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Circulating biomarker AND neuronal disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663736/platelets-lymphocytes-and-erythrocytes-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-the-quest-for-blood-cell-based-biomarkers
#1
Ryszard Pluta, Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Sławomir Januszewski, Stanisław J Czuczwar
In elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder and accounts for about 70% of all cases of dementia. The neurodegenerative processes of this disease start presumably 20 years ahead of the clinical beginning of the disorder. The postmortem histopathological examination, brains from Alzheimer's disease patients with characteristic features like amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal and synaptic disintegration confirm the final diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609960/autoimmune-encephalitis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
J Honnorat, L O Plazat
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) refers to a rare, newly described, group of diseases associated with specific circulating autoantibodies directed against neuronal proteins used as biomarkers of the disease. Characterization of the associated autoantibodies present in the patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or sera can differentiate the various AE subgroups, which have specific clinical presentations and prognoses, and is therefore essential for proposing appropriate treatments. As psychiatric symptoms may predominate at the onset or over the course of these diseases, the diagnosis is frequently delayed...
March 30, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478670/looking-for-novel-brain-derived-peripheral-biomarkers-of-neurological-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Natalia Chmielewska, Janusz Szyndler, Karolina Makowska, Dawid Wojtyna, Piotr Maciejak, Adam Płaźnik
The role of blood brain barrier (BBB) is to preserve a precisely regulated environment for proper neuronal signaling. In many of the central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, the function of BBB is altered. Thus, there is a necessity to evaluate a fast, noninvasive and reliable method for monitoring of BBB condition. It seems that revealing the peripheral diagnostic biomarker whose release pattern (concentration, dynamics) will be correlated with clinical symptoms of neurological disorders offers significant hope...
February 13, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377008/blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-in-alzheimer-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Melanie D Sweeney, Abhay P Sagare, Berislav V Zlokovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a continuous endothelial membrane within brain microvessels that has sealed cell-to-cell contacts and is sheathed by mural vascular cells and perivascular astrocyte end-feet. The BBB protects neurons from factors present in the systemic circulation and maintains the highly regulated CNS internal milieu, which is required for proper synaptic and neuronal functioning. BBB disruption allows influx into the brain of neurotoxic blood-derived debris, cells and microbial pathogens and is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, which can initiate multiple pathways of neurodegeneration...
March 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964753/dysregulated-micrornas-in-neural-system-implication-in-pathogenesis-and-biomarker-development-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jiangkun Lu, Yan Xu, Zhenzhen Quan, Zixuan Chen, Zhenzhen Sun, Hong Qing
Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by the progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra, leading to clinical motor symptoms. The factors involved in PD are rather multifaceted. There are many cellular pathways contributing to its neuro-pathogenesis, which include abnormal protein aggregation, impaired ubiquitin proteasome system, autophagy, and neuroinflammation. However, despite years of investigation, still little is known about early events in the molecular pathogenesis...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709951/microrna-basic-concepts-and-implications-for-regeneration-and-repair-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Cláudia Saraiva, Marta Esteves, Liliana Bernardino
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding molecules that revolutionized our knowledge about the regulation of gene expression. Capable to target a large number of mRNA, miRNA are thought to regulate around 30% of the entire human genome. Therefore, these molecules are able to regulate several biological processes, including neuronal survival, differentiation and regeneration. Additionally, miRNA might act as valuable clinical agents in brain pathological conditions. Their specific expression patterns in the brain parenchyma and/or in circulating fluids have been highlighted as potential biomarkers, while the modulation of their activity may have therapeutic value for several neurodegenerative diseases...
October 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624842/increased-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-cellular-responses-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-search-for-a-disease-indicator
#7
Likun Yang, Changfeng Guo, Jie Zhu, Yi Feng, Weiliang Chen, Zhizhong Feng, Dan Wang, Shibai Sun, Wei Lin, Yuhai Wang
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and it arises when most of the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra region die. Several mechanisms have been postulated as the causative event in PD pathology, and neuroinflammation is most crucial among them. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) from 80 PD patients to assess inflammatory processes and to find a cost-effective means to evaluate PD prognosis...
June 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598268/effects-of-pulmonary-exposure-to-chemically-distinct-welding-fumes-on-neuroendocrine-markers-of-toxicity
#8
K Krajnak, K Sriram, C Johnson, J R Roberts, R Mercer, G R Miller, O Wirth, J M Antonini
Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595552/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-cardiometabolic-diseases-and-related-complications
#9
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takanori Matsui
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, serpins. It was first identified as a neuronal differentiating factor secreted by human retinal pigment epithelial cells, and then found to be the most potent inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis in mammalian eyes. Recently, PEDF has been shown not only to suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in vascular wall cells, T cells and macrophages, and adipocytes, but also to exert anti-thrombotic and anti-fibrotic properties, thereby protecting against the development and progression of various cardiometabolic diseases and related complications...
June 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454844/serum-mirnas-mir-206-143-3p-and-374b-5p-as-potential-biomarkers-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als
#10
Rachel Waller, Emily F Goodall, Marta Milo, Jonathan Cooper-Knock, Marc Da Costa, Esther Hobson, Mbombe Kazoka, Helen Wollff, Paul R Heath, Pamela J Shaw, Janine Kirby
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, neurodegenerative condition characterized by loss of motor neurones and progressive muscle wasting. There is no diagnostic test for ALS therefore robust biomarkers would not only be valuable for diagnosis, but also for the classification of disease subtypes, monitoring responses to drugs and tracking disease progression. As regulators of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in various disease states with increasing exploration in neurodegenerative disorders...
July 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#11
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322921/linking-deregulation-of-non-coding-rna-to-the-core-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-integrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Mark J Millan
The human genome encodes a vast repertoire of protein non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), some specific to the brain. MicroRNAs, which interfere with the translation of target mRNAs, are of particular interest since their deregulation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains challenging to link the complex body of observations on miRNAs and AD into a coherent framework. Using extensive graphical support, this article discusses how a diverse panoply of miRNAs convergently and divergently impact (and are impacted by) core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; aberrant generation of β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42); anomalies in the production, cleavage and post-translational marking of Tau; impaired clearance of Aβ42 and Tau; perturbation of axonal organisation; disruption of synaptic plasticity; endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response; mitochondrial dysfunction; aberrant induction of cell cycle re-entry; and apoptotic loss of neurons...
September 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853370/apoptotic-neuron-secreted-hn12-inhibits-cell-apoptosis-in-hirschsprung-s-disease
#13
Chunxia Du, Hua Xie, Rujin Zang, Ziyang Shen, Hongxing Li, Pingfa Chen, Xiaoqun Xu, Yankai Xia, Weibing Tang
Perturbation in apoptosis can lead to Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), which is a genetic disorder of neural crest development. It is believed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a role in the progression of HSCR. This study shows that apoptotic neurons can suppress apoptosis of nonapoptotic cells by secreting exosomes that contain high levels of HN12 lncRNA. Elevated exogenous HN12 in nonapoptotic cells effectively inhibited cell apoptosis by maintaining the function of mitochondria, including the production of ATP and the release of cytochrome C...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702572/acute-high-intensity-noise-induces-rapid-arc-protein-expression-but-fails-to-rapidly-change-gad-expression-in-amygdala-and-hippocampus-of-rats-effects-of-treatment-with-d-cycloserine
#14
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
December 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381850/an-overview-of-circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-putative-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Meire Silva Batistela, Nalini Drieli Josviak, Carla Daniela Sulzbach, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues de Souza
Circulating cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are stable in many biological fluids and their expression profiles can suffer changes under different physiological and pathological conditions. In the last few years, miRNAs have been proposed as putative noninvasive biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment for several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive and/or motor impairments are usually considered for establishing clinical diagnosis, and at this stage, the majority of the neurons may already be lost making difficult attempts of novel therapies...
June 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213890/anti-gapdh-autoantibodies-as-a-pathogenic-determinant-and-potential-biomarker-of-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#16
Federica Delunardo, Denise Soldati, Veronica Bellisario, Alessandra Berry, Serena Camerini, Marco Crescenzi, Cristiano Alessandri, Fabrizio Conti, Fulvia Ceccarelli, Ada Francia, Guido Valesini, Francesca Cirulli, Alberto Siracusano, Alessandra Siracusano, Cinzia Niolu, Ivo Alex Rubino, Elena Ortona, Paola Margutti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of circulating autoantibodies specific to neuronal cell surface antigens in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: Two different kinds of immunoscreening approaches were used to identify autoantigens associated with neuropsychiatric disorders in the serum of patients with schizophrenia. The presence of autoantibodies specific to the identified autoantigens was then tested in patients with various psychiatric disorders and in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant neuropsychiatric manifestations...
November 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092176/mini-review-circular-rnas-as-potential-clinical-biomarkers-for-disorders-in-the-central-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Dan Lu, An-Ding Xu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), produced in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. They are more stable than linear RNAs, and possess spatio-temporal properties. CircRNAs do not distribute equally in the neuronal compartments in the brain, but largely enriched in the synapses. These ncRNA species can be used as potential clinical biomarkers in complex disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), which is supported by recent findings. For example, ciRS-7 was found to be a natural microRNAs sponge for miRNA-7 and regulate Parkinson's disease/Alzheimer's disease-related genes; circPAIP2 is an intron-retaining circRNA which upregulates memory-related parental genes PAIP2 to affect memory development through PABP reactivation...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608203/circulating-micrornas-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Margherita Grasso, Paola Piscopo, Alessio Crestini, Annamaria Confaloni, Michela A Denti
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are caused by a combination of events that impair normal neuronal function. Although they are considered different disorders, there are overlapping features among them from the clinical, pathological, and genetic points of view. Synaptic dysfunction and loss, neurite retraction, and the appearance of other abnormalities such as axonal transport defects normally precede the neuronal loss that is a relatively late event...
2015: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351920/what-can-lipidomics-tell-us-about-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-disease
#19
REVIEW
Yanhui Xiang, Sin Man Lam, Guanghou Shui
Lipids serve many distinct functions in cellular homeostasis such as membrane organization, as a platform for membrane function and protein/protein or protein/lipid interaction, energy storage, as well as secondary messengers in signal transduction. Perturbations in lipid homeostasis may result in abnormal cellular function. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the brain represents the primary site of pathology. While there is a plethora of previous work pertaining to AD pathogenesis, the precise mechanism of the disease is still not well-understood...
December 2015: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25801186/hsp60-response-in-experimental-and-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Antonella Marino Gammazza, Roberto Colangeli, Gergely Orban, Massimo Pierucci, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Margherita Lo Bello, Alfredo D'Aniello, Fabio Bucchieri, Cristoforo Pomara, Mario Valentino, Richard Muscat, Arcangelo Benigno, Giovanni Zummo, Everly Conway de Macario, Francesco Cappello, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Alberto J L Macario
The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE...
2015: Scientific Reports
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