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Circulating biomarker AND neuronal disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853370/apoptotic-neuron-secreted-hn12-inhibits-cell-apoptosis-in-hirschsprung-s-disease
#1
Chunxia Du, Hua Xie, Rujin Zang, Ziyang Shen, Hongxing Li, Pingfa Chen, Xiaoqun Xu, Yankai Xia, Weibing Tang
Perturbation in apoptosis can lead to Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), which is a genetic disorder of neural crest development. It is believed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a role in the progression of HSCR. This study shows that apoptotic neurons can suppress apoptosis of nonapoptotic cells by secreting exosomes that contain high levels of HN12 lncRNA. Elevated exogenous HN12 in nonapoptotic cells effectively inhibited cell apoptosis by maintaining the function of mitochondria, including the production of ATP and the release of cytochrome C...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702572/acute-high-intensity-noise-induces-rapid-arc-protein-expression-but-fails-to-rapidly-change-gad-expression-in-amygdala-and-hippocampus-of-rats-effects-of-treatment-with-d-cycloserine
#2
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381850/an-overview-of-circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-putative-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#3
Meire Silva Batistela, Nalini Drieli Josviak, Carla Daniela Sulzbach, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues de Souza
Circulating cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are stable in many biological fluids and their expression profiles can suffer changes under different physiological and pathological conditions. In the last few years, miRNAs have been proposed as putative noninvasive biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment for several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive and/or motor impairments are usually considered for establishing clinical diagnosis, and at this stage, the majority of the neurons may already be lost making difficult attempts of novel therapies...
July 6, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213890/anti-gapdh-autoantibodies-as-a-pathogenic-determinant-and-potential-biomarker-of-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#4
Federica Delunardo, Denise Soldati, Veronica Bellisario, Alessandra Berry, Serena Camerini, Marco Crescenzi, Cristiano Alessandri, Fabrizio Conti, Fulvia Ceccarelli, Ada Francia, Guido Valesini, Francesca Cirulli, Alberto Siracusano, Alessandra Siracusano, Cinzia Niolu, Ivo Alex Rubino, Elena Ortona, Paola Margutti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of circulating autoantibodies specific to neuronal cell surface antigens in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: We performed two different kinds of immunoscreening approaches using sera from patients with schizophrenia to identify autoantigens associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Then, we tested the presence of autoantibodies specific to the identified autoantigen in patients with various psychiatric disorders and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with neuropsychiatric manifestations...
May 23, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092176/mini-review-circular-rnas-as-potential-clinical-biomarkers-for-disorders-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Dan Lu, An-Ding Xu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), produced in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. They are more stable than linear RNAs, and possess spatio-temporal properties. CircRNAs do not distribute equally in the neuronal compartments in the brain, but largely enriched in the synapses. These ncRNA species can be used as potential clinical biomarkers in complex disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), which is supported by recent findings. For example, ciRS-7 was found to be a natural microRNAs sponge for miRNA-7 and regulate Parkinson's disease/Alzheimer's disease-related genes; circPAIP2 is an intron-retaining circRNA which upregulates memory-related parental genes PAIP2 to affect memory development through PABP reactivation...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608203/circulating-micrornas-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Margherita Grasso, Paola Piscopo, Alessio Crestini, Annamaria Confaloni, Michela A Denti
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are caused by a combination of events that impair normal neuronal function. Although they are considered different disorders, there are overlapping features among them from the clinical, pathological, and genetic points of view. Synaptic dysfunction and loss, neurite retraction, and the appearance of other abnormalities such as axonal transport defects normally precede the neuronal loss that is a relatively late event...
2015: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351920/what-can-lipidomics-tell-us-about-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-disease
#7
REVIEW
Yanhui Xiang, Sin Man Lam, Guanghou Shui
Lipids serve many distinct functions in cellular homeostasis such as membrane organization, as a platform for membrane function and protein/protein or protein/lipid interaction, energy storage, as well as secondary messengers in signal transduction. Perturbations in lipid homeostasis may result in abnormal cellular function. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the brain represents the primary site of pathology. While there is a plethora of previous work pertaining to AD pathogenesis, the precise mechanism of the disease is still not well-understood...
December 2015: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25801186/hsp60-response-in-experimental-and-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Antonella Marino Gammazza, Roberto Colangeli, Gergely Orban, Massimo Pierucci, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Margherita Lo Bello, Alfredo D'Aniello, Fabio Bucchieri, Cristoforo Pomara, Mario Valentino, Richard Muscat, Arcangelo Benigno, Giovanni Zummo, Everly Conway de Macario, Francesco Cappello, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Alberto J L Macario
The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25704308/extracellular-vesicles-their-role-in-the-packaging-and-spread-of-misfolded-proteins-associated-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Bradley M Coleman, Andrew F Hill
Many cell types, including neurons, are known to release small membranous vesicles known as exosomes. In addition to their protein content these vesicles have recently been shown to contain messenger RNA (mRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA) species. Roles for these vesicles include cell-cell signalling, removal of unwanted proteins, and transfer of pathogens (including prion-like misfolded proteins) between cells, such as infectious prions. Prions are the infectious particles that are responsible for transmissible neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) of humans or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle...
April 2015: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25002850/metabolic-and-hormonal-signatures-in-pre-manifest-and-manifest-huntington-s-disease-patients
#10
Rui Wang, Christopher A Ross, Huan Cai, Wei-Na Cong, Caitlin M Daimon, Olga D Carlson, Josephine M Egan, Sana Siddiqui, Stuart Maudsley, Bronwen Martin
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder typified by involuntary body movements, and psychiatric and cognitive abnormalities. Many HD patients also exhibit metabolic changes including progressive weight loss and appetite dysfunction. Here we have investigated metabolic function in pre-manifest and manifest HD subjects to establish an HD subject metabolic hormonal plasma signature. Individuals at risk for HD who have had predictive genetic testing showing the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) expansion causative of HD, but who do not yet present signs and symptoms sufficient for the diagnosis of manifest HD are said to be "pre-manifest...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24973986/causes-and-consequences-of-microrna-dysregulation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Lin Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), originate from a loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and are severely debilitating. The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases increases with age, and they are expected to become more common due to extended life expectancy. Because of no clear mechanisms, these diseases have become a major challenge in neurobiology. It is well recognized that these disorders become the culmination of many different genetic and environmental influences...
2015: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24858274/circulating-mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Margherita Grasso, Paola Piscopo, Annamaria Confaloni, Michela A Denti
Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and frontotemporal dementias (FTD), are considered distinct entities, however, there is increasing evidence of an overlap from the clinical, pathological and genetic points of view. All neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by neuronal loss and death in specific areas of the brain, for example, hippocampus and cortex for AD, midbrain for PD, frontal and temporal lobes for FTD. Loss of neurons is a relatively late event in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases that is typically preceded by other events such as metabolic changes, synaptic dysfunction and loss, neurite retraction, and the appearance of other abnormalities, such as axonal transport defects...
2014: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24346689/the-acute-phase-protein-ptx3-is-an-essential-mediator-of-glial-scar-formation-and-resolution-of-brain-edema-after-ischemic-injury
#13
Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Matimba Swana, Loan Nguyen, Pavlos Englezou, Samaneh Maysami, Stuart M Allan, Nancy J Rothwell, Cecilia Garlanda, Adam Denes, Emmanuel Pinteaux
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are key effectors of the immune response and are routinely used as biomarkers in cerebrovascular diseases, but their role during brain inflammation remains largely unknown. Elevated circulating levels of the acute-phase protein pentraxin-3 (PTX3) are associated with worse outcome in stroke patients. Here we show that PTX3 is expressed in neurons and glia in response to cerebral ischemia, and that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key driver of PTX3 expression in the brain after experimental stroke...
March 2014: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23633081/circulating-micrornas-a-novel-class-of-potential-biomarkers-for-diagnosing-and-prognosing-central-nervous-system-diseases
#14
Xue-Feng Jin, Ning Wu, Lv Wang, Jin Li
As a class of important endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in many physiological and pathological processes. It is believed that miRNAs contribute to the development, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of the neurons, and their dysregulation has been linked to a series of diseases. MiRNAs exist in the tissues and as circulating miRNAs in several body fluids, including plasma or serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and saliva...
July 2013: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22956050/brain-resuscitation-in-the-drowning-victim
#15
REVIEW
Alexis A Topjian, Robert A Berg, Joost J L M Bierens, Christine M Branche, Robert S Clark, Hans Friberg, Cornelia W E Hoedemaekers, Michael Holzer, Laurence M Katz, Johannes T A Knape, Patrick M Kochanek, Vinay Nadkarni, Johannes G van der Hoeven, David S Warner
Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. Survivors may sustain severe neurologic morbidity. There is negligible research specific to brain injury in drowning making current clinical management non-specific to this disorder. This review represents an evidence-based consensus effort to provide recommendations for management and investigation of the drowning victim. Epidemiology, brain-oriented prehospital and intensive care, therapeutic hypothermia, neuroimaging/monitoring, biomarkers, and neuroresuscitative pharmacology are addressed...
December 2012: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22094370/cardiovascular-dysautonomia-in-parkinson-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Samay Jain, David S Goldstein
Signs or symptoms of impaired autonomic regulation of circulation often attend Parkinson disease (PD). This review covers biomarkers and mechanisms of autonomic cardiovascular abnormalities in PD and related alpha-synucleinopathies. The clearest clinical laboratory correlate of dysautonomia in PD is loss of myocardial noradrenergic innervation, detected by cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging. About 30-40% of PD patients have orthostatic hypotension (OH), defined as a persistent, consistent fall in systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mmHg within 3 min of change in position from supine to standing...
June 2012: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21898045/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-alzheimer-s-disease-physiopathology-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Breno Satler Diniz, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed neurotrophin in the central nervous system where it plays several pivotal roles in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. As a consequence, BDNF became a key target in the physiopathology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Recent studies have reported altered levels of BDNF in the circulation, i.e. serum or plasma, of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and low BDNF levels in the CSF as predictor of future cognitive decline in healthy older subjects...
December 2011: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21515244/oxysterols-as-biomarkers-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Valerio Leoni, Claudio Caccia
In the central nervous system cholesterol is involved in membrane structure and function. Since the blood-brain barrier efficiently prevents cholesterol uptake from the circulation, de novo synthesis is responsible for almost all cholesterol present there. In mature brain neurons down regulate their cholesterol synthesis and rely on delivery from ApoE lipoproteins secreted by astrocytes. ApoE transcription is regulated by 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC) released by neurons, via LXR. In order to maintain homeostasis, excess of cholesterol is converted into 24OHC by the neuronal specific cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1)...
September 2011: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21256154/micrornas-meta-controllers-of-gene-expression-in-synaptic-activity-emerge-as-genetic-and-diagnostic-markers-of-human-disease
#19
REVIEW
Stephanie Ceman, Julie Saugstad
MicroRNAs are members of the non-protein-coding family of RNAs. They serve as regulators of gene expression by modulating the translation and/or stability of messenger RNA targets. The discovery of microRNAs has revolutionized the field of cell biology, and has permanently altered the prevailing view of a linear relationship between gene and protein expression. The increased complexity of gene regulation is both exciting and daunting, as emerging evidence supports a pervasive role for microRNAs in virtually every cellular process...
April 2011: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21133708/circulating-levels-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-correlation-with-mood-cognition-and-motor-function
#20
Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Izabela GuimarĂ£es Barbosa, Breno Satler Diniz, Arthur Kummer
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed neurotrophin in the CNS, where it plays several pivotal roles in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. As a consequence, BDNF has become a key target in the physiopathology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Recent studies have consistently reported altered levels of BDNF in the circulation (i.e., serum or plasma) of patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease...
December 2010: Biomarkers in Medicine
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