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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338931/in-vitro-activity-of-eravacycline-against-2213-gram-negative-and-2424-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-in-canadian-hospital-laboratories-canward-surveillance-study-2014-2015
#1
George G Zhanel, Melanie R Baxter, Heather J Adam, Joyce Sutcliffe, James A Karlowsky
Gram-negative (n=2213) and Gram-positive (n=2424) pathogens isolated from patients in 13 Canadian hospitals in 2014 and 2015 were tested for in vitro susceptibility to eravacycline and comparators using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. The concentration of eravacycline inhibiting 90% of isolates (MIC90) ranged from 0.5 to 2μg/mL for 9 species of Enterobacteriaceae tested (n=2067). Eravacycline activity was largely unaffected by extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotypes in Escherichia coli (n=141) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=21)...
December 22, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336873/optimization-of-novel-monobactams-with-activity-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-identification-of-lys228
#2
Folkert Reck, Alun Bermingham, Johanne Blais, Vladimir Capka, Taryn Cariaga, Anthony Casarez, Richard Colvin, Charles R Dean, Alex Fekete, Wanben Gong, Ellie Growcott, Hongqiu Guo, Adriana K Jones, Cindy Li, Fengxia Li, Xiaodong Lin, Mika Lindvall, Sara Lopez, David McKenney, Louis Metzger, Heinz E Moser, Ramadevi Prathapam, Dita Rasper, Patrick Rudewicz, Vijay Sethuraman, Xiaoyu Shen, Jacob Shaul, Robert L Simmons, Kyuto Tashiro, Dazhi Tang, Meiliana Tjandra, Nancy Turner, Tsuyoshi Uehara, Charles Vitt, Steven Whitebread, Aregahegn Yifru, Xu Zang, Qingming Zhu
Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), such as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) have spread world-wide and present a serious threat. Expression of MBLs confers resistance in Gram-negative bacteria to all classes of β-lactam antibiotics, with the exception of monobactams, which are intrinsically stable to MBLs. However, existing first generation monobactam drugs like aztreonam have limited clinical utility against MBL-expressing strains because they are impacted by serine β-lactamases (SBLs), which are often co-expressed in clinical isolates...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331548/effect-of-outpatient-antibiotics-for-urinary-tract-infections-on-antimicrobial-resistance-among-commensal-enterobacteriaceae-a-multinational-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Andrew J Stewardson, Jascha Vervoort, Niels Adriaenssens, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Benedikt Huttner, Christine Lammens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Stephan Harbarth
OBJECTIVES: We quantified the impact of antibiotics prescribed in primary care for urinary tract infections (UTIs) on intestinal colonisation by ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-RE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), while accounting for household clustering. METHODS: Prospective cohort study from January 2011 to August 2013 at primary care sites in Belgium, Poland and Switzerland. We recruited outpatients requiring antibiotics for suspected UTIs or asymptomatic bacteriuria (exposed patients), outpatients not requiring antibiotics (non-exposed patients), and 1-3 household contacts for each patient...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330016/clinical-impact-of-delayed-catheter-removal-for-patients-with-central-venous-catheter-related-gram-negative-bacteremia
#4
Yu-Mi Lee, Chisook Moon, Young Jin Kim, Hee-Joo Lee, Mi Suk Lee, Ki-Ho Park
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly the cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), which show a rapidly rising prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. We evaluated the impact of delayed central venous catheter (CVC) removal on clinical outcomes in patients with gram-negative CRBSI. METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2016, patients with gram-negative bacteremia and CVC placement, from two tertiary care hospitals, were retrospectively included...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330015/mother-to-child-transmission-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#5
Dana Danino, Rimma Melamed, Batya Sterer, Nurith Porat, Guy Hazan, Alex Gushanski, Eilon Shany, David Greenberg, Avraham Borer
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at high risk for extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) sepsis and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) outbreaks. Maternal colonization with ESBL-E may be precursory to maternal-neonatal transmission. However, there is no consensus regarding surveillance of pregnant women for ESBL-E colonization. AIM: To identify pairs of mothers and offspring harbouring same-strain ESBL-E colonization and to determine whether maternal transmission may play a role in increasing ESBL-E carriage in preterm infants...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327645/identification-and-characterization-of-chitinolytic-bacteria-isolated-from-a-freshwater-lake
#6
Dinh Minh Tran, Hayuki Sugimoto, Dzung Anh Nguyen, Takeshi Watanabe, Kazushi Suzuki
To develop a novel type of biocontrol agent, we focus on bacteria that are characterized by both chitinase activity and biofilm development. Chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from sediments and chitin flakes immersed in the water of a sand dune lake, Sakata, in Niigata, Japan. Thirty-one isolates from more than 5100 isolated strains were examined chitinase activity and biofilm formation. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most isolates belonged to the family Aeromonadaceae, followed by Paenibacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseriaceae...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327131/renal-vein-thrombosis-complicating-severe-acute-pyelonephritis-with-renal-abscesses-and-associated-bacteraemia-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#7
Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Pantelis Kraniotis, Charalambos Gogos, Markos Marangos
Acute pyelonephritis might be complicated by the formation of renal and perirenal abscesses and very rarely by renal vein thrombosis, which is a life-threatening condition. The main causative agents of acute pyelonephritis are enterobacteriaceae with the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains increasing worldwide. We present the case of a 71-year-old Greek man with history of diabetes mellitus and recent hospitalization, who suffered from severe pyelonephritis with renal abscesses formation and associated bacteraemia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, complicated by extensive thrombosis of the ipsilateral renal vein and its branches, protruding also in the inferior venal cava...
January 11, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326011/neonatal-intestinal-colonization-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-five-year-follow-up-study
#8
V Nordberg, K Jonsson, C G Giske, A Iversen, O Aspevall, B Jonsson, A Camporeale, M Norman, L Navér
OBJECTIVE: To analyse Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) isolates from an outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing KP and Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) among infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to determine the duration of the intestinal colonization. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of intestinal ESBL-KP/ ESBL-EC colonized neonates after a five-month outbreak in two NICUs. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), core genome MLST, pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for blaCTX-M were performed on the first isolates...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325882/pathophysiology-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-respective-contribution-of-pathogenicity-islands-to-virulence
#9
Mathilde Phillips-Houlbracq, Jean-Damien Ricard, Arnaud Foucrier, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Stéphane Gaudry, Julie Bex, Jonathan Messika, Dimitri Margetis, Jérémie Chatel, Ulrich Dobrindt, Erick Denamur, Damien Roux
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. coli virulence in urinary tract or systemic infections, very little is known regarding pathophysiology of E. coli pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the role of each of the 7 PAIs present in pathogenic E. coli strain 536 in pneumonia pathophysiology. We used mutant strains to screen pathophysiological role of PAI in a rat pneumonia model...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325762/assessment-of-in-vivo-efficacy-of-eravacycline-against-enterobacteriaceae-exhibiting-various-resistance-mechanisms-a-dose-ranging-study-and-pk-pd-analysis
#10
Abrar K Thabit, Marguerite L Monogue, Joseph V Newman, David P Nicolau
After the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of eravacycline as a novel fluorocycline was defined, understanding its pharmacodynamic (PD) profile became essential. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of the PK/PD index of the area under free drug concentration-time curve above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC/MIC) and its magnitude with eravacycline's efficacy against Enterobacteriaceae isolates using the immunocompetent murine thigh infection model to resemble the immunocompetent environment in eravacycline's clinical trials...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325038/the-crispr-cas-system-in-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Liliana Medina-Aparicio, Sonia Dávila, Javier E Rebollar-Flores, Edmundo Calva, Ismael Hernández-Lucas
In nature, microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiple viral infections and thus have developed many strategies to survive phage attack and invasion by foreign DNA. One of such strategies is the CRISPR-Cas bacterial immunological system. This defense mechanism is widespread in prokaryotes including several families such as Enterobacteriaceae. Much knowledge about the CRISPR-Cas system has been generated, including its biological functions, transcriptional regulation, distribution, utility as a molecular marker, and as a tool for specific genome editing...
January 9, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323293/precision-editing-of-the-gut-microbiota-ameliorates-colitis
#12
Wenhan Zhu, Maria G Winter, Mariana X Byndloss, Luisella Spiga, Breck A Duerkop, Elizabeth R Hughes, Lisa Büttner, Everton de Lima Romão, Cassie L Behrendt, Christopher A Lopez, Luis Sifuentes-Dominguez, Kayci Huff-Hardy, R Paul Wilson, Caroline C Gillis, Çagla Tükel, Andrew Y Koh, Ezra Burstein, Lora V Hooper, Andreas J Bäumler, Sebastian E Winter
Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are frequently associated with dysbiosis, characterized by changes in gut microbial communities that include an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family (phylum Proteobacteria). Here we show that a dysbiotic expansion of Enterobacteriaceae during gut inflammation could be prevented by tungstate treatment, which selectively inhibited molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways that are operational only during episodes of inflammation...
January 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322236/-urosepsis
#13
Mathias W Pletz, Sebastian Weis, Christina Forstner, Florian Wagenlehner
Urosepsis is defined as a severe disease due to organ failure caused by a urinary tract infection. An empirical antibiotic therapy should be instigated within the first hour after diagnosis. Urine cultures and blood cultures should be performed before antibiotic treatment. Further diagnostics should be carried out at an early stage to enable an interventional focus control in the case of urinary tract obstruction or abscess formation, if necessary. Gram-negative pathogens are most frequently isolated. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) forming bacteria as a cause of urosepsis are increasing...
January 10, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319622/a-high-portal-venous-pressure-gradient-increases-gut-related-bacteremia-and-consequent-early-mortality-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#14
Siyuan Yao, Shintaro Yagi, Ryuji Uozumi, Taku Iida, Miki Nagao, Yusuke Okamura, Takayuki Anazawa, Hideaki Okajima, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension (PHT) is defined as a portal venous pressure gradient (PVPG) exceeding 5 mmHg, which results in severe clinical manifestations. However, the validity of intraoperative PVPG monitoring and the association between PHT and bacterial translocation (BT) after liver transplantation remain unclear. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 223 patients who underwent primary adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) from 2008 to 2015 were divided into 2 groups based on the PVPG at the end of the operation: high PVPG (>5 mmHg, n=69) and low PVPG (≤5 mmHg, n=154)...
January 10, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319519/analyses-of-plasmids-harbouring-quinolone-resistance-determinants-in-enterobacteriaceae-members
#15
Bayri Erac, Fethiye Ferda Yilmaz, Ismail Ozturk, Sabire Sohret Aydemir, Mine Hosgor-Limoncu
The aim of this study was to explore the plasmid characteristics of eight clinical Enterobacteriaceae strains containing extended broad spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Plasmids were transferred by conjugation or transformation and resistance determinants were investigated by PCR. We showed that at least one plasmid harbouring qnrB or qnrS determinant was transferred by conjugation in five isolates. QepA determinant was confirmed to be on a non-conjugative plasmid. We found at least one beta-lactamase gene in seven of the eight clinical isolates having plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which indicated that these two resistance determinants were mostly on the same conjugative plasmids...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318461/ceftriaxone-promotes-the-emergence-of-ampc-overproducing-enterobacteriaceae-in-gut-microbiota-from-hospitalized-patients
#16
Victoire de Lastours, Tiphaine Goulenok, François Guérin, Hervé Jacquier, Cindy Eyma, Françoise Chau, Vincent Cattoir, Bruno Fantin
Epidemiological data suggest that ceftriaxone may promote the emergence of commensal AmpC-overproducing Enterobacteriaceae because of a high biliary excretion. We tested this hypothesis in hospitalized patients either treated by ceftriaxone alone or receiving no antibiotics. Hospitalized patients with no previous antibiotics or hospitalization in the last 3 months, treated only with ceftriaxone, were prospectively included. For each ceftriaxone-treated patient, a control patient receiving no antibiotics was included...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317840/an-antibiotic-stewardship-exercise-in-the-icu-building-a-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-based-on-local-epidemiology-and-the-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#17
Lyn S Awad, Dania I Abdallah, Anas M Mugharbil, Tamima H Jisr, Nabila S Droubi, Nabila A El-Rajab, Rima A Moghnieh
Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#18
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313570/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-urinary-tract-enterobacteriaceae
#19
Bhargav Patel, Kinjal Patel, Anjali Shetty, Rajeev Soman, Camilla Rodrigues
Introduction: Antibiotic treatment of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) is becoming increasingly difficult due to emergence of multi-drug resistant (ESBLs, AmpC, CRE) uropathogens. Fosfomycin is an old antibiotic that has evoked renewed interest with unique properties of not sharing any structural similarity and lack of cross-resistance with other antimicrobial agents. Our aim is to evaluate in-vitro activity of Fosfomycin against urinary tract Enterobacteriaceae. Material & Methods: The study period was March 2014 to September 2015...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312831/translating-genomics-into-practice-for-real-time-surveillance-and-response-to-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-evidence-from-a-complex-multi-institutional-kpc-outbreak
#20
Jason C Kwong, Courtney R Lane, Finn Romanes, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Marion Easton, Katie Cronin, Mary Jo Waters, Takehiro Tomita, Kerrie Stevens, Mark B Schultz, Sarah L Baines, Norelle L Sherry, Glen P Carter, Andre Mu, Michelle Sait, Susan A Ballard, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
Background: Until recently, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were rarely identified in Australia. Following an increase in the number of incident cases across the state of Victoria, we undertook a real-time combined genomic and epidemiological investigation. The scope of this study included identifying risk factors and routes of transmission, and investigating the utility of genomics to enhance traditional field epidemiology for informing management of established widespread outbreaks...
2018: PeerJ
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