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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550040/kras-g12d-expression-in-lung-resident-myeloid-cells-promotes-pulmonary-lch-like-neoplasm-sensitive-to-statin-treatment
#1
Tamihiro Kamata, Susan Giblett, Catrin Pritchard
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic neoplasm associated with somatic mutations in the genes involved in the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Recently, oncogenic mutations in NRAS/KRAS, upstream regulators of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, have been reported in pulmonary, but not in non-pulmonary, LCH cases, suggesting organ-specific contribution of oncogenic RAS to LCH pathogenesis. Using a mouse model expressing KRAS(G12D) in the lung by nasal delivery of adenoviral Cre, here we show that KRAS(G12D) expression in lung-resident myeloid cells induces pulmonary LCH-like neoplasms comprised of pathogenic CD11c(high)F4/80+CD207+ cells...
May 26, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545737/microrna-146a-governs-fibroblast-activation-and-joint-pathology-in-arthritis
#2
Victoria Saferding, Antonia Puchner, Eliana Goncalves-Alves, Melanie Hofmann, Michael Bonelli, Julia S Brunner, Emine Sahin, Birgit Niederreiter, Silvia Hayer, Hans P Kiener, Elisa Einwallner, Ramzi Nehmar, Raphael Carapito, Philippe Georgel, Marije I Koenders, Mark Boldin, Gernot Schabbauer, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Günter Steiner, Josef S Smolen, Kurt Redlich, Stephan Blüml
Synovial fibroblasts are key cells orchestrating the inflammatory response in arthritis. Here we demonstrate that loss of miR-146a, a key epigenetic regulator of the innate immune response, leads to increased joint destruction in a TNF-driven model of arthritis by specifically regulating the behavior of synovial fibroblasts. Absence of miR-146a in synovial fibroblasts display a highly deregulated gene expression pattern and enhanced proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Deficiency of miR-146a induces deregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in synovial fibroblasts, leading to increased proliferation...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543620/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-the-afro-caribbean-community-an-11-year-retrospective-study
#3
Nadège Cordel, Lucie Bonnecarrère, Benoit Tressières
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered the most frequent skin cancer in black people. Its incidence is not known in the Afro-Caribbean population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of SCC in Guadeloupe, the largest island of the Lesser Antilles (405 000 inhabitants, mostly black people of African and European descent). The second objective was to characterize clinical and histological patterns of SCC occurring in the Afro-Caribbean community. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted over an 11-year period (2000-2010)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543055/patient-compliance-for-postoperative-radiotherapy-and-survival-outcome-of-women-with-stage-i-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer
#4
Koji Matsuo, Hiroko Machida, Omar M Ragab, Jocelyn Garcia-Sayre, Annie A Yessaian, Lynda D Roman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To examine characteristics and survival outcome of women with endometrial cancer who declined postoperative radiotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to examine surgically-treated grade 1-2 stage IB and grade 3 stage IA-IB endometrioid endometrial cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program between 1983 and 2013 (n = 10 613). Associations of patient declination for guideline-based postoperative radiotherapy and clinico-pathological demographics or survival outcome were examined on multivariable analysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540600/microglial-interferon-signaling-and-white-matter
#5
Ashley McDonough, Richard V Lee, Jonathan R Weinstein
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, are primary regulators of the neuroimmune response to injury. Type I interferons (IFNs), including the IFNαs and IFNβ, are key cytokines in the innate immune system. Their activity is implicated in the regulation of microglial function both during development and in response to neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegeneration. Data from numerous studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke suggest that type I IFNs can modulate the microglial phenotype, influence the overall neuroimmune milieu, regulate phagocytosis, and affect blood-brain barrier integrity...
May 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534873/molecular-indicators-of-stress-induced-neuroinflammation-in-a-mouse-model-simulating-features-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#6
S Muhie, A Gautam, N Chakraborty, A Hoke, J Meyerhoff, R Hammamieh, M Jett
A social-stress mouse model was used to simulate features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The model involved exposure of an intruder (male C57BL/6) mouse to a resident aggressor (male SJL) mouse for 5 or 10 consecutive days. Transcriptome changes in brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and hemibrain), blood and spleen as well as epigenome changes in the hemibrain were assayed after 1- and 10-day intervals following the 5-day trauma or after 1- and 42-day intervals following the 10-day trauma...
May 23, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534666/human-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-in-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#7
Jana Ognjenović, Miljan Simonović
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AaRSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that ensure accurate translation of the genetic information into functional proteins. These enzymes also execute a variety of non-canonical functions that are significant for regulation of diverse cellular processes and that reside outside the realm of protein synthesis. Associations between faults in AaRS-mediated processes and human diseases have been long recognized. Most recent research findings strongly argue that 10 cytosolic and 14 mitochondrial AaRSs are implicated in some form of pathology of the human nervous system...
May 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533043/-dementia-and-non-pharmacological-therapy-the-effectiveness-of-play
#8
Cédric Gueyraud, Marie Anaut, Stéphane Sanchez, Philippe Denormandie, Anthony Bathsavanis, Pierre Krolak-Salmon
A study was carried out to look into the effectiveness of play and the ways it can be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. An intervention founded on the principal of a recreational setting, taking into account the choice of objects, the layout of the space and the role of the professional, could present itself as a form of therapeutic mediation adapted to this pathology. This study shows that play helps to reduce the behavioural problems of residents with Alzheimer's disease, and boosted their wellbeing and quality of life...
May 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532764/sonography-of-suspected-acute-appendicitis-in-children-evaluation-of-the-progress-in-performance-of-senior-residents
#9
Pierre Gerbier, Aurélien Binet, Mathilde Etancelin, Emmanuel Barteau, Marie Auger, Luciano Morales, Philippe Bertrand, Dominique Sirinelli, Baptiste Morel
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the progress in performance of senior residents in diagnosing acute appendicitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Results were collected and compared of ultrasound examinations performed for suspected acute appendicitis by three senior residents and two faculty members over a six-month period in a university hospital setting. A grid with the sonographic findings was completed separately by the residents and the faculty members immediately after each examination...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530447/middle-ear-function-and-pathophysiology-in-andean-children-living-at-high-altitudes
#10
S Allen Counter, Leo H Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B Jacobs, Göran Laurell
Counter, S. Allen, Leo H. Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B. Jacobs, and Göran Laurell. Middle ear function and pathophysiology in Andean children living at high altitudes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-The extent of altitude-related middle ear disorders in children native to high altitudes is unclear. This study examined middle ear pathophysiology in two groups of children living in high-altitude Ecuadorian Andean communities by investigating middle ear pressure (MEP), tympanic membrane compliance (TMC), and ear canal volume (ECV) using tympanometry, and by otological examination...
May 22, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527613/no-344-opportunistic-salpingectomy-and-other-methods-of-risk-reduction-for-ovarian-fallopian-tube-peritoneal-cancer-in-the-general-population
#11
Shannon Salvador, Stephanie Scott, Julie Ann Francis, Anita Agrawal, Christopher Giede
OBJECTIVE: This guideline reviews the potential benefits of opportunistic salpingectomy to prevent the development of high grade serous cancers (HGSC) of the ovary/fallopian tube/peritoneum based on current evidence supporting the fallopian tube origin of disease. INTENDED USERS: Gynaecologists, obstetricians, family doctors, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, residents, and health care providers. TARGET POPULATION: Adult women (18 and older): OPTIONS: Women considering hysterectomy who wish to retain their ovaries in situ have traditionally also retained their fallopian tubes...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526681/adoptive-transfer-of-phosphoantigen-specific-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subset-attenuates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#12
Arwa Qaqish, Dan Huang, Crystal Y Chen, Zhuoran Zhang, Richard Wang, Shengpu Li, Enzhuoa Yang, Yang Lu, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, Lixia Qian, James Frencher, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
The dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset recognizes phosphoantigen and exists only in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of γδ T cells >30 y ago, a proof-of-concept study has not been done to prove the principle that the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset is protective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infections. In this study, we used an adoptive cell-transfer strategy to define the protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in a primate tuberculosis (TB) model. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive transfer displayed central/effector memory and mounted effector functions, including the production of anti-M...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526177/two-cell-populations-participate-in-clearance-of-damaged-hair-cells-from-the-sensory-epithelia-of-the-inner-ear
#13
REVIEW
Keiko Hirose, Mark A Rutherford, Mark E Warchol
The cochlea and the vestibular organs are populated by resident macrophages, but their role in inner ear maintenance and pathology is not entirely clear. Resident macrophages in other organs are responsible for phagocytosis of injured or infected cells, and it is likely that macrophages in the inner ear serve a similar role. Hair cell injury causes macrophages to accumulate within proximity of damaged regions of the inner ear, either by exiting the vasculature and entering the labyrinth or by the resident macrophages reorganizing themselves through local movement to the areas of injury...
April 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525545/gene-co-expression-network-analysis-for-identifying-modules-and-functionally-enriched-pathways-in-sca2
#14
Lance T Pflieger, Warunee Dansithong, Sharan Paul, Daniel Scoles, Karla P Figueroa, Pratap Meera, Thomas S Otis, Julio C Facelli, Stefan M Pulst
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene. The repeat resides in an encoded region of the gene resulting in polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion which has been assumed to result in gain of function, predominantly, for the ATXN2 protein. We evaluated temporal cerebellar expression profiles by RNA sequencing of ATXN2Q127 mice vs wildtype littermates. ATXN2Q127 mice are characterized by a progressive motor phenotype onset, and have progressive cerebellar molecular and neurophysiological (Purkinje cell firing frequency) phenotypes...
May 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#15
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511079/psychosocial-stress-and-obesity-among-children-residing-in-kaunas-city
#16
Regina Grazuleviciene, Inga Petraviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Birute Balseviciene
INTRODUCTION: An unfavorable psychosocial environment has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity among children. However, the available evidence on the association of low socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships with childhood obesity is scarce. The aim of our study was to conduct a simultaneous evaluation of the risks associated with pathological mother-child relationships, education level, and overweight/obesity among 4-6 year-old children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas city, Lithuania...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509701/educational-gaps-in-molecular-diagnostics-genomics-and-personalized-medicine-in-dermatopathology-training-a-survey-of-us-dermatopathology-fellowship-program-directors
#17
Kristin Torre, Kristen Russomanno, Tammie Ferringer, Dirk Elston, Michael J Murphy
BACKGROUND: Molecular technologies offer clinicians the tools to provide high-quality, cost-effective patient care. We evaluated education focused on molecular diagnostics, genomics, and personalized medicine in dermatopathology fellowship. DESIGN: A 20-question online survey was emailed to all (n = 53) Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited dermatopathology training programs in the United States. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 53 program directors responded (response rate = 58%)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504081/dissecting-physical-structure-of-calreticulin-an-intrinsically-disordered-ca-2-buffering-chaperone-from-endoplasmic-reticulum
#18
Anna Rita Migliaccio, Vladimir N Uversky
Calreticulin (CALR) is a Ca(2+) binding multifunctional protein that mostly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plays a number of important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. Although the major functions ascribed to CALR are controlling the Ca(2+) homeostasis in ER and acting as a lectin-like ER chaperon for many glycoproteins, this moonlighting protein can be found in various cellular compartments where it has many non-ER functions. To shed more light on the mechanisms underlying polyfunctionality of this moonlighting protein that can be found in different cellular compartments and that possesses a wide spectrum of unrelated biological activities, being able to interact with Ca(2+) (and potentially other metal ions), RNA, oligosaccharides, and numerous proteins, we used a set of experimental and computational tools to evaluate the intrinsic disorder status of CALR and the role of calcium binding on structural properties and conformational stability of the full-length CALR and its isolated P- and C-domains...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503235/cautery-artifact-understages-urothelial-cancer-at-initial-transurethral-resection-of-large-bladder-tumours
#19
Matthew Truong, Lorraine Liang, Janet Kukreja, Jeanne O'Brien, Jerome Jean-Gilles, Edward Messing
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine how frequently cautery (thermal) artifact precludes an accurate determination of stage at initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) of large bladder tumours. METHODS: We queried our institution's billing data to identify patients who underwent TURBT for large bladder tumours >5cm (CPT 52240) by two urologists at an academic centre from January 2009 through April 2013. Only patients who underwent initial-staging TURBT for urothelial cancer were included...
May 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497766/-mri-for-diagnosis-of-low-back-pain-usability-association-with-symptoms-and-influence-on-treatment
#20
Gunnar Svanbergsson, Thorvaldur Ingvarsson, Ragnheidur Harpa Arnardóttir
BACKGROUND: Non-specific low-back pain is a worldwide problem. More specific diagnosis could improve prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available in Akureyri Hospital in 2004 but its utilisation in diagnosing low-back pain has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of MRI in diagnosing low-back pain, correlation of the MRI outcomes with other clinical findings and its possible effects on treatment. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive analysis of patients' journals...
January 2017: Læknablađiđ
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