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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448876/evaluation-of-injectable-anaesthesia-with-five-medetomidine-midazolam-based-combinations-in-egyptian-fruit-bats-rousettus-aegyptiacus
#1
Avishag Tuval, Liora Las, Yael Shilo-Benjamini
Egyptian fruit bats are increasingly used as model animals in neuroscience research. Our aim was to characterize suitable injectable anaesthesia for this species, possibly replacing inhalant anaesthesia, thus minimizing occupational health hazards. Eight bats were randomly assigned by a crossover design for subcutaneously administered combinations of medetomidine-midazolam with: saline (MM-Sal), ketamine (MM-Ket), fentanyl (MM-Fen), morphine (MM-Mor), or butorphanol (MM-But). The anaesthetic depth and vital signs were monitored at baseline and every 10 min until bats recovered...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448238/parsing-the-heterogeneity-of-depression-an-exploratory-factor-analysis-across-commonly-used-depression-rating-scales
#2
Elizabeth D Ballard, Julia S Yarrington, Cristan A Farmer, Marc S Lener, Bashkim Kadriu, Níall Lally, Deonte Williams, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Mark J Niciu, Lawrence Park, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Due to the heterogeneity of depressive symptoms-which can include depressed mood, anhedonia, negative cognitive biases, and altered activity levels-researchers often use a combination of depression rating scales to assess symptoms. This study sought to identify unidimensional constructs measured across rating scales for depression and to evaluate these constructs across clinical trials of a rapid-acting antidepressant (ketamine). METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on baseline ratings from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Rating Scale (SHAPS)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446381/ketamine-blocks-bursting-in-the-lateral-habenula-to-rapidly-relieve-depression
#3
Yan Yang, Yihui Cui, Kangning Sang, Yiyan Dong, Zheyi Ni, Shuangshuang Ma, Hailan Hu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has attracted enormous interest in mental health research owing to its rapid antidepressant actions, but its mechanism of action has remained elusive. Here we show that blockade of NMDAR-dependent bursting activity in the 'anti-reward center', the lateral habenula (LHb), mediates the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine in rat and mouse models of depression. LHb neurons show a significant increase in burst activity and theta-band synchronization in depressive-like animals, which is reversed by ketamine...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432502/comparison-of-the-effect-of-intravenous-anesthetics-used-for-anesthesia-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-the-hemodynamic-safety-and-the-course-of-ect
#4
REVIEW
Rafał Wojdacz, Łukasz Święcicki, Anna Antosik-Wójcińska
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment method widely used in psychiatric disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The advantage of ECT is therapeutic response that occurs significantly earlier than during pharmacotherapy. Initially ECTwas used without anesthesia. Then, in the 1950s procedures with general anesthesia were introduced to reduce the complications that may occur during a seizure caused by ECT, such as broken bones, teeth, tendon rupture, muscle damage...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424806/intravenous-ketamine-relieves-pain-and-depression-after-traumatic-suicide-attempts-a-case-series
#5
Nicholas Mischel, Christian Bjerre-Real, Jonathan Komisar, Brian Ginsberg, Steven T Szabo, Xavier PreudʼHomme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396996/intranasal-ketamine-and-its-potential-role-in-cancer-related-pain
#6
Vinita Singh, Theresa W Gillespie, R Donald Harvey
Cancer-related pain continues to be a significant therapeutic challenge, made more difficult by contemporary opioid use and diversion concerns. Conventional treatment utilizing a tiered approach of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and adjuvant agents is limited; and alternatives are needed for patients with rapidly progressing pain and those who develop hyperalgesia and tolerance to opioids. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) selective antagonist, has historically been used for anesthesia in adult and pediatric populations, but has also been investigated for depression, bipolar disorder, and general and post-operative pain management...
February 3, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395043/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-and-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-kinase-pathways-mediate-the-antidepressant-action-of-ketamine
#7
Chinnakkaruppan Adaikkan, Elham Taha, Iliana Barrera, Orit David, Kobi Rosenblum
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, which on administration produces fast-acting antidepressant responses in patients with major depressive disorder. Yet, the mechanism underlying the antidepressant action of ketamine remains unclear. METHODS: To unravel the mechanism of action of ketamine, we treated wild-type C57BL/6 mice with calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) specific inhibitor tatCN21 peptide. We also used eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) (also known as CaMKIII) knockout mice...
December 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388517/a-brief-history-of-antidepressant-drug-development-from-tricyclics-to-beyond-ketamine
#8
Vitor Silva Pereira, Vinícius Antonio Hiroaki-Sato
OBJECTIVE: Although monoaminergic-targeted drugs have prompted great advances in the development of treatments for depression, the need for new options persists, since these drugs still have a delayed clinical effect and most patients do not respond properly to them. Recently, the observation of the antidepressant effects of ketamine brought on a new wave of studies regarding the comprehension of the neurobiology of depression and the development of new and more effective antidepressant drugs...
February 1, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378483/mapping-the-central-effects-of-%C3%A2-ketamine-and-traxoprodil-using-pharmacological-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-awake-rats
#9
Haiying Tang, Daniel Kukral, Yu-Wen Li, Matthew Fronheiser, Harold Malone, Adrienne Pena, Rick Pieschl, Kurex Sidik, Gabriel Tobon, Patrick L Chow, Linda J Bristow, Wendy Hayes, Feng Luo
Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability globally. Improvements in the efficacy of antidepressant therapy are needed as a high proportion (>40%) of individuals with major depressive disorder fail to respond adequately to current treatments. The non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blocker, (±)-ketamine, has been reported to produce a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant response in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder patients, which provides a unique opportunity for investigation of mechanisms that mediate its therapeutic effect...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372569/intravenous-ketamine-infusion-for-a-patient-with-treatment-resistant-major-depression-a-10-month-follow-up
#10
J H Kwon, W S Sim, J P Hong, I S Song, J Y Lee
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Ketamine in a subanaesthetic dose has been shown to produce rapid antidepressant effects. Here, we describe a long-term follow-up case of a Korean patient with severe major depression who received repeated ketamine intravenous therapy (KIT). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year-old woman with a 6-year history of treatment-resistant major depression was given KIT once every 1 or 2 weeks over 10 months, for a total of 36 treatments. Her mood stabilized, and she showed a nearly 50% reduction in the severity of her depressive symptom...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365093/ketamine-intervention-limits-pathogen-expansion-in-vitro
#11
German Torres, Christopher L Hoehmann, Joshua A Cuoco, Kyle Hitscherich, Charles Pavia, Michael Hadjiargyrou, Joerg R Leheste
Ketamine is one of several clinically important drugs whose therapeutic efficacy is due in part to their ability to act upon ion channels prevalent in nearly all biological systems. In studying eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms in vitro, we show that ketamine short-circuits the growth and spatial expansion of three microorganisms, Stachybotrys chartarum, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Borrelia burgdorferi at doses efficient at reducing depression-like behaviors in mouse models of clinical depression. Although our findings do not reveal the mechanism(s) by which ketamine mediates its antifungal and antibacterial effects, we hypothesize that a function of L-glutamate signal transduction is associated with the ability of ketamine to limit pathogen expansion...
January 22, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356590/taking-psychedelics-seriously
#12
Ira Byock
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric research in the 1950s and 1960s showed potential for psychedelic medications to markedly alleviate depression and suffering associated with terminal illness. More recent published studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of psilocybin, MDMA, and ketamine when administered in a medically supervised and monitored approach. A single or brief series of sessions often results in substantial and sustained improvement among people with treatment-resistant depression and anxiety, including those with serious medical conditions...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350129/new-medications-for-treatment-resistant-depression-a-brief-review-of-recent-developments
#13
Michael E Thase
There is a great unmet need for new medications with novel mechanisms of action that can effectively treat patients who do not benefit from standard antidepressant therapies. After a period in which it seemed as if the pharmaceutical pipeline for new antidepressants was going dry, the past decade has witnessed renewed interest, beginning with discovery of the antidepressant effects of ketamine. This article briefly highlights more recent research on ketamine and other investigational antidepressants.
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339294/ketamine-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
I Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, W Lawn, E Krupitsky, C J A Morgan
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which acts on the central nervous system chiefly through antagonism of the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Recently, ketamine has attracted attention as a rapid-acting anti-depressant but other studies have also reported its efficacy in reducing problematic alcohol and drug use. This review explores the preclinical and clinical research into ketamine's ability to treat addiction. Despite methodological limitations and the relative infancy of the field, results thus far are promising...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313138/do-psychoactive-drugs-have-a-therapeutic-role-in-compulsivity-studies-on-schedule-induced-polydipsia
#15
Elena Martín-González, Ángeles Prados-Pardo, Santiago Mora, Pilar Flores, Margarita Moreno
RATIONALE: Clinical studies have shown that some psychoactive recreational drugs have therapeutic applications in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. However, to date, there are few studies on the therapeutic potential efficacy of recreational drugs in compulsive neuropsychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVES: We explored the therapeutic potential of different psychoactive and psychedelic drugs in a preclinical model of compulsive behavior. METHODS: Outbred male Wistar rats were selected as either high (HD) or low (LD) drinkers according to their behavior in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP)...
January 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309585/role-of-5-ht1a-receptor-stimulation-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-sustained-antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine
#16
Kenichi Fukumoto, Michihiko Iijima, Takeo Funakoshi, Shigeyuki Chaki
Background: We previously reported that serotonergic transmission plays an important role in antidepressant effects of ketamine. However, detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. Among the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has an important role in depression. Here, we investigated the role of the mPFC 5-HT1A receptor and its signaling mechanism in the antidepressant effects of ketamine. Methods: The role of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated signaling mechanism (phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt) in the mPFC was examined in the mouse forced swimming test and western blotting...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307665/effects-of-ketamine-on-vocal-impairment-gait-changes-and-anhedonia-induced-by-bilateral-6-ohda-infusion-into-the-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta-in-rats-therapeutic-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Débora Dalla Vecchia, Luiz Kae Sales Kanazawa, Etiéli Wendler, Palloma de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Estevan Bruginski, Francinete Ramos Campos, Cristina Aparecida Jark Stern, Maria Aparecida Barbato Frazão Vital, Edmar Miyoshi, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Roberto Andreatini
Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cardinal motor features, such as bradykinesia, but also vocal deficits (e.g. difficulties to articulate words and to keep the tone of voice) and depression. In the present study, rats with bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta were evaluated for changes in the emission of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, gait impairment (catwalk test), and depressive-like behaviour (sucrose preference test).Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of repeated treatment (28 days) with ketamine (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, ip, once per week) or imipramine (15 mg/kg, ip, daily)...
January 4, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305627/antagonism-at-the-nr2b-subunit-of-nmda-receptors-induces-increased-connectivity-of-the-prefrontal-and-subcortical-regions-regulating-reward-behavior
#18
Natalia Gass, Robert Becker, Markus Sack, Adam J Schwarz, Jonathan Reinwald, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Lei Zheng, Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Dragos Inta, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Peter Gass, Alexander Sartorius
RATIONALE: Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Since ketamine equally blocks NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDAR, and has affinity to other receptors, NR2B-selective drugs might have improved therapeutic efficiency and side effect profile. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of (S)-ketamine and two different types of NR2B-selective antagonists on functional brain networks in rats, in order to find common circuits, where their effects intersect, and that might explain their antidepressant action...
January 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277196/can-we-confidently-use-ketamine-as-a-clinical-treatment-for-depression
#19
Colleen Loo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276735/circuit-and-synaptic-mechanisms-of-repeated-stress-perspectives-from-differing-contexts-duration-and-development
#20
REVIEW
Kevin G Bath, Scott J Russo, Kristen E Pleil, Eric S Wohleb, Ronald S Duman, Jason J Radley
The current review is meant to synthesize research presented as part of a symposium at the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Irvine California. The focus of the symposium was "Stress and the Synapse: New Concepts and Methods" and featured the work of several junior investigators. The presentations focused on the impact of various forms of stress (altered maternal care, binge alcohol drinking, chronic social defeat, and chronic unpredictable stress) on synaptic function, neurodevelopment, and behavioral outcomes...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
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