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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677037/small-left-ventricular-size-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-ventricular-assist-device-thrombosis
#1
Venkat Keshav Chivukula, Jennifer A Beckman, Anthony R Prisco, Shin Lin, Todd F Dardas, Richard K Cheng, Stephen D Farris, Jason W Smith, Nahush A Mokadam, Claudius Mahr, Alberto Aliseda
The prevalence of ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy has continued to increase due to a stagnant donor supply and growing advanced heart failure (HF) population. We hypothesize that left ventricular (LV) size strongly influences biocompatibility and risk of thrombosis. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used in conjunction with patient-derived computational modeling and virtual surgery with a standard, apically implanted inflow cannula. A dual-focus approach of evaluating thrombogenicity was employed: platelet-based metrics to characterize the platelet environment and flow-based metrics to investigate hemodynamics...
April 18, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675878/interobserver-reliability-of-histopathologic-features-for-distinguishing-between-cutaneous-polyarteritis-nodosa-and-superficial-thrombophlebitis
#2
Parnhathai Hutachuda, Suchanan Hanamornroongruang, Penvadee Pattanaprichakul, Pattriya Chanyachailert, Panitta Sitthinamsuwan
AIMS: Interobserver reliability of histopathologic features in differentiation between cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN) and superficial thrombophlebitis (ST) by assessment of inter-rater agreement of five histologic features were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: All sections of cPAN and ST were independently evaluated by three experienced pathologists and one resident of pathology. The studied histopathologic features included elastic fiber distribution in vascular wall, pattern of smooth muscle arrangement, internal elastic lamina pattern, fibrinoid necrosis, and luminal thrombosis...
April 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670921/roles-of-macrophage-subtypes-in-bowel-anastomotic-healing-and-anastomotic-leakage
#3
REVIEW
Jinyao Shi, Zhouqiao Wu, Ziyu Li, Jiafu Ji
Macrophages play an important role in host defense, in addition to the powerful ability to phagocytose pathogens or foreign matters. They fulfill a variety of roles in immune regulation, wound healing, and tissue homeostasis preservation. Macrophages are characterized by high heterogeneity, which can polarize into at least two major extremes, M1-type macrophages (classical activation) which are normally derived from monocytes and M2-type macrophages (alternative activation) which are mostly those tissue-resident macrophages...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670919/dysregulated-functions-of-lung-macrophage-populations-in-copd
#4
REVIEW
Theodore S Kapellos, Kevin Bassler, Anna C Aschenbrenner, Wataru Fujii, Joachim L Schultze
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670888/computational-fluid-dynamic-analysis-of-the-left-atrial-appendage-to-predict-thrombosis-risk
#5
Giorgia Maria Bosi, Andrew Cook, Rajan Rai, Leon J Menezes, Silvia Schievano, Ryo Torii, Gaetano Burriesci
During Atrial Fibrillation (AF) more than 90% of the left atrial thrombi responsible for thromboembolic events originate in the left atrial appendage (LAA), a complex small sac protruding from the left atrium (LA). Current available treatments to prevent thromboembolic events are oral anticoagulation, surgical LAA exclusion, or percutaneous LAA occlusion. However, the mechanism behind thrombus formation in the LAA is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to analyse the hemodynamic behaviour in four typical LAA morphologies - "Chicken wing", "Cactus", "Windsock" and "Cauliflower" - to identify potential relationships between the different shapes and the risk of thrombotic events...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669193/unique-barriers-to-well-being-for-pathology-residents-and-how-to-address-them
#6
Katherine D Daly, Anuja S Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668670/exosomes-released-by-gastric-cancer-cells-induce-transition-of-pericytes-into-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#7
Xiaofei Ning, Hongran Zhang, Cong Wang, Xiuqi Song
BACKGROUND Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are functionally and structurally essential for tumor progression. There are 3 main origins of CAFs: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition cells, and tissue-resident cells. Pericytes retain characteristics of progenitor cells and can differentiate into other cells under normal physiological conditions and into myofibroblasts under pathological conditions. Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication by transferring membrane components and nucleic acids between different cells...
April 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661734/pathology-resident-perspectives-about-early-autopsy-experiences
#8
REVIEW
Richard A Prayson
The performance of autopsies remains an integral part of residency training in Anatomic Pathology. A number of medical schools no longer require an autopsy experience; therefore, a subset of pathology residents has never seen an autopsy performed prior to commencement of residency training. Although much as been written regarding student's perspectives on their medical school anatomy experiences, practically nothing has been written about resident perspectives on the autopsy experience. Surveys were sent to all Pathology resident trainees (n = 27) in a training program exploring resident perspectives on their early autopsy experiences...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656422/role-of-lactoferrin-and-lactoferrin-derived-peptides-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Kabilan Velliyagounder, Dania Bahdila, Siddhi Pawar, Daniel H Fine
The oral cavity harbors different taxonomic groups, the evolutionary co-existence of which develops the oral ecosystem. These resident microorganisms can alter the balance between the physiologic and pathologic conditions that affect the host, both locally and systemically. This highly sophisticated nature of the oral cavity poses a significant therapeutic challenge. Numerous human and animal studies have been conducted to potentiate the efficacy and competence of current treatments of pathologic conditions as well as to develop novel therapeutic modalities...
April 14, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656305/do-reductions-in-out-of-pocket-expenses-for-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-scans-translate-to-reduced-fracture-incidence-amongst-older-australians-a-population-based-study
#10
Amanda L Stuart, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Julie A Pasco, Amelia G Betson, Kara L Holloway-Kew, Sarah M Hosking, Lana J Williams
This study aimed to compare fracture incidence in the elderly pre- and post-revision of bone density scan reimbursement guidelines, which changed in 2007. Fracture incidence by age group was calculated using population-specific data. Guideline changes did not appear to reduce fracture incidence in the study region located in south-eastern Australia. PURPOSE: In 2007, Medicare Australia revised reimbursement guidelines whereby individuals aged 70 years and over received reduced out-of-pocket expenses for dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans...
April 14, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650483/solid-cystic-and-tubular-novice-ultrasound-skills-training-using-a-versatile-affordable-practice-model
#11
Shruti Sevak, Benjamin Lurvey, Ashley A Woodfin, Zachary Hothem, Rose E Callahan, James Robbins, Kathryn Ziegler
OBJECTIVE: In spite of the recognized benefits of ultrasound, many physicians have little experience with using ultrasound to perform procedures. Many medical schools and residency programs lack a formal ultrasound training curriculum. We describe an affordable ultrasound training curriculum and versatile, inexpensive practice model. DESIGN: Participants underwent a didactic session to teach the theory required to perform ultrasound-guided procedures. Motor skills were taught using a practice model incorporating analogs of common anatomic and pathologic structures into an opacified gelatin substrate...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648645/does-human-endometrial-lgr5-gene-expression-suggest-the-existence-of-another-hormonally-regulated-epithelial-stem-cell-niche
#12
N Tempest, A M Baker, N A Wright, D K Hapangama
STUDY QUESTION: Is human endometrial leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) gene expression limited to the postulated epithelial stem cell niche, stratum basalis glands, and is it hormonally regulated? SUMMARY ANSWER: LGR5 expressing cells are not limited to the postulated stem cell niche but LGR5 expression is hormonally regulated. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The human endometrium is a highly regenerative tissue; however, endometrial epithelial stem cell markers are yet to be confirmed...
April 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643731/childhood-pyogenic-osteomyelitis-in-abakaliki-south-east-nigeria
#13
Njoku Isaac Omoke
Background: Pyogenic osteomyelitis is an important child health problem in developing countries. It is a one-disease state with a spectrum of pathological features and clinical forms ranging from acute to chronic presentation. Its pattern of presentation varies from and within subregions. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and outcome of childhood pyogenic osteomyelitis in a low-resource environment. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all the children aged 18 years and under seen with pyogenic osteomyelitis in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki between January 2005 and December 2015...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643512/innate-immune-memory-in-the-brain-shapes-neurological-disease-hallmarks
#14
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani, Michael Gertig, Thomas Ulas, Gaurav Jain, Jessica Wagner, Lisa M Häsler, Katleen Wild, Angelos Skodras, Thomas Blank, Ori Staszewski, Moumita Datta, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Vincenzo Capece, Md Rezaul Islam, Cemil Kerimoglu, Matthias Staufenbiel, Joachim L Schultze, Marc Beyer, Marco Prinz, Mathias Jucker, André Fischer, Jonas J Neher
Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguished-training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642908/putative-human-sperm-interactome-a-networks-study
#15
Alessandra Ordinelli, Nicola Bernabò, Massimiliano Orsini, Mauro Mattioli, Barbara Barboni
BACKGROUND: For over sixty years, it has been known that mammalian spermatozoa immediately after ejaculation are virtually infertile. They became able to fertilize only after they reside for long time (hours to days) within female genital tract where they complete their functional maturation, the capacitation. This process is finely regulated by the interaction with the female environment and involves, in spermatozoa, a myriad of molecules as messengers and target of signals. Since, to date, a model able to represent the molecular interaction that characterize sperm physiology does not exist, we realized the Human Sperm Interactme Network3...
April 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626394/microbiome-and-health-ramifications-of-intelligent-deception
#16
George B Stefano, Rachel Fine, Richard M Kream
Ten thousand years ago, the foundation for agricultural development and animal domestication was laid. Neolithic founder crops were carbohydrate-laden cereal grasses that facilitated transformation of hunter-gather societies into ancient civilizations with realistic capabilities for population expansion. In the last 3-4 decades, however, debilitating medical consequences of a progressively narrowed high caloric diet incorporating processed carbohydrates, animal protein, saturated fat and cholesterol, are translated into a global epidemic of obesity linked to metabolic and endocrine disorders, which, in part, emerged from the enhancement of our longevity...
April 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622473/impact-of-bone-marrow-derived-signals-on-nk-cell-development-and-functional-maturation
#17
REVIEW
Helena Stabile, Cinzia Fionda, Angela Santoni, Angela Gismondi
Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic members of type I innate lymphocytes (ILC1) with a prominent role in anti-tumor and anti-viral immune responses. Despite the increasing insight into NK cell biology, the steps and stages leading to mature circulating NK cells require further investigation. Natural killer cell development and functional maturation are complex and multi-stage processes that occur predominantly in the bone marrow (BM) and originate from haematopoietic stem cells CD34+ (HSC). Within the BM, NK cell precursor (NKP) and NK cell development intermediates reside in specialized niches that are characterized by particular cellular components that provide signals required for their maturation...
March 27, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618659/mesenchymal-tnfr2-promotes-the-development-of-polyarthritis-and-comorbid-heart-valve-stenosis
#18
Maria Sakkou, Panagiotis Chouvardas, Lydia Ntari, Alejandro Prados, Kristin Moreth, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Maria C Denis, Niki Karagianni, George Kollias
Mesenchymal TNF signaling is etiopathogenic for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis (SpA). The role of Tnfr1 in arthritis has been documented; however, Tnfr2 functions are unknown. Here, we investigate the mesenchymal-specific role of Tnfr2 in the TnfΔARE mouse model of SpA in arthritis and heart valve stenosis comorbidity by cell-specific, Col6a1-cre-driven gene targeting. We find that TNF/Tnfr2 signaling in resident synovial fibroblasts (SFs) and valvular interstitial cells (VICs) is detrimental for both pathologies, pointing to common cellular mechanisms...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618122/ddx49-is-an-rna-helicase-that-affects-translation-by-regulating-mrna-export-and-the-levels-of-pre-ribosomal-rna
#19
Sharad Awasthi, Mamta Verma, Arun Mahesh, Mohd Imran K Khan, Gayathri Govindaraju, Arumugam Rajavelu, Pavithra L Chavali, Sreenivas Chavali, Arunkumar Dhayalan
Among the proteins predicted to be a part of the DExD box RNA helicase family, the functions of DDX49 are unknown. Here, we characterize the enzymatic activities and functions of DDX49 by comparing its properties with the well-studied RNA helicase, DDX39B. We find that DDX49 exhibits a robust ATPase and RNA helicase activity, significantly higher than that of DDX39B. DDX49 is required for the efficient export of poly (A)+ RNA from nucleus in a splicing-independent manner. Furthermore, DDX49 is a resident protein of nucleolus and regulates the steady state levels of pre-ribosomal RNA by regulating its transcription and stability...
March 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618119/external-ventricular-drain-placement-accuracy-and-safety-when-done-by-midlevel-practitioners
#20
Nathaniel R Ellens, D Luke Fischer, Jason E Meldau, Brett A Schroeder, Sanjay E Patra
BACKGROUND: External ventricular drains (EVDs) measure intracranial pressure, divert cerebrospinal fluid, and allow for orthotropic administration of pharmacologic agents. Currently, neurosurgeons and neurosurgery residents are the primary practitioners placing EVDs. Due to the urgency of neurosurgical pathologies and the lack of qualified residents at most hospitals, midlevel practitioner (MLP) placement of EVDs would be advantageous. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and complication rates of MLP and neurosurgeon EVD placement...
March 29, 2018: Neurosurgery
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