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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675326/mixed-frames-and-risky-decision-making
#1
Jiaxi Peng, Jiaxi Zhang, Hao Sun, Zhicong Zeng, Yuexia Mai, Danmin Miao
By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541738/book-review-thinking-fast-and-slow-thinking-fast-and-slow-kahneman-daniel-new-york-farrar-strauss-and-giroux-2011-499-pp-isbn-978-0-374-27563-1
#2
Gordon Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496399/the-effect-of-wealth-shocks-on-loss-aversion-behavior-and-neural-correlates
#3
V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Sergio Ruiz, Sangkyun Lee, Charles N Noussair, Ranganatha Sitaram
Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343626/the-rat-a-gorical-imperative-moral-intuition-and-the-limits-of-affective-learning
#4
Joshua D Greene
Decades of psychological research have demonstrated that intuitive judgments are often unreliable, thanks to their inflexible reliance on limited information (Kahneman, 2003, 2011). Research on the computational underpinnings of learning, however, indicates that intuitions may be acquired by sophisticated learning mechanisms that are highly sensitive and integrative. With this in mind, Railton (2014) urges a more optimistic view of moral intuition. Is such optimism warranted? Elsewhere (Greene, 2013) I've argued that moral intuitions offer reasonably good advice concerning the give-and-take of everyday social life, addressing the basic problem of cooperation within a "tribe" ("Me vs...
October 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189037/how-the-twain-can-meet-prospect-theory-and-models-of-heuristics-in-risky-choice
#5
Thorsten Pachur, Renata S Suter, Ralph Hertwig
Two influential approaches to modeling choice between risky options are algebraic models (which focus on predicting the overt decisions) and models of heuristics (which are also concerned with capturing the underlying cognitive process). Because they rest on fundamentally different assumptions and algorithms, the two approaches are usually treated as antithetical, or even incommensurable. Drawing on cumulative prospect theory (CPT; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) as the currently most influential instance of a descriptive algebraic model, we demonstrate how the two modeling traditions can be linked...
March 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135833/book-review-thinking-fast-and-slow-thinking-fast-and-slow-kahneman-daniel-new-york-farrar-strauss-and-giroux-2011-499-pp-isbn-978-0-374-27563-1
#6
Gordon Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928763/rationality-perception-and-the-all-seeing-eye
#7
Teppo Felin, Jan Koenderink, Joachim I Krueger
Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye...
December 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727255/-walking-among-doctors-and-patients-stories-and-reflections
#8
Luigi Pagliaro, Agostino Colli
The clinician - the doctor who treats sick people - should be able to establish a good human relationship with his or her patients and their family; should be able to reach a diagnosis even in patients with rare diseases, or atypical presentations - or should refer the patient to a senior colleague; and should be able to recommend the best treatment (or no treatment at all). And he - or she - should be able to draw these abilities from the "deliberate practice" according to Ericsson, i.e. from the combination of experience with reflection - not, or with much lesser strength, from the medical literature as suggested by Evidence-Based Medicine...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602015/losing-your-gut-feelings-intuition-in-depression
#9
Carina Remmers, Johannes Michalak
Whereas in basic research, intuition has become a topic of great interest, clinical research and depression research in specific have not applied to the topic of intuition, yet. This is astonishing because a well-known phenomenon during depression is that patients have difficulties to judge and decide. In contrast to healthy individuals who take most daily life decisions intuitively (Kahneman, 2011), depressed individuals seem to have difficulties to come to fast and adaptive decisions. The current article pursues three goals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504580/richard-michael-suzman-1942-2015
#10
Daniel Kahneman
Presents an obituary for Richard Michael Suzman, who died on April 16, 2015. Suzman was trained as a sociologist and anthropologist, but he was attracted to the approaches of demography and economics. He came to know a great deal about diverse fields of science, including health, physiology, psychology, genetics, and economics. He was a scientific leader who was on a quest to develop new transdisciplinary fields and to mobilize the best scientists to work in them. Suzman's passion for transdisciplinary science was fully expressed in his greatest achievement: the famous Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which he initiated in 1988 and continued to guide and inspire...
July 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435359/memory-based-simple-heuristics-as-attribute-substitution-competitive-tests-of-binary-choice-inference-models
#11
Hidehito Honda, Toshihiko Matsuka, Kazuhiro Ueda
Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use (Kahneman & Frederick, 2005). In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task...
July 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385254/emotions-and-strategic-behaviour-the-case-of-the-ultimatum-game
#12
Ignacio Tamarit, Angel Sánchez
Human behaviour in economic interactions has attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last decades. The economic assumption that people would behave focusing on their own material self-interest was proved incomplete, once the empirical evidence consistently showed that many other motives may influence such behaviour. Therefore, models that can incorporate rational decision process as well as other intervening factors are a key issue to both understand the observations from economic experiments and to apply the lessons learned from them...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355771/hearing-impairment-and-cognitive-energy-the-framework-for-understanding-effortful-listening-fuel
#13
M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Sophia E Kramer, Mark A Eckert, Brent Edwards, Benjamin W Y Hornsby, Larry E Humes, Ulrike Lemke, Thomas Lunner, Mohan Matthen, Carol L Mackersie, Graham Naylor, Natalie A Phillips, Michael Richter, Mary Rudner, Mitchell S Sommers, Kelly L Tremblay, Arthur Wingfield
The Fifth Eriksholm Workshop on "Hearing Impairment and Cognitive Energy" was convened to develop a consensus among interdisciplinary experts about what is known on the topic, gaps in knowledge, the use of terminology, priorities for future research, and implications for practice. The general term cognitive energy was chosen to facilitate the broadest possible discussion of the topic. It goes back to who described the effects of attention on perception; he used the term psychic energy for the notion that limited mental resources can be flexibly allocated among perceptual and mental activities...
July 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180509/-the-price-based-certainty-of-purchase-influences-consumer-behavior-for-discount
#14
Katsuhiko Arihara, Atsunori Ariga, Takeshi Furuya
Tversky & Kahneman (1981) reported that most participants decided to drive when they could save money on a low-price good as compared to when they could save on a high-price good, even though the discount prices were same. Although this irrational decision making has been interpreted as a rate-dependent estimation of value (prospect theory), this study newly proposes that it can be explained by the certainty of purchase based on the price of goods. Experiment 1 replicated the previously reported difference in decision making, and additionally demonstrated that participants' certainty of purchase was lower for a high- than a low-price good...
April 2016: Shinrigaku Kenkyu: the Japanese Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119519/judging-the-morality-of-utilitarian-actions-how-poor-utilitarian-accessibility-makes-judges-irrational
#15
Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik, Shrooq Alzahrani, Samantha Lonigro, Harry Purser
Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma). Accordingly, theorists (e.g., Greene et al., 2001) have argued that judgments of appropriateness in personal moral dilemmas are more emotionally salient and cognitively demanding (taking more time to be rational) than impersonal moral dilemmas...
December 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921059/mental-simulation-and-experience-as-determinants-of-performance-expectancies-in-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder
#16
Vyv Huddy, Gareth Drake, Til Wykes
People with schizophrenia demonstrate both impairment in mental time travel and reduced expectancies of performance on future tasks. We aimed to reconcile these findings within the Kahneman and Tversky (1982) simulation heuristic framework by testing a key prediction that impaired future simulation would be associated with reduced performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZSPEC). A total of 54 individuals (30 people with SZSPEC and 24 healthy controls) generated mental simulations of everyday scenarios; after each response they rated performance expectations, distress and the similarity of the scenario to experience...
March 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855235/brain-glucose-feedback-predicts-food-choice-commentary-on-wakabayashi-et%C3%A2-al
#17
Panagiota Iordanidou, Denis Burdakov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26479707/believing-what-we-do-not-believe-acquiescence-to-superstitious-beliefs-and-other-powerful-intuitions
#18
REVIEW
Jane L Risen
Traditionally, research on superstition and magical thinking has focused on people's cognitive shortcomings, but superstitions are not limited to individuals with mental deficits. Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults have superstitions that are not rational. Dual process models--such as the corrective model advocated by Kahneman and Frederick (2002, 2005), which suggests that System 1 generates intuitive answers that may or may not be corrected by System 2--are useful for illustrating why superstitious thinking is widespread, why particular beliefs arise, and why they are maintained even though they are not true...
March 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26326147/coping-with-conflicts-improves-under-threat-evidence-from-a-simon-and-a-visuo-auditory-stroop-tasks
#19
Asi Schupak, Avner Caspi, Eran Chajut
A large body of research has suggested that our attentional system is distinctively sensitive to threat-related stimuli in the environment (for reviews see, Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Yiend, 2010). Recently, Chajut, Schupak, & Algom (2010) introduced a new paradigm in which changes in Stroop dilution effects (Kahneman & Chajczyk, 1983) are used to gauge the power of emotional (vs. neutral) words to bias attention. In this color naming task, a colored emotional or neutral word to be named (e.g. Death vs. Chair colored in blue) is accompanied by a color-word (e...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26280265/illumination-frame-of-reference-in-the-object-reviewing-paradigm-a-case-of-luminance-and-lightness
#20
Anja Fiedler, Cathleen M Moore
The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1992) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) to contrast the effects of objects' luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects' luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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