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dynamic neuromuscular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684885/abnormal-muscle-activation-patterns-are-associated-with-chronic-gait-deficits-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Samuel A Acuña, Mitchell E Tyler, Yuri P Danilov, Darryl G Thelen
BACKGROUND: Gait and balance disorders are common among individuals who have experienced a mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how the neuromuscular control of gait is altered following a TBI. RESEARCH QUESTION: Investigate the relationship between lower limb muscle activation patterns and chronic gait deficits in individuals who previously experienced a mild to moderate TBI. METHODS: Lower extremity electromyographic (EMG) signals were collected bilaterally during treadmill and overground walking in 44 ambulatory individuals with a TBI >1 year prior and 20 unimpaired controls...
April 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671152/predictive-simulations-of-neuromuscular-coordination-and-joint-contact-loading-in-human-gait
#2
Yi-Chung Lin, Jonathan P Walter, Marcus G Pandy
We implemented direct collocation on a full-body neuromusculoskeletal model to calculate muscle forces, ground reaction forces and knee contact loading simultaneously for one cycle of human gait. A data-tracking collocation problem was solved for walking at the normal speed to establish the practicality of incorporating a 3D model of articular contact and a model of foot-ground interaction explicitly in a dynamic optimization simulation. The data-tracking solution then was used as an initial guess to solve predictive collocation problems, where novel patterns of movement were generated for walking at slow and fast speeds, independent of experimental data...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629591/displaced-femoral-neck-fractures-in-patients-60-years-of-age-or-younger-results-of-internal-fixation-with-the-dynamic-locking-blade-plate
#3
J H Kalsbeek, A D P van Walsum, J P A M Vroemen, H M J Janzing, J T Winkelhorst, B P Bertelink, W H Roerdink
Aims The objective of this study was to investigate bone healing after internal fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures (FNFs) with the Dynamic Locking Blade Plate (DLBP) in a young patient population treated by various orthopaedic (trauma) surgeons. Patients and Methods We present a multicentre prospective case series with a follow-up of one year. All patients aged ≤ 60 years with a displaced FNF treated with the DLBP between 1st August 2010 and December 2014 were included. Patients with pathological fractures, concomitant fractures of the lower limb, symptomatic arthritis, local infection or inflammation, inadequate local tissue coverage, or any mental or neuromuscular disorder were excluded...
April 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628898/postactivation-potentiation-of-the-plantar-flexors-does-not-directly-translate-to-jump-performance-in-female-elite-young-soccer-players
#4
Olaf Prieske, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Urs Granacher
High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP) thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S) exercise vs. a strength only (S) exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620686/physiological-and-functional-alterations-after-spaceflight-and-bed-rest
#5
Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Brian T Peters, Chris A Miller, Igor S Kofman, Millard F Reschke, Laura C Taylor, Emily L Lawrence, Scott J Wood, Steven S Laurie, Stuart M C Lee, Roxanne E Buxton, Tiffany R May-Phillips, Michael B Stenger, Lori L Ploutz-Snyder, Jeffrey W Ryder, Alan H Feiveson, Jacob J Bloomberg
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. METHODS: A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight...
April 3, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619793/effect-of-post-warm-up-resting-interval-on-static-and-dynamic-balance-and-maximal-muscle-strength-followed-by-the-fifa-11-and-dynamic-warm-up-exercises
#6
Yung-Sheng Chen, Wai-Lin Lai, Chein-Wen Hou, Che-Hsiu Chen, Yi-Wen Chiu, Pedro Bezzera
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that implementation of the FIFA11+ can immediately increase exercise performance. However, the elapsed time of post-warm up (WU) effect of the FIFA 11+ is unclear. METHODS: Twenty-two male university football players were randomly assigned into the FIFA 11+ (n =10) or control group (conventional dynamic WU exercise, n = 11). The participants performed static, drop jump, and maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) tests before and after the WU protocol in four different occasions with 0, 10, 20 or 30 min resting interval...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615874/structural-and-molecular-properties-of-insect-type-ii-motor-axon-terminals
#7
Bettina Stocker, Christina Bochow, Christine Damrau, Thomas Mathejczyk, Heike Wolfenberg, Julien Colomb, Claudia Weber, Niraja Ramesh, Carsten Duch, Natalia M Biserova, Stephan Sigrist, Hans-Joachim Pflüger
A comparison between the axon terminals of octopaminergic efferent dorsal or ventral unpaired median neurons in either desert locusts ( Schistocerca gregaria ) or fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) across skeletal muscles reveals many similarities. In both species the octopaminergic axon forms beaded fibers where the boutons or varicosities form type II terminals in contrast to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) or type I terminals. These type II terminals are immunopositive for both tyramine and octopamine and, in contrast to the type I terminals, which possess clear synaptic vesicles, only contain dense core vesicles...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614692/determination-of-qpcr-reference-genes-suitable-for-normalizing-gene-expression-in-a-canine-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#8
John C W Hildyard, Frances Taylor-Brown, Claire Massey, Dominic J Wells, Richard J Piercy
BACKGROUND: Dogs with dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy are valuable models of the equivalent human disease, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): unlike the mdx mouse, these animals present a disease severity and progression that closely matches that found in human patients. Canine models are however less thoroughly characterised than the established mdx mouse in many aspects, including gene expression. Analysis of expression in muscle plays a key role in the study of DMD, allowing monitoring and assessment of disease progression, evaluation of novel biomarkers and gauging of therapeutic intervention efficacy...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599856/influence-of-dynamic-neuromuscular-stabilization-approach-on-maximum-kayak-paddling-force
#9
Pavel Davidek, Ross Andel, Alena Kobesova
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS) exercise on maximum paddling force (PF) and self-reported pain perception in the shoulder girdle area in flatwater kayakers. Twenty male flatwater kayakers from a local club (age = 21.9 ± 2.4 years, body height = 185.1 ± 7.9 cm, body mass = 83.9 ± 9.1 kg) were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. During the 6-week study, subjects from both groups performed standard off-season training. Additionally, the intervention group engaged in a DNS-based core stabilization exercise program (quadruped exercise, side sitting exercise, sitting exercise and squat exercise) after each standard training session...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596491/core-and-skin-temperature-influences-on-the-surface-electromyographic-responses-to-an-isometric-force-and-position-task
#10
Nico A Coletta, Matthew M Mallette, David A Gabriel, Christopher J Tyler, Stephen S Cheung
The large body of work demonstrating hyperthermic impairment of neuromuscular function has utilized maximal isometric contractions, but extrapolating these findings to whole-body exercise and submaximal, dynamic contractions may be problematic. We isolated and compared core and skin temperature influences on an isometric force task versus a position task requiring dynamic maintenance of joint angle. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured on the flexor carpi radialis at 60% of baseline maximal voluntary contraction while either pushing against a rigid restraint (force task) or while maintaining a constant wrist angle and supporting an equivalent inertial load (position task)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576313/training-induced-changes-in-quadriceps-activation-during-maximal-eccentric-contractions
#11
Dimitrios Voukelatos, Mathew Kirkland, Matthew T G Pain
Despite full voluntary effort, neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps group of muscles appears inhibited during eccentric contractions. A nerve stimulation protocol during dynamic contractions of the quadriceps was developed that employed triplets of supramaximal pulses to assess suppressed eccentric activation. Subsequently the effects of a short training intervention, performed on a dynamometer, on eccentric strength output and neural inhibition were examined. Torque-angular velocity (T-ω) and experimental voluntary neural drive-angular velocity (%VA-ω; %VA, obtained via the interpolated twitch technique) datasets, were obtained from pre- and post-training testing sessions...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573793/effect-of-stable-and-unstable-load-carriage-on-walking-gait-variability-dynamic-stability-and-muscle-activity-of-older-adults
#12
Gregory S Walsh, Daniel C Low, Marco Arkesteijn
Load carriage perturbs the neuromuscular system, which can be impaired due to ageing. The ability to counteract perturbations is an indicator of neuromuscular function but if the response is insufficient the risk of falls will increase. However, it is unknown how load carriage affects older adults. Fourteen older adults (65 ± 6 years) attended a single visit during which they performed 4 min of walking in 3 conditions, unloaded, stable backpack load and unstable backpack load. During each walking trial, 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower limb and trunk movements and electromyographic activity of 6 lower limb muscles were recorded...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572650/increased-enslaving-in-elderly-is-associated-with-changes-in-neural-control-of-the-extrinsic-finger-muscles
#13
M Mirakhorlo, H Maas, H E J Veeger
Aging has consequences for hand motor control, among others affecting finger force enslaving during static pressing tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of finger force enslaving changes with aging during a task that involves both static and dynamic phases. Ten right-handed young (22-30 years) and ten elderly subjects (67-79 years) were instructed to first exert a constant force (static phase) and then flex their index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces orthogonal to their fingertips (dynamic phase)...
March 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564503/transitions-in-persistence-of-postural-dynamics-depend-on-the-velocity-and-structure-of-postural-perturbations
#14
Troy J Rand, Mukul Mukherjee
The sensorimotor system prefers sway velocity information when maintaining upright posture. Sway velocity has a unique characteristic of being persistent on a short time-scale and anti-persistent on a longer time-scale. The time where the transition from persistence to anti-persistence occurs provides information about how sway velocity is controlled. It is, however, not clear what factors affect shifts in this transition point. This research investigated postural responses to support surface movements of different temporal correlations and movement velocities...
March 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560494/frontal-plane-tibiofemoral-alignment-is-strongly-related-to-compartmental-knee-joint-contact-forces-and-muscle-control-strategies-during-stair-ascent
#15
Hunter J Bennett, Joshua T Weinhandl, Kristina Fleenor, Songning Zhang
Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549349/cannabinoid-induced-increase-of-quantal-size-and-enhanced-neuromuscular-transmission
#16
Marco Morsch, Dario A Protti, Delfine Cheng, Filip Braet, Roger S Chung, Stephen W Reddel, William D Phillips
Cannabinoids exert dynamic control over many physiological processes including memory formation, cognition and pain perception. In the central nervous system endocannabinoids mediate negative feedback of quantal transmitter release following postsynaptic depolarization. The influence of cannabinoids in the peripheral nervous system is less clear and might have broad implications for the therapeutic application of cannabinoids. We report a novel cannabinoid effect upon the mouse neuromuscular synapse: acutely increasing synaptic vesicle volume and raising the quantal amplitudes...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548734/the-patella-a-mechanical-determinant-of-coordination-during-vertical-jumping
#17
Daniel John Cleather
The patella is traditionally understood to be a "joint spacer" that increases the moment arm of the patellar tendon. This characterisation is unsatisfactory as it fails to explain the more interesting characteristics of the patella: 1) that the changing pivot point of the patella causes the ratio of quadriceps to patellar tendon force to almost double as the knee flexes; 2) that the patellar tendon exerts an anteriorly directed force on the tibia when the knee is extended but this switches to a posterior draw as the knee flexes; and 3) that the presence of the patella allows the quadriceps to exert different moments on the femur and tibia...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545767/involuntary-neuromuscular-coupling-between-the-thumb-and-finger-of-stroke-survivors-during-dynamic-movement
#18
Christopher L Jones, Derek G Kamper
Finger-thumb coordination is crucial to manual dexterity but remains incompletely understood, particularly following neurological injury such as stroke. While being controlled independently, the index finger and thumb especially must work in concert to perform a variety of tasks requiring lateral or palmar pinch. The impact of stroke on this functionally critical sensorimotor control during dynamic tasks has been largely unexplored. In this study, we explored finger-thumb coupling during close-open pinching motions in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511921/increased-rate-of-force-development-during-periodized-maximum-strength-and-power-training-is-highly-individual
#19
Heikki Peltonen, Simon Walker, Anthony C Hackney, Janne Avela, Keijo Häkkinen
Maximum strength training induces various improvements in the rate of force development (RFD) on a group level, but no study has investigated inter-individual adaptations in RFD. Fourteen men (28 ± 6 years old) performed the same 10-week maximum strength and then a 10-week power training program. Maximal force and RFD were recorded during maximal isometric leg extension voluntary contractions repeatedly before every 7th training session (2 sessions/week). After the intervention, subjects were retrospectively divided into three groups based on their RFD improvements: (1) improved only during the maximum strength period (MS-responders, + 100 ± 35%), (2) improved only during the power period (P-responders, + 53 ± 27%) or (3) no improvement at all (non-responders, + 3 ± 9%)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510449/telehealth-applications-for-outpatients-with-neuromuscular-or-musculoskeletal-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Ileana M Howard, Marla S Kaufman
Telehealth describes the provision of medical services remotely through technology, and may enhance patient access to specialty care services. Although teleneurology has expanded widely since the introduction of telestroke in 1999, telehealth services for outpatients with neuromuscular or musculoskeletal disorders are less widespread. In this narrative review, we will describe the current technology, applications, outcomes, and limitations of this dynamically growing field. Evidence for telehealth applications related to neuromuscular diseases, palliative care, specialized multidisciplinary services, and musculoskeletal care are reviewed...
March 6, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
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