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Kiran Aslam, Chai-Jui Tsai, Tony R Hazbun
The yeast homolog of DJ-1, Hsp31, is a multifunctional protein that is involved in several cellular pathways including detoxification of the toxic metabolite methylglyoxal and as a protein deglycase. Prior studies ascribed Hsp31 as a molecular chaperone that can inhibit α-Syn aggregation in vitro and alleviate its toxicity in vivo. It was also shown that Hsp31 inhibits Sup35 aggregate formation in yeast, however, it is unknown if Hsp31 can modulate [PSI(+)] phenotype and Sup35 prionogenesis. Other small heat shock proteins, Hsp26 and Hsp42 are known to be a part of a synergistic proteostasis network that inhibits Sup35 prion formation and promotes its disaggregation...
October 3, 2016: Prion
Rajesh Kumar, Peter P Nawroth, Jens Tyedmers
Aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Sequestration of misfolded and aggregated proteins into specialized deposition sites may reduce their potentially detrimental properties. Yeast exhibits a distinct deposition site for amyloid aggregates termed "Insoluble PrOtein Deposit (IPOD)", but nothing is known about the mechanism of substrate recruitment to this site. The IPOD is located directly adjacent to the Phagophore Assembly Site (PAS) where the cell initiates autophagy and the Cytoplasm-to-Vacuole Targeting (CVT) pathway destined for delivery of precursor peptidases to the vacuole...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Marc Blondel, Flavie Soubigou, Justine Evrard, Phu Hai Nguyen, Naushaba Hasin, Stéphane Chédin, Reynald Gillet, Marie-Astrid Contesse, Gaëlle Friocourt, Guillaume Stahl, Gary W Jones, Cécile Voisset
6AP and GA are potent inhibitors of yeast and mammalian prions and also specific inhibitors of PFAR, the protein-folding activity borne by domain V of the large rRNA of the large subunit of the ribosome. We therefore explored the link between PFAR and yeast prion [PSI(+)] using both PFAR-enriched mutants and site-directed methylation. We demonstrate that PFAR is involved in propagation and de novo formation of [PSI(+)]. PFAR and the yeast heat-shock protein Hsp104 partially compensate each other for [PSI(+)] propagation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eva Kummer, Anna Szlachcic, Kamila B Franke, Sophia Ungelenk, Bernd Bukau, Axel Mogk
Escherichia coli ClpB and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp104 are members of the Hsp100 family of ring-forming hexameric AAA+ chaperones that promote the solubilization of aggregated proteins and the propagation of prions. ClpB and Hsp104 cooperate with cognate Hsp70 chaperones for substrate targeting and activation of ATPase and substrate threading, achieved by transient Hsp70 binding to the repressing ClpB/Hsp104 M-domain. Fundamental differences in ATPase regulation and disaggregation mechanisms have been reported; however, these differences are raising doubts regarding the working principle of this AAA+ chaperone...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Koki Itooka, Kazuo Takahashi, Shingo Izawa
Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) has potential to be utilized as an alternative method for sterilization in food industries without thermal damage or toxic residues. In contrast to the bactericidal effects of CAP, information regarding the efficacy of CAP against eukaryotic microorganisms is very limited. Therefore, herein we investigated the effects of CAP on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a focus on the cellular response to CAP. The CAP treatment caused oxidative stress responses including the nuclear accumulation of the oxidative stress responsive transcription factor Yap1, mitochondrial fragmentation, and enhanced intracellular oxidation...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Joanna Kaminska, Weronika Rzepnikowska, Anna Polak, Krzysztof Flis, Piotr Soczewka, Katarzyna Bala, Marzena Sienko, Marcin Grynberg, Pawel Kaliszewski, Agnieszka Urbanek, Kathryn Ayscough, Teresa Zoladek
Human Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase, or its variants, inhibit yeast cell growth by disturbing the actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, and lead to an increase in levels of ubiquitinated proteins. In a screen for multicopy suppressors which rescue growth of yeast cells producing Nedd4 ligase with an inactive WW4 domain (Nedd4w4), we identified a fragment of ATG2 gene encoding part of the Atg2 core autophagy protein. Expression of the Atg2-C1 fragment (aa 1074-1447) improved growth, actin cytoskeleton organization, but did not significantly change the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in these cells...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jin Hou, Chunlei Jiao, Bo Peng, Yu Shen, Xiaoming Bao
Economically feasible bioconversion of lignocelluloses into fuels and chemicals is dependent on efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, including hextose and pentose. Previously, we constructed a xylose fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through metabolic engineering and enhanced its xylose utilization capability through evolutionary engineering. However, the key mechanism of improved xylose utilization and xylose isomerase activity was not identified. In this study, we applied the concept of inverse metabolic engineering to identify the factors involved in improving xylose utilization...
August 4, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Adam L Yokom, Stephanie N Gates, Meredith E Jackrel, Korrie L Mack, Min Su, James Shorter, Daniel R Southworth
Hsp104, a conserved AAA+ protein disaggregase, promotes survival during cellular stress. Hsp104 remodels amyloids, thereby supporting prion propagation, and disassembles toxic oligomers associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, a definitive structural mechanism for its disaggregase activity has remained elusive. We determined the cryo-EM structure of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp104 in the ATP state, revealing a near-helical hexamer architecture that coordinates the mechanical power of the 12 AAA+ domains for disaggregation...
September 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Sandra Malmgren Hill, Xinxin Hao, Johan Grönvall, Stephanie Spikings-Nordby, Per O Widlund, Triana Amen, Anna Jörhov, Rebecca Josefson, Daniel Kaganovich, Beidong Liu, Thomas Nyström
Age can be reset during mitosis in both yeast and stem cells to generate a young daughter cell from an aged and deteriorated one. This phenomenon requires asymmetry-generating genes (AGGs) that govern the asymmetrical inheritance of aggregated proteins. Using a genome-wide imaging screen to identify AGGs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a previously unknown role for endocytosis, vacuole fusion, and the myosin-dependent adaptor protein Vac17 in asymmetrical inheritance of misfolded proteins. Overproduction of Vac17 increases deposition of aggregates into cytoprotective vacuole-associated sites, counteracts age-related breakdown of endocytosis and vacuole integrity, and extends replicative lifespan...
July 19, 2016: Cell Reports
Sarah Hanzén, Katarina Vielfort, Junsheng Yang, Friederike Roger, Veronica Andersson, Sara Zamarbide-Forés, Rebecca Andersson, Lisa Malm, Gael Palais, Benoît Biteau, Beidong Liu, Michel B Toledano, Mikael Molin, Thomas Nyström
Caloric restriction (CR) extends the lifespan of flies, worms, and yeast by counteracting age-related oxidation of H2O2-scavenging peroxiredoxins (Prxs). Here, we show that increased dosage of the major cytosolic Prx in yeast, Tsa1, extends lifespan in an Hsp70 chaperone-dependent and CR-independent manner without increasing H2O2 scavenging or genome stability. We found that Tsa1 and Hsp70 physically interact and that hyperoxidation of Tsa1 by H2O2 is required for the recruitment of the Hsp70 chaperones and the Hsp104 disaggregase to misfolded and aggregated proteins during aging, but not heat stress...
June 30, 2016: Cell
James Shorter
Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding...
May 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Agnieszka Kłosowska, Tomasz Chamera, Krzysztof Liberek
Hsp104 disaggregase provides thermotolerance in yeast by recovering proteins from aggregates in cooperation with the Hsp70 chaperone. Protein disaggregation involves polypeptide extraction from aggregates and its translocation through the central channel of the Hsp104 hexamer. This process relies on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Considering that Hsp104 is characterized by low affinity towards ATP and is strongly inhibited by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), we asked how Hsp104 functions at the physiological levels of adenine nucleotides...
2016: ELife
Xavier Le Goff, Franck Chesnel, Olivier Delalande, Anne Couturier, Stéphane Dréano, Cathy Le Goff, Cécile Vigneau, Yannick Arlot-Bonnemains
Quality control mechanisms promote aggregation and degradation of misfolded proteins. In budding yeast, the human von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL, officially known as VHL) is misfolded and forms aggregates. Here, we investigated the aggregation of three pVHL isoforms (pVHL213, pVHL160, pVHL172) in fission yeast. The full-length pVHL213 isoform aggregates in highly dynamic small puncta and in large spherical inclusions, either close to the nucleus or to the cell ends. The large inclusions contain the yeast Hsp104 chaperone...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Camille Paoletti, Sophie Quintin, Audrey Matifas, Gilles Charvin
Budding yeast cells have a finite replicative life span; that is, a mother cell produces only a limited number of daughter cells before it slows division and dies. Despite the gradual aging of the mother cell, all daughters are born rejuvenated and enjoy a full replicative lifespan. It has been proposed that entry of mother cells into senescence is driven by the progressive accumulation and retention of damaged material, including protein aggregates. This additionally allows the daughter cells to be born damage free...
April 12, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Andrija Finka, Rayees U H Mattoo, Pierre Goloubinoff
Molecular chaperones control the cellular folding, assembly, unfolding, disassembly, translocation, activation, inactivation, disaggregation, and degradation of proteins. In 1989, groundbreaking experiments demonstrated that a purified chaperone can bind and prevent the aggregation of artificially unfolded polypeptides and use ATP to dissociate and convert them into native proteins. A decade later, other chaperones were shown to use ATP hydrolysis to unfold and solubilize stable protein aggregates, leading to their native refolding...
June 2, 2016: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Korrie L Mack, James Shorter
Cells have evolved a sophisticated proteostasis network to ensure that proteins acquire and retain their native structure and function. Critical components of this network include molecular chaperones and protein disaggregases, which function to prevent and reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, proteostasis networks have limits, which when exceeded can have fatal consequences as in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A promising strategy is to engineer proteostasis networks to counter challenges presented by specific diseases or specific proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Rajaneesh Karimpurath Gopinath, Jun-Yi Leu
Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that aids in the folding of its metastable client proteins. Past studies have shown that it can exert a strong impact on some cellular pathways by controlling key regulators. However, it is unknown whether several components of a single pathway are collectively regulated by Hsp90. Here, we observe that Hsp90 influences the protein abundance of multiple Gal proteins and the efficiency of galactose utilization even after the galactose utilization pathway (GAL pathway) is fully induced...
May 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Sarah R Chadwick, Athanasios D Pananos, Sonja E Di Gregorio, Anna E Park, Parnian Etedali-Zadeh, Martin L Duennwald, Patrick Lajoie
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model organism to study the mechanisms of longevity. One of the two aging paradigms studied in yeast is termed chronological lifespan (CLS). CLS is defined by the amount of time non-dividing yeast cells can survive at stationary phase. Here, we propose new approaches that allow rapid and efficient quantification of survival rates in aging yeast cultures using either a fluorescent cell counter or microplate imaging. We have generated a software called analysr (Analytical Algorithm for Yeast Survival Rates) that allows automated and highly reproducible analysis of cell survival in aging yeast cultures using fluorescent data...
June 2016: Traffic
Mariana P Torrente, Edward Chuang, Megan M Noll, Meredith E Jackrel, Michelle S Go, James Shorter
Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a protein disaggregase from yeast, can dissolve protein aggregates connected to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying Hsp104 potentiation remain incompletely defined. Here, we establish that 2-3 subunits of the Hsp104 hexamer must bear an A503V potentiating mutation to elicit enhanced disaggregase activity in the absence of Hsp70. We also define the ATPase and substrate-binding modalities needed for potentiated Hsp104(A503V) activity in vitro and in vivo...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Elizabeth A Sweeny, James Shorter
Hsp104 is a dynamic ring translocase and hexameric AAA+ protein found in yeast, which couples ATP hydrolysis to disassembly and reactivation of proteins trapped in soluble preamyloid oligomers, disordered protein aggregates, and stable amyloid or prion conformers. Here, we highlight advances in our structural understanding of Hsp104 and how Hsp104 deconstructs Sup35 prions. Although the atomic structure of Hsp104 hexamers remains uncertain, volumetric reconstruction of Hsp104 hexamers in ATPγS, ADP-AlFx (ATP hydrolysis transition-state mimic), and ADP via small-angle x-ray scattering has revealed a peristaltic pumping motion upon ATP hydrolysis...
May 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
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