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Enterobacteriaceae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#1
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100600/suitability-of-the-carbapenem-inactivation-method-cim-to-detect-imp-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#2
Kyoichi Saito, Ryuichi Nakano, Yuki Suzuki, Akiyo Nakano, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Shinsuke Yonekawa, Shiro Endo, Fumiko Mizuno, Kei Kasahara, Keiichi Mikasa, Mitsuo Kaku, Hisakazu Yano
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have become globally distributed in the past decade, resulting in concern over control of hospital infections and antimicrobial therapies (1. 2).….
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100594/rapid-aminoglycoside-np-test-for-rapid-detection-of-multiple-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae
#3
Patrice Nordmann, Aurélie Jayol, Jan Dobias, Laurent Poirel
The Rapid Aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The Rapid Aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl, adenyl and phospho transferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098536/emergence-of-blandm-7-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-gabon-2016
#4
Mesmin Moussounda, Seydina M Diene, Sandra Dos Santos, Alain Goudeau, Patrice François, Nathalie van der Mee-Marquet
Reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa remain rare and assess mostly blaOXA-48-producing isolates from Mediterranean countries and South Africa. We identified blaNDM-7-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon in 2016. The isolates contained blaNDM-7 IncX3 plasmids that were unusual and similar to the one described in a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae SZ04 isolate from China.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096978/carriage-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-hospitalised-children-in-tertiary-hospitals-in-harare-zimbabwe
#5
Marcelyn T Magwenzi, Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Hilda A Mujuru, Mutsa Dangarembizi-Bwakura, Valerie Robertson, Alexander M Aiken
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and gentamicin resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly recognised as a major cause of infection in low-income countries. We assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of these bacteria in hospitalised children in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in paediatric inpatients at two tertiary-referral hospitals between May and July 2015. Rectal swabs and faecal samples were collected within 24 h of admission and further follow-up samples were collected on alternate days during hospitalization...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096976/effect-of-handrubbing-using-locally-manufactured-alcohol-based-handrubs-in-paediatric-wards-in-harare-zimbabwe
#6
Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Marcelyn T Magwenzi, Hilda A Mujuru, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Valerie Robertson, Alexander M Aiken
We assessed bacterial contamination of hands of adults present in paediatric wards in two tertiary-care hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe and the microbiologic efficacy of locally-manufactured alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). During unannounced visits, samples were collected using hand-print and hand-rinse methods. Samples were collected from 152 individuals (16 nurses, 10 doctors, 28 students, 86 parents/guardians, 12 others). Contamination of hands with Gram-negative bacteria was found in 91% of adults tested with a mean of 14...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096418/multi-institute-analysis-of-carbapenem-resistance-reveals-remarkable-diversity-unexplained-mechanisms-and-limited-clonal-outbreaks
#7
Gustavo C Cerqueira, Ashlee M Earl, Christoph M Ernst, Yonatan H Grad, John P Dekker, Michael Feldgarden, Sinéad B Chapman, João L Reis-Cunha, Terrance P Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Mary L Delaney, Diane Kim, Ellena M Peterson, Thomas F O'Brien, Mary Jane Ferraro, David C Hooper, Susan S Huang, James E Kirby, Andrew B Onderdonk, Bruce W Birren, Deborah T Hung, Lisa A Cosimi, Jennifer R Wortman, Cheryl I Murphy, William P Hanage
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to the antibiotic era. Multiple different species can exhibit resistance due to many different mechanisms, and many different mobile elements are capable of transferring resistance between lineages. We prospectively sampled CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals, together with a collection of CRE from a single California hospital, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks and determine whether there is evidence for transfer of strains within and between hospitals and the frequency with which resistance is transferred between lineages or species...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096159/genome-analysis-of-the-carbapenem-and-colistin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolate-nrz14408-reveal-horizontal-gene-transfer-pathways-towards-pan-resistance-and-enhanced-virulence
#8
Linda Falgenhauer, Hiren Ghosh, Swapnil Doijad, Yancheng Yao, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Martin Kaase, Rolf Hilker, Jörg Overmann, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty
Colistin is used as a last-resort antibiotic for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, in particular for carbapenem-resistant isolates.….
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#9
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095794/development-of-an-algorithm-for-phenotypic-screening-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-routine-laboratory
#10
Jérôme Robert, Alix Pantel, Audrey Merens, Elodie Meiller, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are difficult to identify among carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (NSE). We designed phenotypic strategies giving priority to high sensitivity for screening putative CPE before further testing. METHODS: Presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in ertapenem NSE (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) consecutively isolated in 80 French laboratories between November 2011 and April 2012 was determined by the Check-MDR-CT103 array method...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095119/fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-strains-is-associated-with-worse-outcome-in-patients-hospitalized-in-the-pediatric-oncology-unit-of-beni-messous-hospital-in-algiers-algeria
#11
Chafiaa Medboua-Benbalagh, Abdelaziz Touati, Rachida Kermas, Alima Gharout-Sait, Lucien Brasme, Halima Mezhoud, Djamila Touati, Thomas Guillard, Christophe de Champs
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) fecal carriage in children with different cancers admitted in the pediatric oncology unit of Beni-Messous Hospital (Algiers, Algeria). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs from children with cancer were sampled from February 2012 to May 2013 within 48 hours following their admission. After species identification and detection of ESBL production by double-disk synergy test (DD test), antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the standard disk diffusion method...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094878/characterization-of-cellulose-degrading-bacteria-from-the-larval-gut-of-the-white-grub-beetle-lepidiota-mansueta-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#12
Gautam Handique, Amrita Phukan, Badal Bhattacharyya, Abu Adil Lutful Haque Baruah, Syed Wasifur Rahman, Rajen Baruah
The goal of this study is to identify and characterize the cellulose degrading microorganisms in the larval gut of the white grub beetle, Lepidiota mansueta. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated and tested for cellulolytic activity using soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degrading assays. Of these strains, five (FGB1, FB2, MB1, MB2, and HB1) degrade cellulose. Cellulolytic activity was determined based on formation of clear zone and cellulolytic index on CMC plate media. The highest cellulolytic index (2...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093484/mic-of-amoxicillin-clavulanate-according-to-clsi-and-eucast-discrepancies-and-clinical-impact-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-due-to-enterobacteriaceae
#13
Mercedes Delgado-Valverde, Adoración Valiente-Mendez, Eva Torres, Benito Almirante, Silvia Gómez-Zorrilla, Nuria Borrell, Ana Isabel Aller-García, Mercedes Gurgui, Manel Almela, Mercedes Sanz, Germán Bou, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Rafael Cantón, Jose Antonio Lepe, Manuel Causse, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
OBJECTIVES: To compare results of amoxicillin/clavulanate susceptibility testing using CLSI and EUCAST methodologies and to evaluate their impact on outcome in patients with bacteraemia caused by Enterobacteriaceae. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 13 Spanish hospitals. Patients with bacteraemia due to Enterobacteriaceae who received empirical intravenous amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment for at least 48 h were included...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091598/characterization-of-two-polyvalent-phages-infecting-enterobacteriaceae
#14
Sana Hamdi, Geneviève M Rousseau, Simon J Labrie, Denise M Tremblay, Rim Saïed Kourda, Karim Ben Slama, Sylvain Moineau
Bacteriophages display remarkable genetic diversity and host specificity. In this study, we explore phages infecting bacterial strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family because of their ability to infect related but distinct hosts. We isolated and characterized two novel virulent phages, SH6 and SH7, using a strain of Shigella flexneri as host bacterium. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that phage SH6 belongs to the T1virus genus of the Siphoviridae family. Conversely, phage SH7 was classified in the T4virus genus of the Myoviridae family...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089444/health-care-associated-infections-in-neonates-children-and-adolescents-an-analysis-of-paediatric-data-from-the-european-centre-for-disease-prevention-and-control-point-prevalence-survey
#15
Walter Zingg, Susan Hopkins, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Alison Holmes, Mike Sharland, Carl Suetens
BACKGROUND: In 2011-12, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) held the first Europe-wide point-prevalence survey of health-care-associated infections in acute care hospitals. We analysed paediatric data from this survey, aiming to calculate the prevalence and type of health-care-associated infections in children and adolescents in Europe and to determine risk factors for infection in this population. METHODS: Point-prevalence surveys took place from May, 2011, to November, 2012, in 1149 hospitals in EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, and Croatia...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089421/microbiology-and-treatment-of-brain-abscess
#16
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
Brain abscess is a focal pyogenic infection of the brain's parenchyma. The most frequent intracranial locations (in descending order of frequency) are: frontal-temporal, frontal-parietal, partial, cerebellar, and occipital lobes. The major predisposing factors are: an associated contiguous focus of infection, trauma, and hematogenous spread from a distant focus. The microbial etiology depends on the site of the primary infection; the patient's age, underlying condition, and immune status; and the geographic location...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088768/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-urinary-isolates-from-patients-in-a-phase-3-clinical-trial-programme-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#17
Gregory G Stone, Patricia A Bradford, Katrina Yates, Paul Newell
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam relative to comparator agents against Gram-negative isolates from a Phase 3 clinical trial programme for complicated urinary tract infections (RECAPTURE). METHODS: The in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam was evaluated against 840 Gram-negative pathogens isolated at baseline from 1033 randomized patients in two pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088418/laboratory-silo-type-and-inoculation-effects-on-nutritional-composition-fermentation-and-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-of-oat-silage
#18
J J Romero, Y Zhao, M A Balseca-Paredes, F Tiezzi, E Gutierrez-Rodriguez, M S Castillo
The objectives were to evaluate (1) the use of 2 types of experimental silos (S) to characterize whole-crop oat (Avena sativa L.) silage with or without addition of an inoculant (I), and (2) the effect of inoculation on the microbial community structure of oats ensiled using only plastic bucket silos (BKT). From each of 6 sections in a field, oats were harvested, treated (INO) or not (CON) with inoculant, packed into 19-L BKT or vacuum bags (BG), and ensiled for 217 d. The inoculant added contained Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus (4 × 10(5) and 1 × 10(5) cfu/g of fresh oats, respectively)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080212/heterogeneity-of-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-among-gram-negative-pathogens-in-lebanon-results-of-the-first-cross-sectional-countrywide-study
#19
Dalal Hammoudi Halat, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Dolla Karam Sarkis
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens have progressively disseminated to different countries worldwide, presenting a serious public health concern. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in Lebanon, to elucidate molecular mechanisms, and to identify genetic relatedness of incriminated strains. Carbapenem nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas were collected from 11 Lebanese hospitals in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed with phenotypic tests, genes encoding carbapenemases were screened via PCR-sequencing, and genetic relatedness was examined by PGFE and ERIC-PCR...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079369/muropeptide-binding-and-the-x-ray-structure-of-the-effector-domain-of-the-transcriptional-regulator-ampr-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
David A Dik, Teresa Domínguez-Gil, Mijoon Lee, Dusan Hesek, Byungjin Byun, Jennifer Fishovitz, Bill Boggess, Lance M Hellman, Jed F Fisher, Juan A Hermoso, Shahriar Mobashery
A complex link exists between cell-wall recycling/repair and the manifestation of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in many Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This process is mediated by specific cell-wall-derived muropeptide products. These muropeptides are internalized into the cytoplasm and bind to the transcriptional regulator AmpR, which controls the cytoplasmic events that lead to expression of β-lactamase, an antibiotic-resistance determinant. The effector-binding domain (EBD) of AmpR was purified to homogeneity...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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