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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037268/probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-insulin-sensitivity
#1
Y A Kim, J B Keogh, P M Clifton
Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism...
October 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035319/nutritional-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Vusal Aliyev, Claudia Mandato, Shinji Uemoto
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035308/gut-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-insights-on-mechanisms-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Junli Ma, Qihang Zhou, Houkai Li
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026733/safety-of-a-new-synbiotic-starter-formula
#4
Yvan Vandenplas, Antonis Analitis, Chara Tziouvara, Athina Kountzoglou, Anastasia Drakou, Manos Tsouvalas, Antigoni Mavroudi, Ioannis Xinias
PURPOSE: Breastfeeding is the best way to feed all infants, but not all infants can be (exclusively) breastfed. Cow's milk based infant formula is the second choice infant feeding. METHODS: The safety of a new synbiotic infant formula, supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis and fructo-oligosaccharides, with lactose and a whey/casein 60/40 protein ratio was tested in 280 infants during 3 months. RESULTS: The median age of the infants at inclusion was 0...
September 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991359/association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-mineral-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Katarzyna Skrypnik, Joanna Suliburska
The aim of this review is to present the most recent scientific evidence of interactions between the intestinal microbiota and minerals, and the effect of this interaction on the health of the host. The Web of Science database from the years 2013-2017 on this topic was reviewed. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that iron significantly affects the intestinal microbiota. However, Bifidobacteriaceae are capable of binding iron in the large intestine, thereby limiting the formation of free radicals synthesized in the presence of iron, and thus reducing the risk of colorectal cancer...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950281/effects-of-synbiotics-to-prevent-postoperative-infectious-complications-in-highly-invasive-abdominal-surgery
#6
Yukihiro Yokoyama, Takashi Asahara, Koji Nomoto, Masato Nagino
Postoperative infectious complication (POIC) is one of the most common complications following highly invasive abdominal surgeries, such as hepatectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatoduodenectomy. The surgical stress temporarily deteriorates the intestinal microenvironment, and the fecal concentrations of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus decrease following highly invasive abdominal surgery. In parallel with these changes, the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid also decrease after surgery...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948579/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-ncdc-298-with-fos-in-combination-on-viability-and-toxin-production-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Santosh Anand, Surajit Mandal, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
The present study was to investigate the utilization of prebiotics by Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 298 and its synergistic adversary effect on both population and production of heat-labile (LT) toxin in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). To select suitable prebiotic in order to enhance functionality, its utilization and the prebiotic activity score was examined. Antivirulence effect on ETEC was inspected by its inactivation rate and heat-labile toxin production in presence of different synbiotic combination...
September 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936910/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-a-focus-on-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Lucinda A Harris, Noemi Baffy
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disordered bowel habits, is one of the most common functional bowel disorders. IBS is a substantial burden on both patient health-related quality of life and health care costs. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for the occurrence of IBS, including altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, changes in gut permeability, immune activation, gut-brain dysregulation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and changes in the gut microbiota...
September 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#9
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917489/the-effects-of-single-or-combined-administration-of-galactooligosaccharide-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-on-cutaneous-mucus-immune-parameters-humoral-immune-responses-and-immune-related-genes-expression-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-fingerlings
#10
Maryam Modanloo, Siyavash Soltanian, Mostafa Akhlaghi, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of single or combined administration of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and Pediococcus acidilactici on cutaneous mucus immune parameters, humoral immune responses and immune related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks as follows: non-supplemented (Control), prebiotic diet (10 g/kg GOS), probiotic diet (1 g/kg [0.9 × 10(7) CFU] lyophilized P. acidilactici) and synbiotic diet (10 GOS in combination with 1 g/kg [0...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#11
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914794/effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-human-health
#12
REVIEW
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895794/effect-of-a-short-course-treatment-with-synbiotics-on-plasma-p-cresol-concentration-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#13
Bruna Guida, Mauro Cataldi, Andrea Memoli, Rossella Trio, Martina di Maro, Lucia Grumetto, Ivana Capuano, Stefano Federico, Antonio Pisani, Massimo Sabbatini
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether a short-term course with synbiotics may lower plasma p-Cresol concentrations in kidney transplant patients (KTRs) who accumulate this uremic toxin both because of increased production by their dysbiotic gut microbiome and because of reduced elimination by the transplanted kidneys. METHODS: Thirty-six KTRs (29 males, mean age 49.6 ± 9.1 years) with transplant vintage > 12 months, stable graft function, and no episode of acute rejection or infection in the last 3 months were enrolled in this single-center, parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized (2:1 synbiotic to placebo) study...
September 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865967/bugging-allergy-role-of-pre-pro-and-synbiotics-in-allergy-prevention
#14
REVIEW
Christina E West, Majda Dzidic, Susan L Prescott, Maria C Jenmalm
Large-scale biodiversity loss and complex changes in social behaviors are altering human microbial ecology. This is increasingly implicated in the global rise in inflammatory diseases, most notably the "allergy epidemic" in very early life. Colonization of human ecological niches, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, is critical for normal local and systemic immune development and regulation. Disturbances in composition, diversity and timing of microbial colonization have been associated with increased allergy risk, indicating the importance of strategies to restore a dysbiotic gut microbiota in the primary prevention of allergic diseases, including the administration of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics...
October 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814309/performance-biochemical-and-haematological-responses-and-relative-organ-weights-of-laying-hens-fed-diets-supplemented-with-prebiotic-probiotic-and-synbiotic
#15
Shirley Gee Hoon Tang, Chin Chin Sieo, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Wan Zuhainis Saad, Hee Kum Wong, Yin Wan Ho
BACKGROUND: The increasing trend of ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) across the globe in the poultry industry has led to a growing need for alternatives to AGPs. Prebiotic, probiotic and their combination as a synbiotic have been considered as potential alternatives. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide, IMO), a probiotic (PrimaLac®), and their combination (synbiotic) on hen performance, biochemical and haematological responses, and relative organ weights from 20 to 52 weeks of age...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813414/a-randomized-synbiotic-trial-to-prevent-sepsis-among-infants-in-rural-india
#16
Pinaki Panigrahi, Sailajanandan Parida, Nimai C Nanda, Radhanath Satpathy, Lingaraj Pradhan, Dinesh S Chandel, Lorena Baccaglini, Arjit Mohapatra, Subhranshu S Mohapatra, Pravas R Misra, Rama Chaudhry, Hegang H Chen, Judith A Johnson, J Glenn Morris, Nigel Paneth, Ira H Gewolb
Sepsis in early infancy results in one million annual deaths worldwide, most of them in developing countries. No efficient means of prevention is currently available. Here we report on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an oral synbiotic preparation (Lactobacillus plantarum plus fructooligosaccharide) in rural Indian newborns. We enrolled 4,556 infants that were at least 2,000 g at birth, at least 35 weeks of gestation, and with no signs of sepsis or other morbidity, and monitored them for 60 days...
August 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797988/effects-of-long-term-synbiotic-supplementation-in-addition-to-lifestyle-changes-in-children-with-obesity-related-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Murat Çakır, Ayşe Aksel İşbilen, İlker Eyüpoğlu, Elif Sağ, Asım Örem, Tuğba Mazlum Şen, Neşe Kaklıkkaya, Gülay Kaya
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to analyze the efficiency of a novel treatment approach, long-term synbiotic supplementation, in addition to lifestyle changes in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included children with NAFLD (n=28) and a healthy control group (n=30). Children with NAFLD were given 1 capsule/day of synbiotics. Anthropometric parameters; biochemical analysis, including ethanol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), total oxidant status (TOS) and anti-oxidant status (TAS), zonulin, and fecal calprotectin; and ultrasonographic examination were performed at baseline and 4 months later...
August 9, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793992/short-chain-fatty-acids-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-systemic-inflammation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Rebecca F McLoughlin, Bronwyn S Berthon, Megan E Jensen, Katherine J Baines, Lisa G Wood
Background: Prebiotic soluble fibers are fermented by beneficial bacteria in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are proposed to have systemic anti-inflammatory effects.Objective: This review examines the effect of SCFAs, prebiotics, and pre- and probiotic combinations (synbiotics) on systemic inflammation.Design: Relevant English language studies from 1947 to May 2017 were identified with the use of online databases. Studies were considered eligible if they examined the effects of SCFAs, prebiotics, or synbiotics; were delivered orally, intravenously, or per rectum; were on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in humans; and performed meta-analysis where possible...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781771/the-impact-of-synbiotic-administration-through-in-ovo-technology-on-the-microstructure-of-a-broiler-chicken-small-intestine-tissue-on-the-1-st-and-42-nd-day-of-rearing
#19
A Sobolewska, J Bogucka, A Dankowiakowska, G Elminowska-Wenda, K Stadnicka, M Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Application the innovative method which is in ovo technology provides a means of modulating the immune system at early embryonic stages. The aim of study was to determine influence of the in ovo stimulation, on d 12 of incubation, with synbiotics (synbiotic 1- L. salivarius IBB3154 + Bi(2)tos, Clasado Ltd. and the synbiotic 2 - L. plantarum IBB3036 + lupin RFOs) on the microstructure of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the 1(st) and 42(nd) day of rearing. RESULTS: On the 1(st) day of chickens life, in the duodenum of both experimental groups (SYN1 and SYN2), a significantly higher and wider intestinal villi as well as a significantly larger absorbent surface of these villi were found in comparison with the Control group (P ≤ 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780103/human-milk-oligosaccharide-consumption-by-probiotic-and-human-associated-bifidobacteria-and-lactobacilli
#20
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Human milk contains high concentrations of nondigestible complex oligosaccharides (human milk oligosaccharides; HMO) that reach the colon and are subsequently fermented by the infant gut microbiota. Using a high-throughput, low-volume growth determination, we evaluated the ability of 12 lactobacilli and 12 bifidobacteria strains, including several commercial probiotics, to ferment HMO and their constituent monomers. Of the 24 strains tested, only Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis ATCC 15697 and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 were able to ferment 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, and 3'-fucosyllactose...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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