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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127237/metaboreflex-mediated-hemodynamic-abnormalities-in-individuals-with-coronary-artery-disease-without-overt-signs-or-symptoms-of-heart-failure
#1
Sara Magnani, Silvana Roberto, Gianmarco Sainas, Raffaele Milia, Girolamo Palazzolo, Lucia Cugusi, Virginia Pinna, Azzurra Doneddu, Seyed Alireza Hosseini Kakhak, Filippo Tocco, Giuseppe Mercuro, Antonio Crisafulli
This study was devised to investigate the effect of coronary artery disease (CAD) without overt signs of heart failure on the cardiovascular responses to muscle metaboreflex activation. We hypothesized that any CAD-induced pre-clinical systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction could impair hemodynamic response to the metaboreflex test. Twelve males diagnosed with CAD without any sign or symptoms of heart failure and 11 age-matched healthy controls (CTL) participated in the study. Subjects performed a post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) test to activate the metaboreflex...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122526/extracorporeal-myocardial-shockwave-therapy-a-precious-blast-for-refractory-angina-patients
#2
Massimo Slavich, Giuseppe Pizzetti, Anna Maria Vella, Claudia Carlucci, Davide Margonato, Roberto Spoladore, Gabriele Fragasso, Alberto Margonato
INTRODUCTION: Refractory Angina Pectoris (RAP) dramatically affects patients' life quality and medical costs. External Shockwave Myocardial Revascularization (ESMR) improves the cardiac blood flow thanks to its pro-angiogenetic action on ischaemic tissues. We hereby describe our experience of ESMR in RAP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study encompassing all patients referred to OSR for RAP treatment. Efficacy of ESMR was assessed considering the difference between pre and post therapy data in SAQ score and CCS, stress test performance, 24h ECG monitoring, NT-proBNP and echocardiographic measures...
October 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114529/rehabilitation-training-in-artificially-heated-environment
#3
Ping-Chung Leung
Sauna has become a popular club house facility where the dweller enjoys relaxation. Some exercise groups like yoga and Qigong practitioners, are making use of the heated environment to achieve quicker and better results of trainings. Sauna therapy is producing a thermal stress through hyperthermia. The cardiovascular system readily responds by increasing the heart rate which can become double the resting stage within minutes and cardiac output may have a 70% increase. The body's surface response to heat leads to a 40% of decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, thus allowing rapid peripheral blood flow which is responsible for greater heat dispersal directly from the skin...
October 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114523/skeletal-muscle-contraction-induced-vasodilation-in-the-microcirculation
#4
REVIEW
Kwang-Seok Hong, Kijeong Kim
Maximal whole body exercise leads skeletal muscle blood flow to markedly increase to match metabolic demands, a phenomenon termed exercise hyperaemia that is accomplished by increasing vasodilation. However, local vasodilatory mechanisms in response to skeletal muscle contraction remain uncertain. This review highlights metabolic vasodilators released from contracting skeletal muscle, endothelium, or blood cells. As a considerable skeletal muscle vasodilation potentially results in hypotension, sympathetic nerve activity needs to be augmented to elevate cardiac output and blood pressure during dynamic exercise...
October 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112625/ischemic-preconditioning-improves-time-trial-performance-at-moderate-altitude
#5
Pénélope Paradis-Deschênes, Denis R Joanisse, François Billaut
PURPOSE: Endurance athletes often compete and train at altitude where exercise capacity is reduced. Investigating acclimation strategies is therefore critical. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve endurance performance at sea level through improved O2 delivery and utilization, which could also prove beneficial at altitude. However, data are scarce and there is no study at altitudes commonly visited by endurance athletes. METHODS: In a randomized, crossover study, we investigated performance and physiological responses in thirteen male endurance cyclists during four 5-km cycling time trials (TT), preceded by either IPC (3x5-minutes ischemia/5-minutes reperfusion cycles at 220 mmHg) or SHAM (20 mmHg) administered to both thighs, at simulated low (FIO2 0...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110150/the-effect-of-an-aerobic-exercise-bout-24%C3%A2-h-prior-to-each-doxorubicin-treatment-for-breast-cancer-on-markers-of-cardiotoxicity-and-treatment-symptoms-a-rct
#6
Amy A Kirkham, Neil D Eves, Rob E Shave, Kelcey A Bland, Joshua Bovard, Karen A Gelmon, Sean A Virani, Don C McKenzie, Eric J Stöhr, Darren E R Waburton, Kristin L Campbell
PURPOSE: In rodents, a single exercise bout performed 24 h prior to a single doxorubicin treatment provides cardio-protection. This study investigated whether performing this intervention prior to every doxorubicin treatment for breast cancer reduced subclinical cardiotoxicity and treatment symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-four women with early stage breast cancer were randomly assigned to perform a 30-min, vigorous-intensity treadmill bout 24 h prior to each of four doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy treatments or to usual care...
November 6, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101169/voluntary-apnea-during-dynamic-exercise-activates-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-humans
#7
Masashi Ichinose, Mayumi Matsumoto, Naoto Fujii, Narumi Yoshitake, Takeshi Nishiyasu
Voluntary apnea during dynamic exercise evokes marked bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction and pressor responses. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the cardiovascular responses seen during apnea in exercising humans is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the muscle metaboreflex contributes to the apnea-induced pressor response during dynamic exercise. Thirteen healthy subjects participated in apnea and control trials. In both trials, subjects performed a two-legged dynamic knee extension exercise at a workload that elicited heart rates around 100 beats/min...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098615/the-benefits-of-exercise-training-on-aerobic-capacity-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction
#8
Danilo Marcelo Leite do Prado, Enéas Antônio Rocco
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is defined as an inability of the ventricles to optimally accept blood from atria with blunted end- diastolic volume response by limiting the stroke volume and cardiac output. The HEpEF prevalence is higher in elderly and women and may be associated to hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation. Severe exercise intolerance, manifested by dyspnea and fatigue during physical effort is the important chronic symptom in HFpEF patients, in which is the major determinant of their reduced quality of life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094875/heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-diagnosis-and-management
#9
John D Gazewood, Patrick L Turner
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular relaxation and passive ventricular compliance, leading to a decline in stroke volume and cardiac output. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction should be suspected in patients with typical symptoms (e.g., fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, edema) and signs (S3 heart sound, displaced apical pulse, and jugular venous distension) of chronic heart failure...
November 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075297/stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-human-cardiopulmonary-development-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Silvana Bardelli, Marco Moccetti
Already during embryonic development, the heart and the lung are thoroughly connected organs. Their interdependence allows our survival in the terrestrial environment by coupling cardiac output and gas exchange. The knowledge on developmental processes involving stem and progenitor cells is crucial to understand the onset of human cardiopulmonary diseases. The precise identification of various adult endogenous progenitors is still incomplete. Thus, caution should be exercised on newly available stem cell-based treatments until specific mechanisms of action are disclosed...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070505/inter-individual-variability-in-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-in-young-men-evidence-for-sympathetic-responder-types
#11
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Negative and positive muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responders have been observed during mental stress. We hypothesized that similar MSNA response patterns could be identified during the first minute of static handgrip and contribute to the inter-individual variability throughout exercise. Supine measurements of multi-unit MSNA (microneurography) and continuous blood pressure (Finometer) were recorded in 29 young healthy men during the first (HG1) and second (HG2) minute of static handgrip (30% maximal voluntary contraction) and subsequent post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO)...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060128/acute-effects-of-incremental-exercise-on-central-hemodynamics-in-young-basketball-athletes
#12
Yahui Zhang, Lin Qi, Lisheng Xu, Yang Yao, Wenlong Lv, Chenglin Du
Acute effects of competitive sports on central hemodynamics are controversial. This study was aimed to evaluate acute effects of incremental exercise on central hemodynamics in young basketball athletes during 1-hour recovery. Fifteen young basketball athletes and fifteen controls underwent the acquisition of peripheral and central blood pressure before exercise and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 min after incremental exercise. The incremental exercise was performed by Bruce test. Aortic systolic pressure (ASP), sub-endocardial viability ratio and stroke volume were significantly higher in athletes at all time points measured before and after exercise (P<;0...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047079/molecular-basis-of-nitrative-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Colin E Evans, You-Yang Zhao
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lung vascular disease with marked increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure (>25 mmHg at rest). In PH patients, increases in pulmonary vascular resistance lead to impaired cardiac output and reduced exercise tolerance. If untreated, PH progresses to right heart failure and premature lethality. The mechanisms that control the pathogenesis of PH are incompletely understood, but evidence from human and animal studies implicate nitrative stress in the development of PH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045277/determinants-of-improvement-in-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#14
Andrew N Rosenbaum, Shannon M Dunlay, Naveen L Pereira, Thomas G Allison, Simon Maltais, John M Stulak, Lyle D Joyce, Sudhir S Kushwaha
Although improvement in cardiac output and hemodynamic parameters is routinely demonstrated in patients implanted with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs), improvement in exercise capacity is inconsistently seen. Our purpose was to determine whether native cardiac factors, LVAD factors, or comorbid factors were associated with lack of improvement. Review of all patients undergoing preimplant cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and CPET on LVAD therapy at one institution was performed between 2007 and 2014 (n = 49)...
October 18, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031332/right-ventricular-function-during-pharmacological-and-exercise-stress-testing-in-horses
#15
A Decloedt, D De Clercq, S Ven, L Vera, G van Loon
The disproportionate rise of pulmonary artery pressure compared to systemic blood pressure during exercise can lead to detrimental right ventricular remodelling in endurance athletes. Horses may act as an extreme model of these athletic cardiovascular adaptations, as they show a three fold increase in pulmonary pressures during exercise. Right ventricular function was examined in ten healthy horses using post-exercise and pharmacological stress echocardiography in a randomised cross-over design. Exercise testing was performed on a treadmill while pharmacological testing was performed using an atropine-dobutamine infusion...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030342/the-sex-specific-impact-of-aging-on-the-blood-pressure-response-to-exercise
#16
Joel D Trinity, Gwenael Layec, Corey R Hart, Russell S Richardson
An exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the impact of age and sex on this response. Therefore, this study examined the hemodynamic and skeletal muscle metabolic response to dynamic plantar flexion exercise, at 40% of WRmax, in 40 physical activity-matched young (n=20, 23±1 yr) and old (n=20, 73±2 yr), equally distributed, male and female subjects. Central hemodynamics and BP (finometer), popliteal artery (PA) blood flow (Doppler ultrasound), and skeletal muscle metabolism (phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy, (31)P-MRS) were measured during 5 mins of plantar flexion exercise...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025748/compromised-cerebrovascular-regulation-and-cerebral-oxygenation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#17
Simon Malenfant, Patrice Brassard, Myriam Paquette, Olivier Le Blanc, Audrey Chouinard, Valérie Nadeau, Philip D Allan, Yu-Chieh Tzeng, Sébastien Simard, Sébastien Bonnet, Steeve Provencher
BACKGROUND: Functional cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms are important for maintaining constant cerebral blood flow and oxygen supply in heathy individuals and are altered in heart failure. We aim to examine whether pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with abnormal cerebrovascular regulation and lower cerebral oxygenation and their physiological and clinical consequences. METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAvmean); transcranial Doppler), cerebral pressure-flow relationship (assessed at rest and during squat-stand maneuvers; analyzed using transfer function analysis), cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, and central chemoreflex were assessed in 11 patients with PAH and 11 matched healthy controls...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022255/acute-and-chronic-response-to-exercise-in-athletes-the-supernormal-heart
#18
Antonello D'Andrea, Tiziana Formisano, Lucia Riegler, Raffaella Scarafile, Raffaella America, Francesca Martone, Marco di Maio, Maria Giovanna Russo, Eduardo Bossone, Maurizio Galderisi, Raffaele Calabrò
During last decades, most studies have examined the exercise-induced remodeling defined as "athlete's heart". During exercise, there is an increased cardiac output that causes morphological, functional, and electrical modification of the cardiac chambers. The cardiac remodeling depends also on the type of training, age, sex, ethnicity, genetic factors, and body size. The two main categories of exercise, endurance and strength, determine different effects on the cardiac remodeling. Even if most sport comprise both strength and endurance exercise, determining different scenarios of cardiac adaptation to the exercise...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993402/exercise-intolerance-in-hfpef-diagnosing-and-ranking-its-causes-using-personalized-o2-pathway-analysis
#19
Nicholas E Houstis, Aaron S Eisman, Paul P Pappagianopoulos, Luke Wooster, Cole S Bailey, Peter D Wagner, Gregory D Lewis
Background -Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common syndrome with a pressing shortage of therapies. Exercise intolerance is a cardinal symptom of HFpEF, yet its pathophysiology remains uncertain. Methods -We investigated the mechanism of exercise intolerance in each of 134 patients referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET): 79 with HFpEF and 55 controls. We performed CPET with invasive monitoring to measure hemodynamics, blood gases, and gas exchange during exercise. We used these measurements to quantify 6 steps of oxygen transport and utilization (the "O2 pathway") in each HFpEF patient, identifying the defective steps that impair each one's exercise capacity (peak VO2)...
October 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992936/-short-term-exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-induced-changes-in-cardiorespiratory-mechanical-and-neuromuscular-responses-to-progressive-exercise-testing
#20
P-M Leprêtre, M Ghannem, S Delanaud, N Jaunet, L Gaillard, A Barnabé, T Porcher, T Weissland
Previous studies showed that changes in peak of oxygen uptake value (VO2peak) with training were poorly related to changes in Maximal Tolerated Power output (MTP) among patients with cardiovascular disease. This result could be due to a difference between cardiopulmonary adaptation to training and the skeletal muscle conditioning. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the responses to exercise training of electromyographic activities of vastus lateralis (rms-EMG) and respiratory parameters...
November 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
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