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Thorsten Pachur, Renata S Suter, Ralph Hertwig
Two influential approaches to modeling choice between risky options are algebraic models (which focus on predicting the overt decisions) and models of heuristics (which are also concerned with capturing the underlying cognitive process). Because they rest on fundamentally different assumptions and algorithms, the two approaches are usually treated as antithetical, or even incommensurable. Drawing on cumulative prospect theory (CPT; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) as the currently most influential instance of a descriptive algebraic model, we demonstrate how the two modeling traditions can be linked...
February 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
Gordon Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Teppo Felin, Jan Koenderink, Joachim I Krueger
Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye...
December 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Luigi Pagliaro, Agostino Colli
The clinician - the doctor who treats sick people - should be able to establish a good human relationship with his or her patients and their family; should be able to reach a diagnosis even in patients with rare diseases, or atypical presentations - or should refer the patient to a senior colleague; and should be able to recommend the best treatment (or no treatment at all). And he - or she - should be able to draw these abilities from the "deliberate practice" according to Ericsson, i.e. from the combination of experience with reflection - not, or with much lesser strength, from the medical literature as suggested by Evidence-Based Medicine...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Carina Remmers, Johannes Michalak
Whereas in basic research, intuition has become a topic of great interest, clinical research and depression research in specific have not applied to the topic of intuition, yet. This is astonishing because a well-known phenomenon during depression is that patients have difficulties to judge and decide. In contrast to healthy individuals who take most daily life decisions intuitively (Kahneman, 2011), depressed individuals seem to have difficulties to come to fast and adaptive decisions. The current article pursues three goals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel Kahneman
Presents an obituary for Richard Michael Suzman, who died on April 16, 2015. Suzman was trained as a sociologist and anthropologist, but he was attracted to the approaches of demography and economics. He came to know a great deal about diverse fields of science, including health, physiology, psychology, genetics, and economics. He was a scientific leader who was on a quest to develop new transdisciplinary fields and to mobilize the best scientists to work in them. Suzman's passion for transdisciplinary science was fully expressed in his greatest achievement: the famous Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which he initiated in 1988 and continued to guide and inspire...
July 2016: American Psychologist
Hidehito Honda, Toshihiko Matsuka, Kazuhiro Ueda
Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use (Kahneman & Frederick, 2005). In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task...
July 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
Ignacio Tamarit, Angel Sánchez
Human behaviour in economic interactions has attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last decades. The economic assumption that people would behave focusing on their own material self-interest was proved incomplete, once the empirical evidence consistently showed that many other motives may influence such behaviour. Therefore, models that can incorporate rational decision process as well as other intervening factors are a key issue to both understand the observations from economic experiments and to apply the lessons learned from them...
2016: PloS One
M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Sophia E Kramer, Mark A Eckert, Brent Edwards, Benjamin W Y Hornsby, Larry E Humes, Ulrike Lemke, Thomas Lunner, Mohan Matthen, Carol L Mackersie, Graham Naylor, Natalie A Phillips, Michael Richter, Mary Rudner, Mitchell S Sommers, Kelly L Tremblay, Arthur Wingfield
The Fifth Eriksholm Workshop on "Hearing Impairment and Cognitive Energy" was convened to develop a consensus among interdisciplinary experts about what is known on the topic, gaps in knowledge, the use of terminology, priorities for future research, and implications for practice. The general term cognitive energy was chosen to facilitate the broadest possible discussion of the topic. It goes back to who described the effects of attention on perception; he used the term psychic energy for the notion that limited mental resources can be flexibly allocated among perceptual and mental activities...
July 2016: Ear and Hearing
Katsuhiko Arihara, Atsunori Ariga, Takeshi Furuya
Tversky & Kahneman (1981) reported that most participants decided to drive when they could save money on a low-price good as compared to when they could save on a high-price good, even though the discount prices were same. Although this irrational decision making has been interpreted as a rate-dependent estimation of value (prospect theory), this study newly proposes that it can be explained by the certainty of purchase based on the price of goods. Experiment 1 replicated the previously reported difference in decision making, and additionally demonstrated that participants' certainty of purchase was lower for a high- than a low-price good...
April 2016: Shinrigaku Kenkyu: the Japanese Journal of Psychology
Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik, Shrooq Alzahrani, Samantha Lonigro, Harry Purser
Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma). Accordingly, theorists (e.g., Greene et al., 2001) have argued that judgments of appropriateness in personal moral dilemmas are more emotionally salient and cognitively demanding (taking more time to be rational) than impersonal moral dilemmas...
December 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Vyv Huddy, Gareth Drake, Til Wykes
People with schizophrenia demonstrate both impairment in mental time travel and reduced expectancies of performance on future tasks. We aimed to reconcile these findings within the Kahneman and Tversky (1982) simulation heuristic framework by testing a key prediction that impaired future simulation would be associated with reduced performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZSPEC). A total of 54 individuals (30 people with SZSPEC and 24 healthy controls) generated mental simulations of everyday scenarios; after each response they rated performance expectations, distress and the similarity of the scenario to experience...
March 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Panagiota Iordanidou, Denis Burdakov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jane L Risen
Traditionally, research on superstition and magical thinking has focused on people's cognitive shortcomings, but superstitions are not limited to individuals with mental deficits. Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults have superstitions that are not rational. Dual process models--such as the corrective model advocated by Kahneman and Frederick (2002, 2005), which suggests that System 1 generates intuitive answers that may or may not be corrected by System 2--are useful for illustrating why superstitious thinking is widespread, why particular beliefs arise, and why they are maintained even though they are not true...
March 2016: Psychological Review
Asi Schupak, Avner Caspi, Eran Chajut
A large body of research has suggested that our attentional system is distinctively sensitive to threat-related stimuli in the environment (for reviews see, Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Yiend, 2010). Recently, Chajut, Schupak, & Algom (2010) introduced a new paradigm in which changes in Stroop dilution effects (Kahneman & Chajczyk, 1983) are used to gauge the power of emotional (vs. neutral) words to bias attention. In this color naming task, a colored emotional or neutral word to be named (e.g. Death vs. Chair colored in blue) is accompanied by a color-word (e...
2015: Journal of Vision
Anja Fiedler, Cathleen M Moore
The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1992) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) to contrast the effects of objects' luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects' luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Dennis Riedl, Andreas Heuer, Bernd Strauss
Incentives guide human behavior by altering the level of external motivation. We apply the idea of loss aversion from prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) to the point reward systems in soccer and investigate the controversial impact of the three-point rule on reducing the fraction of draws in this sport. Making use of the Poisson nature of goal scoring, we compared empirical results with theoretically deduced draw ratios from 24 countries encompassing 20 seasons each (N = 118.148 matches). The rule change yielded a slight reduction in the ratio of draws, but despite adverse incentives, still 18% more matches ended drawn than expected, t(23) = 11...
June 2015: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Bridgid Finn, David B Miele
Remembered utility is the retrospective evaluation about the pleasure and pain associated with a past experience. It can influence choices about repeating or avoiding similar situations in the future (Kahneman, 2000). A set of 5 experiments explored the remembered utility of effortful test episodes and how it impacted future test choices. Experiments 1-3 mimicked Kahneman, Fredrickson, Schreiber, and Redelmeier's (1993) cold pressor study, but used a challenging test experience in place of submerging one's hand in painfully cold ice water...
January 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Brent A Field, Cara L Buck, Samuel M McClure, Leigh E Nystrom, Daniel Kahneman, Jonathan D Cohen
Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load...
2015: PloS One
Michael G Reynolds, Robin M Langerak
It is widely believed that threatening stimuli in our environment capture attention. Much of the core evidence for attentional capture by threatening stimuli comes from the Emotional Stroop task. Yet recent evidence suggests that the Emotional Stroop task does not measure attentional capture (e.g., Algom et al., 2004). The present paper assesses whether threat words can capture attention using a modified Stroop Dilution procedure (e.g., Kahneman & Chajczyk, 1983), where attentional capture by a threat word is inferred from a reduction in color-word interference for threat words compared to non-threat words (emotional Stroop Dilution)...
July 2015: Acta Psychologica
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