
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer and end stage liver disease. It is also associated with increased cardiovascular and cancer related morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease includes metabolic stress to the liver associated with insulin resistance with downstream cell stress from reactive oxygen species and unfolded protein response with activation of inflammatory and fibrotic pathways...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427028/2017-pretext-radiologic-staging-system-for-primary-hepatic-malignancies-of-childhood-revised-for-the-paediatric-hepatic-international-tumour-trial-phitt
#9
REVIEW
Alexander J Towbin, Rebecka L Meyers, Helen Woodley, Osamu Miyazaki, Christopher B Weldon, Bruce Morland, Eiso Hiyama, Piotr Czauderna, Derek J Roebuck, Greg M Tiao
Imaging is crucial in the assessment of children with a primary hepatic malignancy. Since its inception in 1992, the PRETEXT (PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor) system has become the primary method of risk stratification for hepatoblastoma and pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma in numerous cooperative group trials across the world. The PRETEXT system is made of two components: the PRETEXT group and the annotation factors. The PRETEXT group describes the extent of tumor within the liver while the annotation factors help to describe associated features such as vascular involvement (either portal vein or hepatic vein/inferior vena cava), extrahepatic disease, multifocality, tumor rupture and metastatic disease (to both the lungs and lymph nodes)...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408986/nivolumab-versus-docetaxel-in-previously-treated-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-checkmate-017-and-checkmate-057-3-year-update-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-liver-metastases
#10
E E Vokes, N Ready, E Felip, L Horn, M A Burgio, S J Antonia, O Arén Frontera, S Gettinger, E Holgado, D Spigel, D Waterhouse, M Domine, M Garassino, L Q M Chow, G Blumenschein, F Barlesi, B Coudert, J Gainor, O Arrieta, J Brahmer, C Butts, M Steins, W J Geese, A Li, D Healey, L Crinò
Background: Long-term data with immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited. Two phase III trials demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) and a favorable safety profile with the anti-programmed death-1 antibody nivolumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced squamous (CheckMate 017) and non-squamous (CheckMate 057) NSCLC. We report results from ≥3 years' follow-up, including subgroup analyses of patients with liver metastases, who historically have poorer prognosis among patients with NSCLC...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407633/the-lectin-pathway-and-coagulation-in-lung-cancer-patients-undergoing-lobectomy-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Julie Brogaard Larsen, Anne Troldborg, Thomas Decker Christensen, Christine Lodberg Hvas, Steffen Thiel, Anne-Mette Hvas
BACKGROUND: Lectin pathway proteases activate coagulation and may theoretically play a role in the increased thrombosis risk in cancer, which is especially high during surgery. AIMS: To investigate lectin pathway proteins during lung cancer surgery, the influence of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on lectin pathway proteins, and correlations between lectin pathway proteins and coagulation. METHODS: Fifty lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy were randomised to LMWH, n = 26, or no anticoagulant (control), n = 24...
January 30, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403195/vitamin-d-and-gastrointestinal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Ashish Mahendra, Karishma, Basanta Kumar Choudhury, Tamanna Sharma, Neha Bansal, Richa Bansal, Shivangi Gupta
Vitamin D serves as a precursor to the potent steroid hormone calcitriol, which has widespread actions throughout the body. Calcitriol regulates numerous cellular pathways that could have a role in determining cancer risk and prognosis. Low Vitamin D levels have been implicated in numerous disease processes including fracture risk, falls, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cancers. Metabolite of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399439/plant-flavone-apigenin-an-emerging-anticancer-agent
#13
Eswar Shankar, Aditi Goel, Karishma Gupta, Sanjay Gupta
Research in cancer chemoprevention provides convincing evidence that increased intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the risk of several human malignancies. Phytochemicals present therein provide beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that serve to improve the cellular microenvironment. Compounds known as flavonoids categorized anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanones, flavonols, flavones, and isoflavones have shown considerable promise as chemopreventive agents. Apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a major plant flavone, possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties affecting several molecular and cellular targets used to treat various human diseases...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397129/dexmedetomidine-promotes-metastasis-in-rodent-models-of-breast-lung-and-colon-cancers
#14
H Lavon, P Matzner, A Benbenishty, L Sorski, E Rossene, R Haldar, E Elbaz, J P Cata, V Gottumukkala, S Ben-Eliyahu
BACKGROUND: Perioperative strategies can significantly influence long-term cancer outcomes. Dexmedetomidine, an α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist, is increasingly used perioperatively for its sedative, analgesic, anxiolytic, and sympatholytic effects. Such actions might attenuate the perioperative promotion of metastases, but other findings suggest opposite effects on primary tumour progression. We tested the effects of dexmedetomidine in clinically relevant models of dexmedetomidine use on cancer metastatic progression...
January 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395949/treatments-outcomes-and-validity-of-prognostic-scores-in-patients-with-sarcomatoid-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-20-year-single-institution-experience
#15
Clément Korenbaum, Laure Pierard, Alicia Thiéry, Fleur Story, Véronique Lindner, Hervé Lang, Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz, Philippe Barthélémy
INTRODUCTION: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a sarcomatoid component is a rare disease associated with a poor prognosis. We report the outcomes of 47 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid RCC (SRCC) treated with different modalities including chemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or immunotherapy over 2 decades in a French cancer center. Furthermore, we assessed the validity of prognostic scores in this subset of RCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were retrospectively identified from the database of the pathology department of the University Hospital of Strasbourg...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392123/phase-ii-trial-of-som230-pasireotide-lar-in-patients-with-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Lynn G Feun, Medhi Wangpaichitr, Ying-Ying Li, Deukwoo Kwon, Stephen P Richman, Peter J Hosein, Niramol Savaraj
Background: A phase II trial of pasireotide was performed to assess its efficacy and safety in advanced or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and methods: Patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh score ≤7 received pasireotide LAR 60 mg intramuscularly every 28 days. Primary endpoint was disease control rate. Secondary endpoints were time to tumor progression, response rate, treatment-related adverse events, and overall survival. Serum insulin growth factor-1 was measured before and after pasireotide...
2018: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387209/chemotherapy-of-metastatic-hepatoid-adenocarcinoma-literature-review-and-two-case-reports-with-cisplatin-etoposide
#17
Victor Simmet, Margot Noblecourt, Thibaut Lizée, Benjamin Morvant, Sylvie Girault, Patrick Soulié, Olivier Capitain
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare and aggressive cancer subtype with a poor prognosis under metastatic conditions. Currently, there is no specific chemotherapy treatment protocol for advanced stages of the disease. This review evaluates two cases of HAC of gastric cardia with synchronous liver metastasis, which were successfully treated by chemotherapy with cisplatin (25 mg/m2 each day) (day 1 to day 3) and etoposide (100 mg/m2) (day 1 to day 3), every three weeks. A structured literary evaluation and reviewed pertinent articles are additionally presented to analyse the different approaches for the treatment of metastatic HAC (mHAC)...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381456/a-prognostic-model-for-stratifying-clinical-outcomes-in-chemotherapy-naive-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-abiraterone-acetate
#18
D J Khalaf, C M Avilés, A A Azad, K Sunderland, T Todenhöfer, B J Eigl, D Finch, L Le, A Atwell, B Keith, C Kollmannsberger, K N Chi
INTRODUCTION: Recently, a prognostic index including six risk factors (RFs) (unfavourable ECOG performance status [PS], presence of liver metastases, short response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonists/antagonists, low albumin, increased alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) was developed from the COU-AA-301 trial in post-chemotherapy metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with abiraterone acetate. Our primary objective was to evaluate this model in a cohort of chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients receiving abiraterone...
December 1, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376219/selenium-for-preventing-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini, Cinzia Del Giovane, Gabriele Dennert, Marcel Zwahlen, Maree Brinkman, Maurice Pa Zeegers, Markus Horneber, Roberto D'Amico, Catherine M Crespi
BACKGROUND: This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer. OBJECTIVES: To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2...
January 29, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371913/evaluation-of-efficacy-and-safety-for-bevacizumab-in-treating-malignant-pleural-effusions-caused-by-lung-cancer-through-intrapleural-injection
#20
Sun Zongwen, Kong Song, Zhao Cong, Fu Tian, Zhang Yan
Some clinical investigations have assessed the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab combined with platinum anti-cancer drugs versus platinum drugs alone in treating malignant pleural effusion (MPE) caused by lung cancer through intrapleural injection. This report is a meta-analysis of independent research conclusions. Eleven controlled trials with 769 MPE patients were included in this report. Pooled odds ratios and standardized mean difference with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the fixed or random effects model of meta-analysis...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
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