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Hand anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538530/clinical-assessment-and-diagnostics-of-patients-with-hand-disorders-a-case-study-approach
#1
Mabel Qi He Leow, Rebecca Qian Ru Lim, Shian Chao Tay
Clinical assessment of the hand is important for diagnosing underlying hand disorders. Using a case study approach, the clinical assessment for three disorders of the hands is presented: trigger finger (stenosing tenosynovitis), carpal tunnel syndrome, and ulnar-sided wrist injury (styloid impingement). We assess the annular one pulley and finger range of motion for patients with trigger finger. To diagnose for carpal tunnel syndrome, assessment for Tinel's sign, Phalen's sign, abductor pollicis brevis muscle bulk, two-point discrimination, and obtaining a nerve conduction study are performed...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530484/in%C3%A2-vivo-geometry-of-the-kissing-stent-and-covered-endovascular-reconstruction-of-the-aortic-bifurcation-configurations-in-aortoiliac-occlusive-disease
#2
Erik Groot Jebbink, Thijs G Ter Mors, Cornelis H Slump, Robert H Geelkerken, Suzanne Holewijn, Michel Mpj Reijnen
Objectives Various configurations of kissing stent (KS) configurations exist and patency rates vary. In response the covered endovascular reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation configuration was designed to minimize mismatch and improve outcome. The aim of the current study is to compare geometrical mismatch of kissing stent with the covered endovascular reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation configuration in vivo. Methods Post-operative computed tomographic data and patient demographics from 11 covered endovascular reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation and 11 matched kissing stent patients were included...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518066/scaled-anatomical-model-creation-of-biomedical-tomographic-imaging-data-and-associated-labels-for-subsequent-sub-surface-laser-engraving-ssle-of-glass-crystals
#3
Aislinn M Betts, Matthew T McGoldrick, Christopher R Dethlefs, Justin Piotrowicz, Tony Van Avermaete, Jeff Maki, Steve Gerstler, W M Leevy
Biomedical imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) provide excellent platforms for collecting three-dimensional data sets of patient or specimen anatomy in clinical or preclinical settings. However, the use of a virtual, on-screen display limits the ability of these tomographic images to fully convey the anatomical information embedded within. One solution is to interface a biomedical imaging data set with 3D printing technology to generate a physical replica. Here we detail a complementary method to visualize tomographic imaging data with a hand-held model: Sub Surface Laser Engraving (SSLE) of crystal glass...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516487/the-petrosal-and-bony-labyrinth-of-diplobune-minor-an-enigmatic-artiodactyla-from-the-oligocene-of-western-europe
#4
Maeva J Orliac, Ricardo Araújo, Fabrice Lihoreau
Anoplotheriinae are Paleogene European artiodactyls that present a unique postcranial morphology with a tridactyl autopodium and uncommon limb orientation. This peculiar morphology led to various hypotheses regarding anoplotheriine locomotion from semiaquatic to partly arboreal or partly bipedal. The petrosal bone, housing the organs of balance, and hearing, offers complementary information to postcranial morphology on the ecology of this uncommon artiodactyl. Here, we investigate the middle ear and bony labyrinth of the small anoplotheriine Diplobune minor based on four specimens from the Early Oligocene locality of Itardies (Quercy, France)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514129/-hand-injuries-in-rock-climbers
#5
REVIEW
Hagay Orbach, Guy Rubin, Alejandro Wolovelsky, Micha Rinott, Uriel Giwnewer, Nimrod Rozen
Rock climbing, whether practiced in nature on cliffs and boulders or indoors on walls made of resin and wood, has gained tremendous popularity in recent decades. More people are exposed to injuries associated with the unique biomechanical forces of rock climbing. A series of repetitive high torque movements of the upper limbs are needed to ascend a wall or rockface. These movements subject the hand and wrist to large forces, potentially resulting in ligament and tendon sprains or rupture and even bone fracture...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500457/an-alternative-technique-for-greater-tuberosity-fractures-use-of-the-mesh-plate
#6
Yelena Bogdan, Elizabeth B Gausden, Robert Zbeda, David L Helfet, Dean G Lorich, David S Wellman
INTRODUCTION: Isolated greater tuberosity (GT) fractures (AO 11-A1) tend to occur in the younger patient population and are poorly managed by most precontoured proximal humerus locking plates. The goal of this study was to identify and assess an alternative treatment strategy for greater tuberosity fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases of isolated greater tuberosity fractures treated with a 2.4/2.7 mesh plate (Synthes) between 2010 and 2015 was conducted...
May 12, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484716/anatomic-variation-in-morphometry-of-human-coracoid-process-among-asian-population
#7
Manal Fathi, Pike-See Cheah, Umar Ahmad, M Nizlan Nasir, Aye Aye San, Ezamin Abdul Rahim, Paisal Hussin, Rozi Mahmud, Fauziah Othman
Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467417/anatomy-of-adult-megaphragma-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-one-of-the-smallest-insects-and-new-insight-into-insect-miniaturization
#8
Alexey A Polilov
The body size, especially in cases of extreme reduction, is an important characteristic that strongly determines the morphology, physiology, and biology of animals. Miniaturization is a widespread trend in animal evolution and one of the principal directions of evolution in insects. Miniaturization-related features of insect morphology have been subject to intensive studies during the last few years, but the structure of the smallest insects remains insufficiently known. It is especially important to study hymenopterans of the genus Megaphragma, which include the smallest flying insects and a species in which an almost anucleate nervous system was recently discovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459129/time-saving-and-fail-safe-dissection-method-for-vestibulocochlear-organs-in-gross-anatomy-classes
#9
Ryoji Suzuki, Naoaki Konno, Akimitsu Ishizawa, Yoshinori Kanatsu, Kodai Funakoshi, Hideo Akashi, Ming Zhou, Hiroshi Abe
Because the vestibulocochlear organs are tiny and complex, and are covered by the petrous part of the temporal bone, they are very difficult for medical students to dissect and visualize during gross anatomy classes. Here, we report a time-saving and fail-safe procedure we have devised, using a hand-held hobby router. Nine en bloc temporal bone samples from donated human cadavers were used as trial materials for devising an appropriate procedure for dissecting the vestibulocochlear organs. A hand-held hobby router was used to cut through the temporal bone...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455539/morphological-and-topographical-anatomy-of-nutrient-foramens-in-human-metacarpals-and-their-surgical-importance
#10
Anjali Singla, Gurdeep Kalsi, Nazir Masih, Tulika Gupta, Mahesh Sharma
PURPOSE: Trauma to the hand is extremely common, often resulting in metacarpal fractures and dislocations. The surgical intervention may be required for restoration of function and appearance. The preoperative, topographical knowledge of the nutrient foramens is valuable in such operative procedures to preserve the circulation for healing and good postoperative results. METHODS: The topographic and morphometric analysis of 250 non-pathological metacarpals (fifty each from first to fifth) was performed and the foraminal index of each metacarpal was evaluated...
April 28, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453339/the-painful-sacrifice-the-epidemiology-of-hand-injuries-during-the-holy-festivals-in-the-sultanate-of-oman-a-10-year-case-control-study
#11
Sultan Al-Shaqsi, Taimoor Al-Bulushi, Ayman Al-Salmi, Ammar Al-Kashmiri, Ali Al-Lawatti
BACKGROUND: The human hand is an important functional and sensory organ. Its complex anatomy reflects its important functional capabilities. Many Muslim countries observe the holy festivals with a traditional sacrifice of an animal in order to share the meat (basic commodity) with beloved ones. During such festivals hand injuries have been reported to increase. This study aimed to compare cases and controls of hand injuries treated at the national trauma center in the Sultanate of Oman during a 10-year time period...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453336/the-relationship-between-the-intercrease-line-and-the-a1-digital-pulley-a-cadaveric-study
#12
Colyn J Watkins, Nikola Zivaljevic, Kyle R Eberlin, Michael Rivlin, Chaitanya S Mudgal
BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of surface anatomy is critical to identify the location of the A1 pulley. The intercrease line (ICL) describes a transverse line between the radial edge of the proximal palmar crease and the ulnar edge of the distal palmar crease. We hypothesize that this easily identifiable surface landmark approximates the location of the A1 pulley. METHODS: The ICL was marked on 7 cadaver hands. We marked a point proximal to the proximal digital crease (PDC) equal to the distance between each digit's proximal interphalangeal crease (PIC) and PDC (the PIC/PDC point)...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450046/pulmonary-surfactant-and-nanocarriers-toxicity-versus-combined-nanomedical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Alberto Hidalgo, Antonio Cruz, Jesús Pérez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant is a membrane-based lipid-protein system essential for the process of breathing, which coats and stabilizes the whole respiratory surface and possesses exceptional biophysical properties. It constitutes the first barrier against the entry of pathogens and harmful particles in the alveolar region, extended through the lungs, but on the other hand, it can offer novel possibilities as a shuttle for the delivery of drugs and nanocarriers. The advances in nanotechnology are opening the doors to new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues, which are not accessible by means of the current approaches...
April 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442732/human-bipedal-instability-in-tree-canopy-environments-is-reduced-by-light-touch-fingertip-support
#14
L Johannsen, S R L Coward, G R Martin, A M Wing, A van Casteren, W I Sellers, A R Ennos, R H Crompton, S K S Thorpe
Whether tree canopy habitats played a sustained role in the ecology of ancestral bipedal hominins is unresolved. Some argue that arboreal bipedalism was prohibitively risky for hominins whose increasingly modern anatomy prevented them from gripping branches with their feet. Balancing on two legs is indeed challenging for humans under optimal conditions let alone in forest canopy, which is physically and visually highly dynamic. Here we quantify the impact of forest canopy characteristics on postural stability in humans...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438411/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-digital-nerves-of-the-hand-anatomy-and-spectrum-of-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Charles H Mitchell, Laura M Fayad, Shivani Ahlawat
Digital nerves are intrinsic to the sensory and motor function of the hand. These nerves represent the terminal ramifications of the ulnar, median, and radial nerves and are located distal to the carpal tunnel and Guyon canal. With magnetic resonance imaging, traumatic and nontraumatic abnormalities of the digital nerves can be shown with high contrast as well as high spatial resolution. Digital nerve abnormalities are most commonly posttraumatic in nature; however, infection, inflammatory, vascular malformations, and neoplasms can rarely occur...
March 6, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427870/all-endoscopic-brachial-plexus-complete-neurolysis-for-idiopathic-neurogenic-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-a-prospective-case-series
#16
Thibault Lafosse, Malo Le Hanneur, Laurent Lafosse
PURPOSE: To describe an all-endoscopic technique for infra- and supraclavicular brachial plexus (BP) neurolysis and to assess its functional outcomes for patients suffering from nonspecific neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). METHODS: Between January 2010 and January 2013, 36 patients presenting an idiopathic nonspecific NTOS benefited from an endoscopic decompression in our institution. The inclusion criteria were a typical clinical NTOS and failure of a 6-month well-conducted nonsurgical treatment...
April 17, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419750/the-effectiveness-of-virtual-and-augmented-reality-in-health-sciences-and-medical-anatomy
#17
Christian Moro, Zane Štromberga, Athanasios Raikos, Allan Stirling
Although cadavers constitute the gold standard for teaching anatomy to medical and health science students, there are substantial financial, ethical, and supervisory constraints on their use. In addition, although anatomy remains one of the fundamental areas of medical education, universities have decreased the hours allocated to teaching gross anatomy in favor of applied clinical work. The release of virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices allows learning to occur through hands-on immersive experiences...
April 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416451/diffeomorphic-functional-brain-surface-alignment-functional-demons
#18
Karl-Heinz Nenning, Hesheng Liu, Satrajit S Ghosh, Mert R Sabuncu, Ernst Schwartz, Georg Langs
Aligning brain structures across individuals is a central prerequisite for comparative neuroimaging studies. Typically, registration approaches assume a strong association between the features used for alignment, such as macro-anatomy, and the variable observed, such as functional activation or connectivity. Here, we propose to use the structure of intrinsic resting state fMRI signal correlation patterns as a basis for alignment of the cortex in functional studies. Rather than assuming the spatial correspondence of functional structures between subjects, we have identified locations with similar connectivity profiles across subjects...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413989/anatomical-wrist-patterns-on-plain-radiographs
#19
Aviv Kramer, Raviv Allon, Alon Wolf, Tal Kalaiman, Idit Lavi, Ronit Wollstein
BACKGROUND: Interpreting the structure in the wrist is complicated by the existence of multiple joints as well as variability in bone shapes and anatomical patterns. Previous studies have evaluated lunate and capitate shape in an attempt to understand functional anatomical patterns. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe anatomical shapes and wrist patterns in normal wrist radiographs. We hypothesized that there is a significant relationship in the midcarpal joint with at least one consistent pattern of wrist anatomy...
April 17, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412442/human-brain-mapping-a-systematic-comparison-of-parcellation-methods-for-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#20
REVIEW
Salim Arslan, Sofia Ira Ktena, Antonios Makropoulos, Emma C Robinson, Daniel Rueckert, Sarah Parisot
The macro-connectome elucidates the pathways through which brain regions are structurally connected or functionally coupled to perform a specific cognitive task. It embodies the notion of representing and understanding all connections within the brain as a network, while the subdivision of the brain into interacting functional units is inherent in its architecture. As a result, the definition of network nodes is one of the most critical steps in connectivity network analysis. Although brain atlases obtained from cytoarchitecture or anatomy have long been used for this task, connectivity-driven methods have arisen only recently, aiming to delineate more homogeneous and functionally coherent regions...
April 13, 2017: NeuroImage
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