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Pathology residency

Jon Cantero, Meritxell Genescà
In the field of sexually transmitted infections (STI), the cervicovaginal explant (CVEx) model, not only provides the opportunity to study the different immunological arms present in these tissues under steady state conditions, but also their response against ex vivo infection with relevant pathogens. The methodology associated to the establishment of the HIV infection model in the cervicovaginal tissue was described in detail by Grivel et al. earlier (Grivel and Margolis, 2009). With this model as a foundation, we illustrate different approaches to obtain a large number of immunological readouts from a single piece of tissue, thus maximizing the immunological output obtained...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Anthony J Hayes, Susan M Smith, Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
This study reviewed the occurrence of chondroitin sulphate (CS) motifs 4-C-3, 7-D-4 and 3-B-3(-) which are expressed by progenitor cells in tissues undergoing morphogenesis. These motifs have a transient early expression pattern during tissue development and also appear in mature tissues during pathological remodeling and attempted repair processes by activated adult stem cells. The CS motifs are information and recognition modules, which may regulate cellular behavior and delineate stem cell niches in developmental tissues...
June 11, 2018: Stem Cells
Lien Beckers, Stijn Stroobants, Rudi D'Hooge, Myriam Baes
It is becoming evident that microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are active contributors in neurological disorders. Nevertheless, the impact of microgliosis on neuropathology, behavior and clinical decline in neuropathological conditions remains elusive. A mouse model lacking multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), a pivotal enzyme in peroxisomal β-oxidation, develops a fatal disorder characterized by motor problems similar to the milder form of human disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying neurological decline in men and mice remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jiaqi Wang, Xudong Wang, Zhihua Ma, Keming Yun, Jinding Liu, Deqing Chen, Zidong Liu, Jie Shi, Zeqin Li, Cairong Gao, Qiuxiang Du, Gengqian Zhang
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs frequently in forensic practice and results in no visible pathological changes that can be detected in an autopsy. In recent years, the genetic background has been emphasized when examining SCD cases. The aim of this study is to establish a feasible system to detect SCD-related genes for forensic DNA laboratories. Forty-five reported SCD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 (SCN5A) were considered in our experiment...
June 7, 2018: Electrophoresis
Shruti Arya, Avinash K Singh, Karishma Bhasne, Priyanka Dogra, Anindya Datta, Payel Das, Samrat Mukhopadhyay
Protein hydration water plays a fundamentally important role in protein folding, binding, assembly, and function. Little is known about the hydration water in intrinsically disordered proteins that challenge the conventional sequence-structure-function paradigm. Here, by combining experiments and simulations, we show the existence of dynamical heterogeneity of hydration water in an intrinsically disordered presynaptic protein, namely α-synuclein, implicated in Parkinson's disease. We took advantage of nonoccurrence of cysteine in the sequence and incorporated a number of cysteine residues at the N-terminal segment, the central amyloidogenic nonamyloid-β component (NAC) domain, and the C-terminal end of α-synuclein...
June 5, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Laura McCulloch, Alessio Alfieri, Barry W McColl
Changes to the immune system after stroke are complex and can result in both pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive consequences. Following ischemic stroke, brain resident microglia are activated and circulating monocytes are recruited to the injury site. In contrast, there is a systemic deactivation of monocytes/macrophages that may contribute to immunosuppression and the high incidence of bacterial infection experienced by stroke patients. The manipulation of macrophage subsets may be a useful therapeutic strategy to reduce infection and improve outcome in patients after stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
François Gorostidi, Pauline Vinckenbosch, Karma Lambercy, Kishore Sandu
PURPOSE: With adequate indication and meticulous execution, endoscopic procedures can efficiently treat a subset of adult and pediatric benign laryngotracheal stenosis and obstructions, but these procedures are precise and very demanding. The difference between a successful and a failed surgery, with potentially debilitating side effects, resides in small details. The learning curve is long and very few centers worldwide have a sufficient case load making adequate training difficult. While indications and concepts of endoscopic procedures can be learned in books and by observing trained colleagues, the dexterity and the precise realization need to be practiced, ideally not initially on patients...
June 4, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Célia Cintas, Thibaut Douché, Nicole Therville, Silvia Arcucci, Fernanda Ramos-Delgado, Céline Basset, Benoît Thibault, Julie Guillermet-Guibert
For patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer that are not eligible for surgery, signal-targeted therapies have so far failed to significantly improve survival. These therapeutic options have been tested in phase II/III clinical trials mostly in combination with the reference treatment gemcitabine. Innovative therapies aim to annihilate oncogenic dependency, or to normalize the tumoural stroma to allow immune cells to function and/or re-vascularisation to occur. Large scale transcriptomic and genomic analysis revealed that pancreatic cancers display great heterogeneity but failed to clearly delineate specific oncogene dependency, besides oncogenic Kras...
June 1, 2018: Cancers
Steven L Percival, Matthew Malone, Dieter Mayer, Anne-Marie Salisbury, Gregory Schultz
Infected tissues in the feet of people with diabetes in the form of a diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) present a complex pathology for clinicians to manage. This is partly attributed to the multi-factorial nature of the disease, which may include; altered foot architecture leading to excessive plantar pressures and frictional forces peripheral arterial disease and loss of protective sensation. In addition, to the above co-morbid variables, it is understood that a delayed wound healing state may be perpetuated by the presence of microorganisms residing in the wound tissue...
June 4, 2018: International Wound Journal
Weilei Yao, Tongxin Wang, Feiruo Huang
The overwhelming frequency of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are closely related to liver diseases, which might share common pathogenic signaling processes. These metabolic disorders in the presence of inflammatory response seem to be triggered by and to reside in the liver, which is the central metabolic organ that plays primary roles in regulating lipid and glucose homeostasis upon alterations of metabolic conditions. Recently, abundant emerging researches suggested that p300 and CREB binding protein (CBP) are crucial regulators of energy homeostasis and liver fibrosis through both their acetyltransferase activities and transcriptional coactivators...
2018: BioMed Research International
Francesca Romana Rizzo, Alessandra Musella, Francesca De Vito, Diego Fresegna, Silvia Bullitta, Valentina Vanni, Livia Guadalupi, Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Fabio Buttari, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Centonze, Antonietta Gentile
Cytokines are constitutively released in the healthy brain by resident myeloid cells to keep proper synaptic plasticity, either in the form of Hebbian synaptic plasticity or of homeostatic plasticity. However, when cytokines dramatically increase, establishing a status of neuroinflammation, the synaptic action of such molecules remarkably interferes with brain circuits of learning and cognition and contributes to excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Among others, interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are the best studied proinflammatory cytokines in both physiological and pathological conditions and have been invariably associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) (Hebbian synaptic plasticity) and synaptic scaling (homeostatic plasticity), respectively...
2018: Neural Plasticity
V I Starodubov, A N Edeleva, T P Sabgayda
The article compares the prevalence of pathological changes in different organs and systems among city and rural residents of the next ages: elderly (60-74 years for men and 55-74 years for women), senile (75-84 years) and advanced (85 years and older) ages. The results of the continuous survey of all persons of the retirement age of one urban (7 809 people) and two rural areas (14 749) of the Nizhny Novgorod region were analyzed. The region is comparatively homogeneous in terms of the national composition of the population...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Stefan Linsler, Nadja Szameitat, Sebastian Senger, Joachim Oertel
OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgical techniques for the treatment of sellar pathologies have been evolving continuously over the last decades. Additionally, to the innovation of approaches and surgical techniques, this progress yielded to the application of modern operative technologies. The introduction of high definition (HD) cameras for endoscopic systems has shown good results in endonasal pituitary surgery. The aim of this study was to assess endoscopic HD image quality in comparison to microscopic visualization...
May 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sean M Silverman, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the primary resident immune cell type, constitute a key population of glia in the retina. Recent evidence indicates that microglia play significant functional roles in the retina at different life stages. During development, retinal microglia regulate neuronal survival by exerting trophic influences and influencing programmed cell death. During adulthood, ramified microglia in the plexiform layers interact closely with synapses to maintain synaptic structure and function that underlie the retina's electrophysiological response to light...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Vision Science
Vladimir S Naumenko, Evgeni Ponimaskin
The majority of neuronal proteins involved in cellular signaling undergo different posttranslational modifications significantly affecting their functions. One of these modifications is a covalent attachment of a 16-C palmitic acid to one or more cysteine residues (S-palmitoylation) within the target protein. Palmitoylation is a reversible modification, and repeated cycles of palmitoylation/depalmitoylation might be critically involved in the regulation of multiple signaling processes. Palmitoylation also represents a common posttranslational modification of the neurotransmitter receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ligand-gated ion channels (LICs)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Yoshitatsu Sei, Jianying Feng, Leigh Samsel, Ayla Oksuz White, Xilin Zhao, Sajung Yun, Deborah Citrin, John Philip McCoy, Sinju Sundaresan, Michael M Hayes, Juanita L Merchant, Andrew B Leiter, Stephen A Wank
Lgr5-expressing intestinal stem cells (ISCs) maintain continuous and rapid generation of the intestinal epithelium. Here we present evidence that dedifferentiation of committed enteroendocrine cells (EECs) contributes to maintenance of the epithelium under both basal conditions and in response to injury. Lineage tracing studies identified a subset of EECs that reside at +4 position for more than 2 weeks, most of which were BrdU-label-retaining cells. Under basal conditions, cells derived from these EECs grow from the bottom of the crypt to generate intestinal epithelium according to neutral drift kinetics that is consistent with dedifferentiation of mature EECs to ISCs...
May 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Leah B Strickland-Marmol, Carlos A Muro-Cacho, Kay Washington, Philip R Foulis
CONTEXT: - Cancer registrars should work closely with pathologists to ensure compliance with reporting standards. Many registrars, however, have little contact with pathologists, resulting in a lack of "real-time" interaction that is essential for their professional activities and development. OBJECTIVE: - To facilitate registrars' case management, as cancer biology becomes more complex, we developed the ATP (Ask the Pathologist) forum as a place to ask pathology-related questions about neoplasms, such as terminology, biology, histologic classification, extent of disease, molecular markers, and prognostic factors...
May 30, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Laura Rivino
Our understanding of how T cells respond to dengue virus has greatly advanced in the last decade but important questions still remain unanswered. Dengue virus infection elicits a broad anti-viral T cell response with NS3, NS4b and NS5 being the main targets for CD8+ T cells, which dominate the response while the structural proteins capsid, envelope and the secreted protein NS1 are the preferential targets for CD4+ T cells. Upon T cell activation during acute dengue infection, dengue-specific T cells acquire expression of the skin-homing marker cutaneous associated antigen (CLA) and they can be found at high frequencies in the skin of infected patients...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eva Rath, Antonio Moschetta, Dirk Haller
The intestinal epithelium is a multicellular interface in close proximity to a dense microbial milieu that is completely renewed every 3-5 days. Pluripotent stem cells reside at the crypt, giving rise to transient amplifying cells that go through continuous steps of proliferation, differentiation and finally anoikis (a form of programmed cell death) while migrating upwards to the villus tip. During these cellular transitions, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) possess distinct metabolic identities reflected by changes in mitochondrial activity...
May 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Rebecca L Wilcox, Patricia V Adem, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, James B Atkinson, Leah W Burke, Hoiwan Cheung, Shoumita Dasgupta, Julia DeLaGarza, Loren Joseph, Robin LeGallo, Madelyn Lew, Christina M Lockwood, Alice Meiss, Jennifer Norman, Priscilla Markwood, Hasan Rizvi, Kate P Shane-Carson, Mark E Sobel, Eric Suarez, Laura J Tafe, Jason Wang, Richard L Haspel
Genomic medicine is transforming patient care. However, the speed of development has left a knowledge gap between discovery and effective implementation into clinical practice. Since 2010, the Training Residents in Genomics (TRIG) Working Group has found success in building a rigorous genomics curriculum with implementation tools aimed at pathology residents in postgraduate training years 1-4. Based on the TRIG model, the interprofessional Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Working Group was formed...
May 30, 2018: Personalized Medicine
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