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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912842/the-rapid-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#1
REVIEW
Robert F Potter, Alaric W D'Souza, Gautam Dantas
Carbapenems, our one-time silver bullet for multidrug resistant bacterial infections, are now threatened by widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Successful expansion of Enterobacteriaceae clonal groups and frequent horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase expressing plasmids are causing increasing carbapenem resistance. Recent advances in genetic and phenotypic detection facilitate global surveillance of CRE diversity and prevalence. In particular, whole genome sequencing enabled efficient tracking, annotation, and study of genetic elements colocalized with carbapenemase genes on chromosomes and on plasmids...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910908/larval-diet-affects-mosquito-development-and-permissiveness-to-plasmodium-infection
#2
Inbar Linenberg, George K Christophides, Mathilde Gendrin
The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904427/prevalence-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-enterobacteriaceae-on-hands-of-workers-in-halal-cattle-abattoirs-in-peninsular-malaysia
#3
Bahri Mohd Tamrin Shamsul, Muhammad Tukur Adamu, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa, Siti Khairani-Bejo
BACKGROUND: Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia...
September 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903600/improved-accuracy-of-cefepime-susceptibility-testing-for-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-using-an-on-demand-digital-dispensing-method
#4
Kenneth P Smith, Thea Brennan-Krohn, Susan Weir, James E Kirby
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae generally cannot be treated with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, some later generation cephalosporins, including cefepime, are poorly hydrolyzed by specific ESBL enzymes, and certain strains demonstrate in vitro susceptibility to these agents, potentially affording additional treatment opportunities. Moreover, the ability to adjust both dose and dosing interval of β-lactam agents allows treatment of strains with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) formerly classified in the intermediate range...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903420/microbiology-of-processed-edible-insect-products-results-of-a-preliminary-survey
#5
Nils Th Grabowski, Günter Klein
Little is known of the microbiology of processed insect products. The present survey analysed a total of n=38 samples of deep-fried and spiced (Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, and Omphisa fuscidentalis), cooked in soy sauce ("tsukudani"; Oxya yezoensis, Vespula flaviceps, and Bombyx mori), dried (A. domesticus, L. migatoria, Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor, B. mori, Hermetia illucens, and Musca domestica), powdered (H. illucens, T. molitor) and other (incl. deep-frozen B. mori and honeybee pollen) insect products microbiologically (total bacterial count [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, and yeasts and moulds counts, salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902381/detection-of-escherichia-coli-st131-complex-st705-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st15-among-fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-betalactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#6
Esther Rios, Maria Carmen López, Iciar Rodríguez-Avial, Esther Culebras, Juan Jose Picazo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in non-selected hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from the same geographic area of Madrid. Among the 501 patients enrolled, 43 (8.6%) carried ESBL-E and 8 (1.6%) patients exhibited CPE. The main intestinal colonizer among ESBL-E was CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates in both settings (community and hospital)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900686/shotgun-metagenomic-sequencing-analysis-of-soft-rot-enterobacteriaceae-in-polymicrobial-communities
#7
James Doonan, Sandra Denman, James E McDonald, Peter N Golyshin
Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bacterial communities in necrotic plant lesions allows insights of host-pathogen molecular interactions. Soft-rot Enterobacteriaceae are significant crop pathogens with a wide host range. Reconstructed polymicrobial community DNA from soft-rot affected crops provides details of species relative abundance and functional potential, enabling significant insights into their lifestyle. Here, we describe a workflow for DNA recovery, metagenomic shotgun sequencing and in particular, an in silico analysis of bacterial isolates from affected plant tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898030/assessment-of-the-activity-of-tigecycline-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-italy-between-2012-and-2014-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t
#8
Stefania Stefani, Michael J Dowzicky
As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria...
November 26, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895859/dysbiosis-of-fecal-microbiota-and-high-frequency-of-citrobacter-klebsiella-spp-and-actinomycetes-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-gastroenteritis
#9
Leila Ganji, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Seyed Saeed Eshraghi, Abbas Mirshafiey, Naser Ebrahimi Daryani, Mohammad Reza Zali
AIM: This study was aimed to characterize putative differences of fecal microbiota between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroenteritis patients and healthy controls. BACKGROUND: New evidence proposed that gut microbiota has a deep effect on the balance between health and disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., Enterobacteriacea and Staphylococci were detected in the samples using selective and specific culture media...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895014/ceftazidime-avibactam-as-salvage-therapy-for-infections-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-organisms-a-case-series-from-the-compassionate-use-program
#10
Elizabeth Temkin, Julian Torre-Cisneros, Bojana Beovic, Natividad Benito, Maddalena Giannella, Raúl Gilarranz, Cameron Jeremiah, Belén Loeches, Isabel Machuca, María José Jiménez-Martín, José Antonio Martínez, Marta Mora-Rillo, Enrique Navas, Michael Osthoff, Juan Carlos Pozo, Juan Carlos Ramos Ramos, Marina Rodriguez, Miguel Sánchez García, Pierluigi Viale, Michel Wolff, Yehuda Carmeli
Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a recently approved β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination with the potential to treat serious infections caused by carbapenem-resistant organisms. Few patients with such infections were included in the CAZ-AVI clinical trials, and clinical experience is lacking. We present a case series of patients with infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa) who were treated with CAZ-AVI salvage therapy on a compassionate-use basis...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895009/an-incp-plasmid-carrying-the-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-hospital-sewage
#11
Feifei Zhao, Yu Feng, Xiaoju Lü, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
A Klebsiella pneumoniae strain of ST313 recovered from hospital sewage was found to carry the plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1, which was bracketed by two copies of the insertion sequence ISApl1 on a 57-kb self-transmissible IncP type plasmid of a new IncP-1 clade. The carriage of mcr-1 on a self-transmissible broad-host-range plasmid highlights that mcr-1 has the potential to be spread beyond the Enterobacteriaceae.
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892709/gut-borne-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-promising-candidate-for-the-formulation-of-feed-additives-modulates-immune-system-and-gut-microbiota
#12
G García, C Dogi, A de Moreno de LeBlanc, C Greco, L Cavaglieri
The aim was to evaluate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC016 on immune parameters and gut microbiota in healthy mice. Animals received S. cerevisiae RC016 for 10 days. Microbial translocation to liver and changes in some bacterial populations in caecum were determined. Immune stimulation was assessed at gut level (measure ofimmunoglobulin A (IgA)(+) cells and luminal cytokine profile) and by evaluating the activity of peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of S. cerevisiae RC016 did not induce microbial translocation to liver...
November 30, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892525/sxt-r391-integrative-and-conjugative-elements-in-proteus-species-reveal-abundant-genetic-diversity-and-multidrug-resistance
#13
Xinyue Li, Yu Du, Pengcheng Du, Hang Dai, Yujie Fang, Zhenpeng Li, Na Lv, Baoli Zhu, Biao Kan, Duochun Wang
SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891505/comparative-genomics-of-the-conjugation-region-of-f-like-plasmids-five-shades-of-f
#14
Raul Fernandez-Lopez, Maria de Toro, Gabriel Moncalian, M Pilar Garcillan-Barcia, Fernando de la Cruz
The F plasmid is the foremost representative of a large group of conjugative plasmids, prevalent in Escherichia coli, and widely distributed among the Enterobacteriaceae. These plasmids are of clinical relevance, given their frequent association with virulence determinants, colicins, and antibiotic resistance genes. Originally defined by their sensitivity to certain male-specific phages, IncF plasmids share a conserved conjugative system and regulatory circuits. In order to determine whether the genetic architecture and regulation circuits are preserved among these plasmids, we analyzed the natural diversity of F-like plasmids...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890813/international-travel-is-a-risk-factor-for-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-acquisition-in-children-a-single-center-case-case-control-study-in-an-urban-u-s-hospital
#16
Jonathan P Strysko, Vidya Mony, Jeremiah Cleveland, Hanna Siddiqui, Peter Homel, Christina Gagliardo
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) infections are increasing in both adults and children. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of children with ESBL in an urban and ethnically-diverse population, to determine what proportion of these infections were community-onset, and to identify risk factors predisposing children to ESBL acquisition. METHODS: A case-case-control study of children aged 0-18 years was conducted from 2012-2014...
November 24, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890442/predominance-of-healthcare-associated-cases-among-episodes-of-community-onset-bacteraemia-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#17
Jean-Ralph Zahar, Philippe Lesprit, Stephane Ruckly, Aurelia Eden, Hitoto Hikombo, Louis Bernard, Stephan Harbarth, Jean-François Timsit, Christian Brun-Buisson
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are endemic pathogens worldwide. Infection with ESBL-PE may be associated with inadequate antibiotic therapy and a poor outcome. However, risk factors for ESBL-PE community-acquired infections are ill-defined. An observational multicentre study was performed in 50 hospitals to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for community-acquired ESBL-PE bacteraemia. All patients presenting with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia were recorded over a 2-month period (between June and November 2013)...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890334/control-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-outbreaks-in-acute-settings-an-evidence-review
#18
REVIEW
C E French, C Coope, L Conway, J P T Higgins, J McCulloch, G Okoli, B C Patel, I Oliver
BACKGROUND: In recent years, infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been increasing globally and present a major public health challenge. AIM: To review the international literature: (i) to describe CPE outbreaks in acute hospital settings globally; and (ii) to identify the control measures used during these outbreaks and report on their effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, abstract lists for key conferences and reference lists of key reviews was undertaken, and information on unpublished outbreaks was sought for 2000-2015...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889879/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-a-systematic-review-with-a-focus-on-mediterranean-countries
#19
REVIEW
B Yanat, J-M Rodríguez-Martínez, A Touati
Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. These molecules have been widely prescribed to treat various infectious diseases and have been classified into several generations based on their spectrum of activity. Quinolones inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis by interfering with the action of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Mutations in the genes encoding these targets are the most common mechanisms of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Moreover, three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998 and include Qnr proteins, the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib-cr, and plasmid-mediated efflux pumps QepA and OqxAB...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889143/use-of-natural-antimicrobials-to-improve-the-quality-characteristics-of-fresh-phyllo-a-dough-based-wheat-product-shelf-life-assessment
#20
Maria I Tsiraki, Layal Karam, Mohamad G Abiad, Hany M Yehia, Ioannis N Savvaidis
This study explores the effects of chitosan and natamycin on the quality of fresh "Phyllo" - a dough-based wheat product, by monitoring the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters. Four different lots of phyllo samples stored under aerobic packaging conditions, in the absence or presence of the aforementioned antimicrobials, were prepared and stored at 4 °C. Microbiological data suggested that, the combination of chitosan and natamycin resulted in significant reductions (1-3 log cfu/g) of the microbial species examined (mesophilic total viable counts; TVC), yeasts/molds, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms) by day 10...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
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