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Autoimmune sleep disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#1
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111419/diagnosis-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#2
REVIEW
Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias...
October 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084144/bipolar-disorder-and-immune-dysfunction-epidemiological-findings-proposed-pathophysiology-and-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
Bipolar disorder (BD) is strongly associated with immune dysfunction. Replicated epidemiological studies have demonstrated that BD has high rates of inflammatory medical comorbidities, including autoimmune disorders, chronic infections, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Cytokine studies have demonstrated that BD is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation with further increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels during mood episodes. Several mechanisms have been identified to explain the bidirectional relationship between BD and immune dysfunction...
October 30, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016550/assessing-lifetime-stress-exposure-using-the-stress-and-adversity-inventory-for-adults-adult-strain-an-overview-and-initial-validation
#4
George M Slavich, Grant S Shields
OBJECTIVE: Numerous theories have proposed that acute and chronic stressors may exert a cumulative effect on lifespan health by causing biological "wear and tear", or allostatic load, which in turn promotes disease. Very few studies have directly tested such models, though, partly because of the challenges associated with efficiently assessing stress exposure over the entire life course. To address this issue, we developed the first online system for systematically assessing lifetime stress exposure, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), and describe its initial validation here...
October 10, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991006/autoimmunity-in-narcolepsy
#5
Melodie Bonvalet, Hanna M Ollila, Aditya Ambati, Emmanuel Mignot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the recent findings in narcolepsy focusing on the environmental and genetic risk factors in disease development. RECENT FINDINGS: Both genetic and epidemiological evidence point towards an autoimmune mechanism in the destruction of orexin/hypocretin neurons. Recent studies suggest both humoral and cellular immune responses in the disease development. SUMMARY: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder, in which neurons producing orexin/hypocretin in the hypothalamus are destroyed...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975007/the-medical-and-economic-burden-of-narcolepsy-implications-for-managed-care
#6
REVIEW
Michael J Thorpy, George Hiller
BACKGROUND: The neurologic disorder narcolepsy results from dysregulation of the sleep-wake cycle and is primarily characterized by chronic, severely excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotionally induced muscle weakness. The prevalence of narcolepsy is approximately 0.05%, and onset generally occurs during the first 2 decades of life. Narcolepsy is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. OBJECTIVES: To provide an enhanced understanding of narcolepsy and establish the need for early diagnosis and rapid initiation of effective treatment for patients with narcolepsy...
July 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967359/the-role-of-centralised-pain-in-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
Daniel J Clauw, Afton L Hassett
The mechanisms underlying chronic pain states, including osteoarthritis, differ from those underlying acute pain. In chronic pain states, central nervous system (CNS) factors often play a particularly prominent role. In many individuals with chronic pain, pain can occur with minimal or no evidence of ongoing nociceptive input. Medical subspecialties have applied a wide-range of labels to these pain conditions including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis to name just a few. These same CNS processes can augment or magnify pain when there is ongoing nociceptive input, as in conditions such as osteoarthritis or autoimmune disorders...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940143/narcolepsy-type-1-as-an-autoimmune-disorder-evidence-and-implications-for-pharmacological-treatment
#8
Lucie Barateau, Roland Liblau, Christelle Peyron, Yves Dauvilliers
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare sleep disorder caused by the very specific loss of hypothalamic hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin neurons. The exact underlying process leading to this destruction is yet unknown, but indirect evidence strongly supports an autoimmune origin. The association with immune-related genetic factors, in particular the strongest association ever reported in a disease with an allele of a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene, and with environmental factors (i.e., the H1N1 influenza infection and vaccination during the pandemic in 2009) are in favor of such a hypothesis...
October 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919446/increased-interferon-mediated-immunity-following-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-modafinil-treatment-on-peripheral-immune-cells
#9
Adriano Zager, Wesley Nogueira Brandão, Rafael Oliveira Margatho, Daniel Sanzio Gimenes Cruz, Jean Pierre Peron, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen, Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Giuseppe Plazzi, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, João Palermo-Neto
The wake-promoting drug Modafinil has been used for treatment of sleep disorders, such as Narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, due to its stimulant action. Despite the known effect of Modafinil on brain neurochemistry, particularly on brain dopamine system, recent evidence support an immunomodulatory role for Modafinil treatment in neuroinflammatory models. Here, we aimed to study the effects of in vitro and in vivo Modafinil treatment on activation, proliferation, cell viability, and cytokine production by immune cells in splenocytes culture from mice...
September 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878050/antibody-associated-cns-syndromes-without-signs-of-inflammation-in-the-elderly
#10
Domingo Escudero, Mar Guasp, Helena Ariño, Carles Gaig, Eugenia Martínez-Hernández, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus
OBJECTIVE: To report the CNS syndromes of patients ≥60 years of age with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens but no evidence of brain MRI and CSF inflammatory changes. METHODS: This was a retrospective clinical analysis of patients with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens who fulfilled 3 criteria: age ≥60 years, no inflammatory abnormalities in brain MRI, and no CSF pleocytosis. Antibodies were determined with reported techniques. RESULTS: Among 155 patients ≥60 years of age with neurologic syndromes related to antibodies against neuronal surface antigens, 35 (22...
October 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839322/breast-cancer-in-a-patient-with-kindlers-syndrome
#11
Itrat Mehdi, Bassim Jaffar Al Bahrani, Taha Mohsin Al Lawati, Zahid Al Mandhari, Fatima Ramadhan Al Lawati
Breast Cancer (BC) has associated risk factors and genetic factors like BRCA1, and BRCA2. Many benign and malignant disease processes are found concurrently with BC and believed to be additional risk factors like gall bladder stones (cholelithiasis), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular lesions, arthritis, spine and spinal cord degenerative lesions, infertility, depression, sleep disturbances, obesity, autoimmune diseases (SLE), and thyroid diseases. There are some malignant disease associations like synchronous or metachronous ovarian, colonic and endometrial tumours with Breast cancer...
August 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777172/narcolepsy-and-other-central-hypersomnias
#12
Yves Dauvilliers, Lucie Barateau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and management of narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and other central disorders of hypersomnolence, as defined in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3). RECENT FINDINGS: In ICSD-3, the names of some central disorders of hypersomnolence have been changed: narcolepsy with cataplexy and narcolepsy without cataplexy have been renamed narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, respectively...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761904/iglon5-antibody-neurological-accompaniments-and-outcomes-in-20-patients
#13
Josephe A Honorat, Lars Komorowski, Keith A Josephs, Kai Fechner, Erik K St Louis, Shannon R Hinson, Sabine Lederer, Neeraj Kumar, Avi Gadoth, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotypes, treatment response, and outcome of IgLON5 autoimmunity. METHODS: Archived serum and CSF specimens from 367 patients known to harbor unclassified antibodies which stained neural synapses diffusely (mimicking amphiphysin-IgG) were reevaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a composite of mouse tissues and recombinant IgLON5-transfected cell-based assay (CBA, Euroimmun). RESULTS: Available specimens (serum, 25; CSF, 9) from 26/367 patients (7%) had identical IFA appearance and robust IgLON5 CBA positivity...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738331/future-perspectives-in-sleep-medicine
#14
Leh-Kiong Anne Huon, Christian Guilleminault
"Sleep Medicine" is now a specialty in its own right. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the very negative impact sleep disorders have on learning, education, safety, and quality of life. Technological advances will help us to break down diagnoses (e.g., narcolepsy has now been subdivided into types 1 and 2, depending upon the hypocretin levels in the spinal fluid) and to discover relationships to other bodily systems (e.g., type 1 narcolepsy potentially being an autoimmune disorder). The modern lifestyle of many, as characterized by a shortening of sleep periods, shift work, jet lag, and the need to be constantly available, means that advances in sleep medicine may result in a major understanding of more balanced "work-rest lifestyle" modifications...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726523/investigational-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy
#15
REVIEW
Stefano de Biase, Annacarmen Nilo, Gian Luigi Gigli, Mariarosaria Valente
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by a pentad of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and disturbed nocturnal sleep. While non-pharmacological treatments are sometimes helpful, more than 90% of narcoleptic patients require a pharmacological treatment. Areas covered: The present review is based on an extensive Internet and PubMed search from 1994 to 2017. It is focused on drugs currently in development for the treatment of narcolepsy...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726005/the-role-of-sleep-in-pemphigus-a-review-of-mechanisms-and-perspectives
#16
Matheus Negrao Pedroni, Camila Hirotsu, Adriana Maria Porro, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen
Pemphigus is an autoimmune bullous disease that causes the development of blisters and erosions on the skin and/or mucosa. Its inflammatory process is mediated by cytokines, which interact with sleep in a bidirectional manner. Pain, a frequent symptom due to pemphigus lesions, is well known to impair sleep quality. Depression is also associated with pemphigus and pro-inflammatory cytokines and may impair sleep. Additionally, a common relationship among other dermatological diseases and sleep has increasingly been described...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681964/a-shared-comparison-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#17
Mahmoud Morsi, Ahmed Maher, Omnia Aboelmagd, Dina Johar, Larry Bernstein
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common diseases in the world population, associated with obesity, pancreatic endocrine changes, cardiovascular disease, renal glomerular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, neurodegenerative disease, retinal disease, sleep apnea, some of which are bundled into the metabolic syndrome. The main characteristic of this disease is hyperglycemia, and often with albuminuria. Nevertheless, the classic features, with ketoacidosis in the extreme, are only a first layer of description of this condition...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670128/clinical-features-of-limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibody
#18
Meiling Wang, Xiaoyu Cao, Qingxin Liu, Wenbin Ma, Xiaoqian Guo, Xuewu Liu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical manifestation, course, evolution, image manifestation, and treatments of LGI1 limbic encephalitis (LE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Studies confirmed that LE with the complex antibody of voltage-gated potassium channels is LGI1 LE. Since then, LE cases have been reported. In this study, 10 typical LE cases were searched in PubMed. These cases and one additional case, which we reported herein, were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601291/absence-of-autoreactive-cd4-t-cells-targeting-hla-dqa1-01-02-dqb1-06-02-restricted-hypocretin-orexin-epitopes-in-narcolepsy-type-1-when-detected-by-elispot
#19
Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Anja Holm, Henrik Ullum, Poul Jennum, Stine Knudsen
Narcolepsy type 1, a neurological sleep disorder strongly associated with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-)DQB1*06:02, is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons producing the wake-promoting neuropeptide hypocretin (hcrt, also known as orexin). This loss is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction. To test whether hcrt itself could be a possible target in the autoimmune attack, CD4(+) T-cell reactivity towards six different 15-mer peptides from prepro-hypocretin with high predicted affinity to the DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 MHC class II dimer was tested using EliSpot in a cohort of 22 narcolepsy patients with low CSF hcrt levels, and 23 DQB1*06:02 positive healthy controls...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542592/fatigue-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-life
#20
Jin Myoung Seok, Misong Choi, Eun Bin Cho, Hye Lim Lee, Byoung Joon Kim, Kwang Ho Lee, Pamela Song, Eun Yeon Joo, Ju-Hong Min
Fatigue is a prevalent symptom and major burden in neuroimmunological diseases. In neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a severe autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease with autoantibodies reactive to aquaporin-4, there are few reports about fatigue and quality of life (QOL). We aimed to evaluate the severity of fatigue and its relationship with QOL in patients with NMOSD. We prospectively studied patients with NMOSD who were in remission and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody, and they were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of fatigue assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-fatigue score...
2017: PloS One
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