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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822222/biomechanical-comparison-of-a-novel-monocortical-and-two-common-bicortical-external-fixation-systems-regarding-rigidity-and-dynamic-stability
#1
Patrick A Varady, Markus Greinwald, Peter Augat
AIM: To biomechanically compare a monocortical single frame external fixator (Orthofix UNYCO) with two bicortical fixator systems (dual frame: Stryker Hoffmann and single frame: Synthes LEF) with respect to system rigidity and stability under cyclic loading. METHODS: The fixator systems were assessed for axial rigidity under loads which would occur clinically during fixator application and dynamic stability (cyclic fatigue) under loads which would occur in the first week postoperatively...
August 19, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822079/interethnic-interaction-strategic-bargaining-power-and-the-dynamics-of-cultural-norms-a-field-study-in-an-amazonian-population
#2
John Andrew Bunce, Richard McElreath
Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms...
August 18, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822062/validation-of-dynamic-risk-stratification-in-pediatric-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#3
Seo Young Sohn, Young Nam Kim, Hye In Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung
PURPOSE: There has been increasing interest in a risk-adopted management strategy known as dynamic risk stratification following the revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for differentiated thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic risk stratification for predicting structural disease in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 130 pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients (≤19 years) who were treated between 1996 and 2015 at Samsung Medical Center...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822018/the-prevalence-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-survivors-of-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-results-from-a-large-single-centre-study
#4
Sumithra Giritharan, Joanna Cox, Calvin J Heal, David Hughes, Kanna Gnanalingham, Tara Kearney
OBJECTIVE: The variation in reported prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) post subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is mainly due to methodological heterogeneity. We report on the prevalence of GHD in a large cohort of patients following SAH, when dynamic and confirmatory pituitary hormone testing methods are systematically employed. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, pituitary function was assessed in 100 patients following SAH. Baseline pituitary hormonal profile measurement and glucagon stimulation testing (GST) was carried out in all patients...
August 18, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821722/egyptian-rousette-bats-maintain-long-term-protective-immunity-against-marburg-virus-infection-despite-diminished-antibody-levels
#5
Amy J Schuh, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Jessica R Spengler, Stuart T Nichol, Jonathan S Towner
Although bats are natural reservoir hosts for numerous zoonotic viruses, little is known about the long-term dynamics of the host immune response following infection and how these viruses are maintained in nature. The Egyptian rousette bat (ERB) is a known reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV). Following infection of ERBs with MARV, virus-specific IgG antibodies are induced but rapidly wane and by 3 months post-infection the bats are seronegative. To determine whether reinfection of ERBs plays a role in MARV maintenance, we challenge groups of ERBs that were "naturally" or experimentally infected with MARV 17-24 months prior...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821672/audio-visual-modulation-in-mouse-v1-depends-on-cross-modal-stimulus-configuration-and-congruency
#6
Guido T Meijer, Jorrit S Montijn, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Carien S Lansink
The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network, in which information from multiple senses is integrated, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although this view is supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audio-visual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821632/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-disuse-atrophy-and-the-return-to-activity-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
Andrew G Fisher, Robert A Seaborne, Thomas M Hughes, Alex Gutteridge, Claire Stewart, Judy M Coulson, Adam P Sharples, Jonathan C Jarvis
Physical inactivity and disuse are major contributors to age-related muscle loss. Denervation of skeletal muscle has been previously used as a model with which to investigate muscle atrophy following disuse. Although gene regulatory networks that control skeletal muscle atrophy after denervation have been established, the transcriptome in response to the recovery of muscle after disuse and the associated epigenetic mechanisms that may function to modulate gene expression during skeletal muscle atrophy or recovery have yet to be investigated...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821552/differences-in-temperature-and-water-chemistry-shape-distinct-diversity-patterns-in-thermophilic-microbial-communities
#8
Cecilia M Chiriac, Edina Szekeres, Knut Rudi, Andreea Baricz, Adriana Hegedus, Nicolae Dragoş, Cristian Coman
This study presents the biodiversity and ecology of microbial mats developed in thermal gradients (20-65 °C) in the surroundings of three drillings (CH, CI, MB) tapping a hyperthermal aquifer from Romania. Using a metabarcoding approach, 16S rRNA genes were sequenced from both DNA and RNA transcripts (cDNA) and compared. The relationships between the microbial diversity and the physico-chemical factors were explored. Additionally, the cDNA data was used for in silico functionality predictions, bringing new insights into the functional potential and dynamics of these communities...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821539/what-motivates-biology-instructors-to-engage-and-persist-in-teaching-professional-development
#9
Jill S McCourt, Tessa C Andrews, Jennifer K Knight, John E Merrill, Ross H Nehm, Karen N Pelletreau, Luanna B Prevost, Michelle K Smith, Mark Urban-Lurain, Paula P Lemons
We conducted a study of 19 biology instructors participating in small, local groups at six research-intensive universities connected to the Automated Analysis of Constructed Response (AACR) project (www.msu.edu/∼aacr). Our aim was to uncover participants' motivation to persist in a long-term teaching professional development effort, a topic that is understudied in discipline-based educational research. We interviewed each participant twice over a 2-year period and conducted qualitative analyses on the data, using expectancy-value theory as a framework for considering motivation...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821427/effects-of-different-strength-training-frequencies-on-maximum-strength-body-composition-and-functional-capacity-in-healthy-older-individuals
#10
Mari Turpela, Keijo Häkkinen, Guy Gregory Haff, Simon Walker
There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group...
August 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821151/flexibility-of-backbone-fibrils-in-%C3%AE-chitin-crystals-with-different-degree-of-acetylation
#11
Zechuan Yu, Denvid Lau
Acetyl groups are backbone outreaches that enhance inter-fibril connection in chitin and chitosan fibril bundle. Removal of acetyl groups affects flexibility of chitosan fibril bundle, thereby affecting mechanical strength of chitosan-based products. Understandings of relationship between degree of acetylation and flexibility of chitin fibril bundle conduce to optimization of synthetic chitin materials. Here, the relationship is examined by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Coiling of chitin and chitosan fibril bundle with different degree of acetylation is observed and flexibility of fibrils is measured...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821051/a-novel-self-assembly-lentinan-tetraphenylethylene%C3%A2-composite-with-strong-blue%C3%A2-fluorescence-in-water-and-its-properties
#12
Mengxia Li, Pan Chen, Min Xu, Xiaojuan Xu
We report a unique self-assembly of lentinan, a triple helical β-(1→3)-glucan (t-LNT), in water. By molecular dynamics simulation, it was found that t-LNT aggregated preferentially along the chain direction to form long chains, accompanied by side-direction linkage to form branches. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that t-LNT formed dendrite-like fibers, which further formed fishnet-like porous/mesoporous aggregates with increasing concentration. The meshes in the fishnet were ascribed to the intersection of branches...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820938/multi-scale-simulation-of-receptor-drug-association-kinetics-application-to-neuramidase-inhibitors
#13
Fabian Zeller, Manuel P Luitz, Rainer Bomblies, Martin Zacharias
A detailed understanding of the drug-receptor association process is of fundamental importance for drug design. Due to the long timescales of typical binding kinetics, the atomistic simulation of the ligand traveling from bulk solution into the binding site is still computationally challenging. In this work, we apply a multi-scale approach of combined molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to investigate association pathway ensembles for the two prominent H1N1 neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820899/two-disjunct-pleistocene-populations-and-anisotropic-postglacial-expansion-shaped-the-current-genetic-structure-of-the-relict-plant-amborella-trichopoda
#14
Rémi Tournebize, Stéphanie Manel, Yves Vigouroux, François Munoz, Alexandre de Kochko, Valérie Poncet
Past climate fluctuations shaped the population dynamics of organisms in space and time, and have impacted their present intra-specific genetic structure. Demo-genetic modelling allows inferring the way past demographic and migration dynamics have determined this structure. Amborella trichopoda is an emblematic relict plant endemic to New Caledonia, widely distributed in the understory of non-ultramafic rainforests. We assessed the influence of the last glacial climates on the demographic history and the paleo-distribution of 12 Amborella populations covering the whole current distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820598/methylene-blue-location-in-hydroperoxized-cardiolipin-monolayer-implication-in-membrane-photodegradation
#15
Rafael Maglia de Souza, Paulo Siani, Thaís F Schmidt, Rosangela Itri, Luis Gustavo Dias
We present molecular dynamics simulations of Cardiolipin (CL) and of a CL monohydroperoxized derivative (CLOOH) monolayers to investigate the initial steps of phospholipid oxidation induced by methylene blue (MB) photo-excitation under continuous illumination. We considered different MB atomic charge distributions to simulate MB electronic distribution in the singlet ground and triplet excited states. Simulation results allied to experimental data revealed that initial CL photooxidation probably occurs via type II mechanism, to produce lipid hydroperoxide by singlet oxygen attack to the alkyl chain unsaturations...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820439/efficacy-and-safety-of-letibotulinum-toxin-a-for-the-treatment-of-dynamic-equinus-foot-deformity-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Hyun Jung Chang, Bo Young Hong, Sang-Jee Lee, Soyoung Lee, Joo Hyun Park, Jeong-Yi Kwon
The objective of this clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of letibotulinum toxin A and onabotulinum toxin A for improving dynamic equinus foot deformity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). In total, 144 children with spastic CP who had dynamic equinus foot deformity were assigned randomly to the Botulax group (injection of letibotulinum toxin A) or the Botox group (injection of onabotulinum toxin A). The Physician's Rating Scale (PRS), ankle plantar flexor spasticity using the Modified Tardieu Scale, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, and the GMFM-66 were completed before injection and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injection...
August 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820248/modulating-wettability-of-layered-materials-by-controlling-ligand-polar-headgroup-dynamics
#17
Terry A Villarreal, Shane R Russell, Jae Jin Bang, Justin K Patterson, Shelley A Claridge
Integrating functionalized 2D materials into multilayer device architectures increasingly requires understanding the behavior of noncovalently adsorbed ligands during solution processing. Here, we demonstrate that the headgroup dynamics of polymerized monolayers of functional alkanes can be controlled to modify surface wetting and environmental interactions. We find that headgroup dynamics are sensitive to the position of the polymerizable diyne group; thus, the polymerization process, typically used to stabilize the noncovalent monolayer, can also be used to selectively destabilize chain-chain interactions near the headgroups, making the headgroups more solvent-accessible and increasing surface hydrophilicity...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820218/photophysical-characterization-and-time-resolved-spectroscopy-of-a-anthradithiophene-dimer-exploring-the-role-of-conformation-in-singlet-fission
#18
Jacob C Dean, Ruomeng Zhang, Rawad K Hallani, Ryan D Pensack, Samuel N Sanders, Daniel G Oblinsky, Sean R Parkin, Luis M Campos, John E Anthony, Gregory D Scholes
Quantitative singlet fission has been observed for a variety of acene derivatives such as tetracene and pentacene, and efforts to extend the library of singlet fission compounds is of current interest. Preliminary calculations suggest anthradithiophenes exhibit significant exothermicity between the first optically-allowed singlet state, S1, and 2 × T1 with an energy difference of >5000 cm(-1). Given the fulfillment of this ingredient for singlet fission, here we investigate the singlet fission capability of a difluorinated anthradithiophene dimer (2ADT) covalently linked by a (dimethylsilyl)ethane bridge and derivatized by triisobutylsilylethynyl (TIBS) groups...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820193/a-modeling-study-of-methane-hydrate-decomposition-in-contact-with-the-external-surface-of-zeolites
#19
Konstantin S Smirnov
The behavior of methane hydrate (MH) enclosed between the (010) surfaces of the silicalite-1 zeolite was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations at temperatures of 150 and 250 K. Calculations reveal that the interaction with the hydrophilic surface OH groups destabilizes the clathrate structure of hydrate. While MH mostly conserves the structure in the simulation at the low temperature, thermal motion at the high temperature breaks the fragilized cages of H-bonded water molecules, thus leading to the release of methane...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820191/comparative-photophysics-and-ultrafast-dynamics-of-dimethylaminochalcone-and-a-structurally-rigid-derivative-experimental-identification-of-tict-coordinate
#20
Rajib Ghosh, Biswajit Manna
Photophysical parameters and ultrafast dynamics of dimethylaminochalone (DMAC-A) have been compared with a structurally bridged analogue (namely, c-DMAC) in solvents of varying polarities. Conformational locking of the single bond connecting the donor and acceptor groups in c-DMAC arrests the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) relaxation and consequently the photophysical parameters such as fluorescence yield, fluorescence lifetime and triplet yield change significantly. The intramolecular charge transfer character of the LE state is found to be unaffected by conformational restriction...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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