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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665520/treatment-resistant-depression-and-suicidality
#1
REVIEW
Isidoor O Bergfeld, Mariska Mantione, Martijn Figee, P Richard Schuurman, Anja Lok, Damiaan Denys
BACKGROUND: Thirty percent of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime. However, it is unclear what the attempted and completed suicide incidences are in TRD patients after initiating a treatment, and whether specific treatments increase or decrease these incidences. METHODS: We searched PubMed systematically for studies of depressed patients who failed at least two antidepressant therapies and were followed for at least three months after initiating a treatment...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664276/effects-of-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt-on-rat-behaviors-relevant-to-anxiety-and-depression
#2
Lindsay P Cameron, Charlie J Benson, Lee E Dunlap, David E Olson
Depression and anxiety disorders are debilitating diseases resulting in substantial economic costs to society. Traditional antidepressants often take weeks to months to positively affect mood and are ineffective for about 30% of the population. Alternatives, such as ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic capable of producing hallucinations, and the psychoactive tisane ayahuasca have shown great promise due to their fast-acting nature and effectiveness in treatment-resistant populations. Here, we investigate the effects of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), the principle hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, in rodent behavioral assays relevant to anxiety and depression using adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660637/does-oral-administration-of-ketamine-accelerate-response-to-treatment-in-major-depressive-disorder-results-of-a-double-blind-controlled-trial
#3
Somaye Arabzadeh, Elham Hakkikazazi, Nazila Shahmansouri, Abbas Tafakhori, Alireza Ghajar, Morteza Jafarinia, Shahin Akhondzadeh
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) exerts a high health and financial burden on society. The conventional pharmacotherapies for MDD are partially effective and the response to medication often starts with some delay. There are recent reports of antidepressant effects for oral ketamine. METHODS: We employed a double-blind controlled trial to examine the time course of the therapeutic effect of ketamine when combined with the conventional administration of sertraline...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659211/ketamine-for-depression-6-effects-on-suicidal-ideation-and-possible-use-as-crisis-intervention-in-patients-at-suicide-risk
#4
Chittaranjan Andrade
A growing body of literature suggests that ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, has early-onset antidepressant action in patients with severe and even treatment-refractory depression. Many case reports, open-label studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that ketamine may have dramatic antisuicidal effects, as well. This article examines the benefits of ketamine in patients with suicidal ideation with particular focus on the findings of recent RCTs and meta-analyses. Important findings are that a single dose of ketamine is associated with antisuicidal benefits that emerge within an hour of administration and persist for up to a week...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655977/dexmedetomidine-or-fentanyl-cardiovascular-stability-and-analgesia-during-propofol-ketamine-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-in-experimental-pigs
#5
Andreas Lervik, Joanna Raszplewicz, Birgit Ranheim, Susanna Solbak, Simen F Toverud, Henning A Haga
OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiovascular function and response to nociception during total intravenous anaesthesia in pigs with propofol, ketamine and either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl administered as a continuous infusion. STUDY DESIGN: Blinded, randomized, balanced, crossover study ANIMALS: Eight immunocastrated male, mixed breed pigs with a mean ± standard deviation body weight of 26.4 ± 1.9 kg for dexmedetomidine and 27.5 ± 3.8 kg for fentanyl treatment...
December 5, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623221/efficacy-of-dexmedetomidine-versus-ketofol-for-sedation-of-postoperative-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
Hatem Elmoutaz Mahmoud, Doaa Abou Elkassim Rashwan
Patients with sleep apnea are prone to postoperative respiratory complications, requiring restriction of sedatives during perioperative care. We performed a prospective randomized study on 24 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who underwent elective surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were equally divided into two groups: Group Dex : received dexmedetomidine loading dose 1 mcg/kg IV over 10 min followed by infusion of 0.2-0.7 mcg/kg/hr; Group KFL : received ketofol as an initial bolus dose 500 mcg/kg IV (ketamine/propofol 1 : 1) and maintenance dose of 5-10 mcg/kg/min...
2018: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621538/ketamine-and-ketamine-metabolites-as-novel-estrogen-receptor-ligands-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-and-ampa-glutamate-receptor-gene-expression
#7
Ming-Fen Ho, Cristina Correia, James N Ingle, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Liewei Wang, Scott H Kaufmann, Richard M Weinshilboum
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric illness worldwide, and it displays a striking sex-dependent difference in incidence, with two thirds of MDD patients being women. Ketamine treatment can produce rapid antidepressant effects in MDD patients, effects that are mediated-at least partially-through glutamatergic neurotransmission. Two active metabolites of ketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) and (2S,6S)-HNK, also appear to play a key role in ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects through the activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615190/ventral-ca3-activation-mediates-prophylactic-ketamine-efficacy-against-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior
#8
Alessia Mastrodonato, Randy Martinez, Ina P Pavlova, Christina T LaGamma, Rebecca A Brachman, Alfred J Robison, Christine A Denny
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that a single injection of ketamine prior to stress protects against the onset of depressive-like behavior and attenuates learned fear. However, the molecular pathways and brain circuits underlying ketamine-induced stress resilience are still largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we tested whether prophylactic ketamine administration altered neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and/or hippocampus. Mice were injected with saline or ketamine (30 mg/kg) 1 week before social defeat...
February 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614992/a-research-study-review-of-effectiveness-of-treatments-for-psychiatric-conditions-common-to-end-stage-cancer-patients-needs-assessment-for-future-research-and-an-impassioned-plea
#9
Ralph J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rates of psychiatric conditions common to end-stage cancer patients (delirium, depression, anxiety disorders) remain unchanged. However, patient numbers have increased as the population has aged; indeed, cancer is a chief cause of mortality and morbidity in older populations. Effectiveness of psychiatric interventions and research to evaluate, inform, and improve interventions is critical to these patients' care. This article's intent is to report results from a recent review study on the effectiveness of interventions for psychiatric conditions common to end-stage cancer patients; the review study assessed the state of research regarding treatment effectiveness...
April 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606730/effect-of-different-analgesic-techniques-on-hemodynamic-variables-recorded-with-an-esophageal-doppler-monitor-during-ovariohysterectomy-in-dogs
#10
Ignacio Sández, María Soto, Daniel Torralbo, Eva Rioja
This study compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) fentanyl and ketamine with lumbosacral epidural lidocaine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Dogs with esophageal Doppler monitoring ( n = 112) were included in this retrospective study. All dogs were premedicated with dexmedetomidine and methadone, induced with IV propofol or alfaxalone and maintained using isoflurane and IV fentanyl, IV ketamine, or epidural lidocaine. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), expired fraction of isoflurane (ETIso), stroke distance (SD), minute distance (MD), peak velocity (PV) and mean acceleration (MA) were recorded before and after ligation of the ovarian pedicle (OvP)...
April 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602228/low-serum-level-of-epidermal-growth-factor-in-chronic-ketamine-users
#11
Minling Zhang, Hongbo He, Yuping Ning, Yi Ding, Xiaoyin Ke, Daping Wang, Xuefeng Deng, Ni Fan
BACKGROUND: Growth factors play an important role in brain development. Whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in the pathophysiology of ketamine related disorders is unexplored. In this study, we examined the serum levels of EGF in chronic ketamine users as compared with healthy controls. The possible correlation between serum EGF levels with the demographic, ketamine use characteristics and psychopathological symptoms were analyzed. METHODS: Sixty-seven chronic ketamine users and 40 healthy subjects were recruited...
March 30, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599484/prophylactic-ketamine-alters-nucleotide-and-neurotransmitter-metabolism-in-brain-and-plasma-following-stress
#12
Josephine C McGowan, Collin Hill, Alessia Mastrodonato, Christina T LaGamma, Alexander Kitayev, Rebecca A Brachman, Niven R Narain, Michael A Kiebish, Christine A Denny
Recently, we have shown that ketamine given prior to stress exposure protects against the development of depressive-like behavior in mice. These data suggest that it may be possible to prevent the induction of affective disorders before they develop by administering prophylactic pharmaceuticals, a relatively nascent and unexplored strategy for psychiatry. Here, we performed metabolomics analysis of brain and plasma following prophylactic ketamine treatment in order to identify markers of stress resilience enhancement...
March 29, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596995/applying-ketamine-to-alleviate-the-ptsd-like-effects-by-regulating-the-hcn1-related-bdnf
#13
Lanwei Hou, Yirui Qi, Hongwei Sun, Gang Wang, Qi Li, Yanyu Wang, Zuoji Zhang, Zhongde Du, Lin Sun
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly associated with concurrent anxiety and depression symptoms, and reduce the expression of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) which promotes the proliferation and survival of neurons. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 1(HCN1) could be inhibited by the ketamine, a drug to alleviate depression and anxiety, and regulated the BDNF expression, however, the effects of ketamine in alleviating PTSD symptoms by regulating the HCN1-related BDNF have been poorly perceived...
March 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596148/personalized-n-of-1-trials-for-depression-a-systematic-review
#14
Ian M Kronish, Meghan Hampsey, Louise Falzon, Beatrice Konrad, Karina W Davidson
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Personalized (N-of-1) trials are single-patient, crossover-design trials that may be useful for personalizing the selection of depression treatments. We conducted a systematic review of published N-of-1 trials for depression to determine the feasibility and suitability of this methodology for personalizing depression care. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Electronic databases were searched from database inception through October 2016. Studies were selected if they enrolled depressed patients, included a within-subject crossover design, and systematically assessed depressive symptoms during the N-of-1 trial...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580569/default-mode-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder-measured-up-to-10-days-after-ketamine-administration
#15
Jennifer W Evans, Joanna Szczepanik, Nancy Brutsché, Lawrence T Park, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) are rapidly alleviated by administration of a single dose of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine. However, few studies have investigated the potential sustained neural effects of this agent beyond immediate infusion. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effect of a single ketamine infusion on the resting state default mode network (DMN) at 2 and 10 days after a single ketamine infusion in unmedicated subjects with MDD as well as healthy control subjects (HCs)...
February 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559781/novel-treatment-options-in-depression-and-psychosis
#16
REVIEW
Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559371/intravenous-infusion-of-xenon-containing-liposomes-generates-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects
#17
Manoj P Dandekar, Tao Peng, David D McPherson, Joao Quevedo, Jair C Soares, Shaoling Huang
AIM: Similar to ketamine, xenon gas acts as a glutamatergic N-methyl-d -aspartate receptor antagonist, but devoid of propensity to cause untoward effects. Herein, we loaded xenon gas into a liposomal carrier called xenon-containing liposomes (Xe-liposome) for systemic delivery, and investigated its effect as an antidepressant and also analyzed synaptic biomarkers including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), protein kinase B (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) in blood and brain...
March 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558675/a-reappraisal-of-the-mechanisms-of-action-of-ketamine-to-treat-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-in-the-light-of-cortical-excitability-changes
#18
Marc Sorel, Naaman Zrek, Blanche Locko, Catherine Armessen, Samar S Ayache, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in glutamate/GABA balance of intracortical excitability produced by ketamine, delivered at subanaesthetic dose to treat patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). METHODS: In 19 patients with CRPS, we assessed the effect of a 5-day ketamine protocol on various clinical aspects, including pain and depression, and on cortical excitability parameters provided by transcranial magnetic stimulation testing. RESULTS: The rest motor threshold (RMT) and the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials at 120% of RMT were not modified after ketamine therapy...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542371/repeated-intranasal-ketamine-for-treatment-resistant-depression-the-way-to-go-results-from-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Verònica Gálvez, Adrienne Li, Christina Huggins, Paul Glue, Donel Martin, Andrew A Somogyi, Angelo Alonzo, Anthony Rodgers, Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine research in depression has mostly used intravenous, weight-based approaches, which are difficult to translate clinically. Intranasal (IN) ketamine is a promising alternative but no controlled data has been published on the feasibility, safety and potential efficacy of repeated IN ketamine treatments. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study compared a 4-week course of eight treatments of 100 mg ketamine or 4.5 mg midazolam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533436/successful-use-of-ketamine-as-a-prehospital-analgesic-by-pararescuemen-during-operation-enduring-freedom
#20
Regan F Lyon, Chris Schwan, Joseph Zeal, Chetan Kharod, Brian Staak, Christopher Petersen, Stephen C Rush
Effective analgesia is a crucial part of the care and resuscitation of a traumatically injured patient. These secondary effects of pain may increase morbidity and mortality in the acutely injured patient. When ketamine is administered appropriately in the clinical setting, it can provide analgesia, anxiolysis, and amnesia for patients with less respiratory depression and hypotension than equivalent doses of opioid analgesics.
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
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