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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043641/measuring-dynamic-behavior-of-trinucleotide-repeat-tracts-in-vivo-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Gregory M Williams, Jennifer A Surtees
Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) tracts are inherently unstable during DNA replication, leading to repeat expansions and/or contractions. Expanded tracts are the cause of over 40 neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. In this chapter, we focus on the (CNG)n repeat sequences that, when expanded, lead to Huntington's disease (HD), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. We describe a series of in vivo assays, using the model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to determine and characterize the dynamic behavior of TNR tracts that are in the early stages of expansion, i...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042299/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-spasticity-in-adults-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Djamel Bensmail, Alain Yelnik
OBJECTIVES: Spasticity causes significant long-term disability-burden, requiring comprehensive management. This review evaluates evidence from published systematic reviews of clinical trials for effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for improved spasticity outcomes. METHODS: Data sources: A literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library) databases for published systematic reviews up to 15(th) June 2017...
October 14, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040265/analysis-of-peripheral-b-cells-and-autoantibodies-against-the-anti-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-derived-from-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-using-single-cell-manipulation-tools
#3
Tomohiro Makino, Ryuichi Nakamura, Maki Terakawa, Satoshi Muneoka, Kazuhiro Nagahira, Yuriko Nagane, Jyoji Yamate, Masakatsu Motomura, Kimiaki Utsugisawa
The majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), an organ-specific autoimmune disease, harbor autoantibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-Abs) at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle weakness. Single cell manipulation technologies coupled with genetic engineering are very powerful tools to examine T cell and B cell repertoires and the dynamics of adaptive immunity. These tools have been utilized to develop mAbs in parallel with hybridomas, phage display technologies and B-cell immortalization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030231/als-associated-mutation-sod1-g93a-leads-to-abnormal-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-osteocytes
#4
Huan Wang, Jianxun Yi, Xuejun Li, Yajuan Xiao, Kamal Dhakal, Jingsong Zhou
While the death of motor neuron is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), defects in other cell types or organs may also actively contribute to ALS disease progression. ALS patients experience progressive skeletal muscle wasting that may not only exacerbate neuronal degeneration, but likely has a significant impact on bone function. In our previous published study, we have discovered severe bone loss in an ALS mouse model with overexpression of ALS-associated mutation SOD1(G93A) (G93A)...
October 10, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021758/acute-neuromuscular-adaptations-in-the-postural-control-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-after-perturbed-walking
#5
Cristian F Pasluosta, Simon Steib, Sarah Klamroth, Heiko Gaßner, Julia Goßler, Julius Hannink, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Klaus Pfeifer, Juergen Winkler, Jochen Klucken, Bjoern M Eskofier
Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) present motor impairments reflected in the dynamics of the center of pressure (CoP) adjustments during quiet standing. One method to study the dynamics of CoP adjustments is the entropic half-life (EnHL), which measures the short-term correlations of a time series at different time scales. Changes in the EnHL of CoP time series suggest neuromuscular adaptations in the control of posture. In this study, we sought to investigate the immediate changes in the EnHL of CoP adjustments of patients with PD during one session of perturbed (experimental group) and unperturbed treadmill walking (control group)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021141/use-of-a-dynamic-gait-trainer-for-a-child-with-thoracic-level-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Wendy Altizer, Garey Noritz, Ginny Paleg
Paediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in permanent mobility impairment with consequences for activity, participation and quality of life. This case documents the effect of an overground supported stepping intervention using a dynamic gait trainer. To our knowledge, there are no published studies on this intervention for children with SCI and similar interventions have only been reported in children at American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) levels B and C.A child with a T10 (thoracic level, vertebra 10), AIS level A injury, sustained at 2 years of age, continued to make gains in all areas including participation, activity, body structure and function over the following 4 years...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991043/kinetic-compensations-due-to-chronic-ankle-instability-during-landing-and-jumping
#7
Hyunsoo Kim, S Jun Son, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscles absorb and transfer kinetic energy during landing and jumping, which are common requirements of various forms of physical activity. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is associated with impaired neuromuscular control and dynamic stability of the lower extremity. Little is known regarding an intra-limb, lower-extremity joint coordination of kinetics during landing and jumping for CAI patients. We investigated the effect of CAI on lower-extremity joint stiffness, and kinetic and energetic patterns across the ground contact phase of landing and jumping...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969821/editorial-commentary-increased-risk-of-second-ruptures-and-poorer-outcomes-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-and-reconstruction-in-hypermobile-athletes-a-potential-synergism-of-passive-ligamentous-and-active-muscular-control-of-dynamic-knee-stability
#8
EDITORIAL
Timothy E Hewett
Graft failure rates were higher and inferior subjective outcomes were observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients with generalized hypermobility. This is a clear and corroborative finding that is highly consilient with other reports of similar studies from the published literature. However, controversy remains regarding other potentially predictive and confounding variables. For example, age, activity level, sex, and dynamic neuromuscular control were not considered in this interesting, important, and potentially impactful study...
October 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961065/repairing-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-disease
#9
Vincenzo Sorrentino, Keir J Menzies, Johan Auwerx
Mitochondria are essential organelles for many aspects of cellular homeostasis, including energy harvesting through oxidative phosphorylation. Alterations of mitochondrial function not only impact on cellular metabolism but also critically influence whole-body metabolism, health, and life span. Diseases defined by mitochondrial dysfunction have also expanded from rare monogenic disorders in a strict sense to now also include many common polygenic diseases, including metabolic, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neuromuscular diseases...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944715/balance-training-enhances-motor-coordination-during-a-perturbed-side-step-cutting-task
#10
Anderson Souza Oliveira, Priscila de Brito Silva, Morten Enemark Lund, Dario Farina, Uwe Gustav Kersting
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Balance training (BTR) may improve motor coordination, however little is known about the changes in motor coordination during unexpected perturbations to postural control following BTR. Objectives To study the effects of BTR on motor coordination and knee mechanics during perturbed side-step cutting maneuvers in healthy adults. Methods Twenty-six healthy men were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or control (CG). Before BTR, subjects performed unperturbed, 90° side-step cutting maneuvers and one unexpected perturbed cut (10-cm translation of a moveable platform)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944269/sports-and-environmental-temperature-from-warming-up-to-heating-up
#11
REVIEW
Sébastien Racinais, Scott Cocking, Julien D Périard
Most professional and recreational athletes perform pre-conditioning exercises, often collectively termed a 'warm-up' to prepare for a competitive task. The main objective of warming-up is to induce both temperature and non-temperature related responses to optimize performance. These responses include increasing muscle temperature, initiating metabolic and circulatory adjustments, and preparing psychologically for the upcoming task. However, warming-up in hot and/or humid ambient conditions increases thermal and circulatory strain...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930862/an-innovative-ergometer-to-measure-neuromuscular-fatigue-immediately-after-cycling
#12
Douglas Doyle-Baker, John Temesi, Mary E Medysky, Robert J Holash, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: When assessing neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) from dynamic exercise using large muscle mass (e.g. cycling), most studies have delayed measurement for 1-3 min after task failure. This study aimed to determine the reliability of an innovative cycling ergometer permitting the start of fatigue measurement within 1 s after cycling. METHODS: Twelve subjects participated in two experimental sessions. Knee-extensor NMF was assessed by electrical nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation with both a traditional chair set-up (PRE and POST-Chair, 2 min post-exercise) and the new cycling ergometer (PRE, every 3 min during incremental exercise and POST-Bike, at task failure)...
September 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913369/changes-in-the-width-of-the-tibiofibular-syndesmosis-related-to-lower-extremity-joint-dynamics-and-neuromuscular-coordination-on-drop-landing-during-the-menstrual-cycle
#13
Michie Okazaki, Masaaki Kaneko, Yukisato Ishida, Norio Murase, Toshihito Katsumura
BACKGROUND: Many injuries of the lower extremities, especially the knee and ankle, occur during sports activity, and the incidence rate is higher in women than in men. HYPOTHESIS: The hypothesis was that phases of the menstrual cycle affect the width of the tibiofibular syndesmosis during drop landing in healthy young women and that such changes at the tibiofibular joint also affect the dynamics and neuromuscular coordination of the lower extremities. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
September 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841697/dynamic-thoracohumeral-kinematics-are-dependent-upon-the-etiology-of-the-shoulder-injury
#14
Juan López-Pascual, Álvaro Page, Pilar Serra-Añó
Obtaining kinematic patterns that depend on the shoulder injury may be important when planning rehabilitation. The main goal of this study is to explore whether the kinematic patterns of continuous and repetitive shoulder elevation motions are different according to the type of shoulder injury in question, specifically tendinopathy or rotator cuff tear, and to analyze the influence of the load handled during its assessment. For this purpose, 19 individuals with tendinopathy and 9 with rotator cuff tear performed a repetitive scaption movement that was assessed with stereophotogrammetry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830363/recovery-and-prediction-of-postoperative-muscle-power-is-it-still-a-problem
#15
Martin Zoremba, Dennis Kornmann, Benjamin Vojnar, Rene Burchard, Thomas Wiesmann, Hinnerk Wulf, Thomas Kratz
BACKGROUND: In the postoperative period, immediate recovery of muscular power is essential for patient safety, but this can be affected by anaesthetic drugs, opioids and neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). In this cohort study, we evaluated anaesthetic and patient-related factors contributing to reduced postoperative muscle power and pulse oximetric saturation. METHODS: We prospectively observed 615 patients scheduled for minor surgery. Premedication, general anaesthesia and respiratory settings were standardized according to standard operating procedures (SOP)...
August 22, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830232/influence-of-ground-reaction-force-perturbations-on-anterior-cruciate-ligament-loading-during-sidestep-cutting
#16
Joshua T Weinhandl, Kristian M O'Connor
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is likely increased under unexpected loading conditions. Such situations may arise from mid-air contact with another athlete, or misjudgments in landing height, stride length or surface compliance resulting in an unbalanced landing and unexpected changes in the ground reaction forces (GRFs). The purpose this study was to identify how GRF perturbations influence ACL loading during sidestep cutting. Muscle-actuated simulations of sidestep cutting were generated and analyzed for 20 subjects...
August 22, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817715/longitudinal-sequencing-in-intramuscular-coordination-a-new-hypothesis-of-dynamic-functions-in-the-human-rectus-femoris-muscle
#17
Christoph von Laßberg, Julia A Schneid, Dominik Graf, Felix Finger, Walter Rapp, Norman Stutzig
The punctum fixum-punctum mobile model has been introduced in previous publications. It describes general principles of intersegmental neuromuscular succession patterns to most efficiently generate specific movement intentions. The general hypothesis of this study is that these principles-if they really do indicate a fundamental basis for efficient movement generation-should also be found in intramuscular coordination and should be indicated by "longitudinal sequencing" between fibers according to the principles of the punctum fixum-punctum mobile model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766051/real-time-muscle-state-estimation-from-emg-signals-during-isometric-contractions-using-kalman-filters
#18
Luciano L Menegaldo
State-space control of myoelectric devices and real-time visualization of muscle forces in virtual rehabilitation require measuring or estimating muscle dynamic states: neuromuscular activation, tendon force and muscle length. This paper investigates whether regular (KF) and extended Kalman filters (eKF), derived directly from Hill-type muscle mechanics equations, can be used as real-time muscle state estimators for isometric contractions using raw electromyography signals (EMG) as the only available measurement...
August 1, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764967/ultrasound-imaging-of-muscle-contraction-of-the-tibialis-anterior-in-patients-with-facioscapulohumeral-dystrophy
#19
Kaj Gijsbertse, Rianne Goselink, Saskia Lassche, Maartje Nillesen, André Sprengers, Nico Verdonschot, Nens van Alfen, Chris de Korte
A need exists for biomarkers to diagnose, quantify and longitudinally follow facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and many other neuromuscular disorders. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to muscle weakness in most neuromuscular disorders are not completely understood. Dynamic ultrasound imaging (B-mode image sequences) in combination with speckle tracking is an easy, applicable and patient-friendly imaging tool to visualize and quantify muscle deformation. This dynamic information provides insight in the pathophysiological mechanisms and may help to distinguish the various stages of diseased muscle in FSHD...
July 29, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762016/ica-based-muscle-tendon-units-localization-and-activation-analysis-during-dynamic-motion-tasks
#20
Xiang Chen, Shaoping Wang, Chengjun Huang, Shuai Cao, Xu Zhang
This study proposed an independent component analysis (ICA)-based framework for localization and activation level analysis of muscle-tendon units (MTUs) within skeletal muscles during dynamic motion. The gastrocnemius muscle and extensor digitorum communis were selected as target muscles. High-density electrode arrays were used to record surface electromyographic (sEMG) data of the targeted muscles during dynamic motion tasks. First, the ICA algorithm was used to decompose multi-channel sEMG data into a weight coefficient matrix and a source matrix...
July 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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