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dynamic neuromuscular

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222416/functional-analysis-of-human-intrafusal-fiber-innervation-by-human-%C3%AE-motoneurons
#1
A Colón, X Guo, N Akanda, Y Cai, J J Hickman
Investigation of neuromuscular deficits and diseases such as SMA, as well as for next generation prosthetics, utilizing in vitro phenotypic models would benefit from the development of a functional neuromuscular reflex arc. The neuromuscular reflex arc is the system that integrates the proprioceptive information for muscle length and activity (sensory afferent), to modify motoneuron output to achieve graded muscle contraction (actuation efferent). The sensory portion of the arc is composed of proprioceptive sensory neurons and the muscle spindle, which is embedded in the muscle tissue and composed of intrafusal fibers...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214519/functional-capacity-improves-in-line-with-neuromuscular-performance-after-12%C3%A2-weeks-of-non-linear-periodization-strength-training-in-the-elderly
#2
Bruno Monteiro de Moura, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Luis Antonio Pereira de Lima, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Simon Walker, Fernando Diefenthaeler
BACKGROUND: While it is accepted that resistance training can improve functional capacity in older individuals, the neuromuscular source of this improvement has yet to be identified. AIM: This study investigated the link between improved neuromuscular performance and functional capacity after a 12-week resistance training period in untrained healthy older individuals. METHODS: Fifteen older men and women (60-71 years) adhered to a 4-week control period, followed by 12 weeks of non-linear resistance training for the lower limbs...
December 6, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186673/disparate-postsynaptic-induction-mechanisms-ultimately-converge-to-drive-the-retrograde-enhancement-of-presynaptic-efficacy
#3
Pragya Goel, Xiling Li, Dion Dickman
Retrograde signaling systems are fundamental modes of communication synapses utilize to dynamically and adaptively modulate activity. However, the inductive mechanisms that gate retrograde communication in the postsynaptic compartment remain enigmatic. We have investigated retrograde signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where three seemingly disparate perturbations to the postsynaptic cell trigger a similar enhancement in presynaptic neurotransmitter release. We show that the same presynaptic genetic machinery and enhancements in active zone structure are utilized by each inductive pathway...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184312/effects-of-4-weeks-of-dynamic-neuromuscular-stabilization-training-on-balance-and-gait-performance-in-an-adolescent-with-spastic-hemiparetic-cerebral-palsy
#4
Do-Hyun Kim, Duk-Hyun An, Won-Gyu Yoo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study investigated the effects of 4 weeks of dynamic neuromuscular stabilization training on balance ability. [Subject and Methods] An adolescent with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy was recruited. The subject performed 4 weeks of dynamic neuromuscular stabilization training. We assessed the balance subtest of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition, the 10-meter walk test, and the 6-min walk test. [Results] The balance subtest scores were improved significantly after training...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175953/distinct-roles-of-different-pre-and-post-synaptic-ncam-isoforms-in-early-motoneuron-myotube-interactions-required-for-functional-synapse-formation
#5
Katsusuke Hata, Yuka Maeno-Hikichi, Norihiro Yumoto, Steven J Burden, Lynn T Landmesser
The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is expressed both pre- and postsynaptically during neuromuscular junction formation. Genetic deletion in mice of all three isoforms (180kD, 140kD and 120 kD), or just the 180 isoform, suggested that different isoforms played distinct roles in synaptic maturation. Here we characterized in mice of either sex the earliest adhesive contacts between the growth cones of motoneurons and myotubes and their subsequent maturation into functional synapses in co-cultures of motoneurons and myotubes, that expressed their normal complement of NCAM isoforms, or were lacking all isoforms either pre- or post-synaptically...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167324/the-impact-of-spatio-temporal-calcium-dynamics-within-presynaptic-active-zones-on-synaptic-delay-at-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#6
Anne E Homan, Rozita Laghaei, Markus Dittrich, Stephen D Meriney
The spatio-temporal calcium dynamics within presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites (active zones, AZs) at the time of synaptic vesicle fusion is critical for neurotransmitter release. Specifically, the relative arrangement and density of voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) as well as the concentration of calcium buffering proteins can play a large role in the timing, magnitude and plasticity of release by shaping the AZ calcium profile. However, a high-resolution understanding of the role of AZ structure on the spatiotemporal calcium dynamics and how that may contribute to functional heterogeneity at an adult synapse is currently lacking...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163365/functional-mitochondria-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Patries M Herst, Matthew R Rowe, Georgia M Carson, Michael V Berridge
The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158978/zebrafish-swimming-in-the-flow-a-particle-image-velocimetry-study
#8
Violet Mwaffo, Peng Zhang, Sebastián Romero Cruz, Maurizio Porfiri
Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice for the study of a number of biomechanics problems, including balance development, schooling, and neuromuscular transmission. The precise quantification of the flow physics around swimming zebrafish is critical toward a mechanistic understanding of the complex swimming style of this fresh-water species. Although previous studies have elucidated the vortical structures in the wake of zebrafish swimming in placid water, the flow physics of zebrafish swimming against a water current remains unexplored...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145886/are-mice-good-models-for-human-neuromuscular-disease-comparing-muscle-excursions-in-walking-between-mice-and-humans
#9
Xiao Hu, James P Charles, Turgay Akay, John R Hutchinson, Silvia S Blemker
BACKGROUND: The mouse is one of the most widely used animal models to study neuromuscular diseases and test new therapeutic strategies. However, findings from successful pre-clinical studies using mouse models frequently fail to translate to humans due to various factors. Differences in muscle function between the two species could be crucial but often have been overlooked. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare muscle excursions in walking between mice and humans. METHODS: Recently published musculoskeletal models of the mouse hindlimb and human lower limb were used to simulate muscle-tendon dynamics during mouse and human walking, a key daily activity...
November 16, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097271/the-effects-of-an-8-week-stabilization-exercise-program-on-lumbar-multifidus-muscle-thickness-and-activation-as-measured-with-ultrasound-imaging-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-an-exploratory-study
#10
Christian Larivière, Dany H Gagnon, Sharon M Henry, Richard Preuss, Jean-Pierre Dumas
BACKGROUND: Lumbar statilization exercise programs (LSEP) produce positive effects on clinical outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms remain fairly unexplored. Psychological and neuromuscular mechanisms can be involved such as a better activation of the lumbar multifidus which represents one possibility. OBJECTIVES: To determine the (1) effect of a LSEP on lumbar multifidus muscle thickness and activation, as measured with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), in patients with low back pain (LBP); (2) correlation between RUSI measures and any change in clinical outcomes following the LSEP; (3) reliability of RUSI measures in control subjects over 8 weeks...
October 30, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091473/an-exploratory-electromyography-based-coactivation-index-for-the-cervical-spine
#11
Peter Le, Alexander Aurand, Thomas M Best, Safdar N Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S Marras
Objective Develop a coactivation index for the neck and test its effectiveness with complex dynamic head motions. Background Studies describing coactivation for the cervical spine are sparse in the literature. Of those in existence, they were either limited to a priori definitions of agonist/antagonist activity that limited the testing to sagittal and lateral planes or consisted of isometric exertions. Multiplanar movements would allow for a more realistic understanding of naturalistic movements in the cervical spine and propensity for neck pain...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079097/assessing-the-relationship-between-movement-and-airflow-in-the-upper-airway-using-computational-fluid-dynamics-with-motion-determined-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Alister J Bates, Andreas Schuh, Gabriel Amine-Eddine, Keith McConnell, Wolfgang Loew, Robert J Fleck, Jason C Woods, Charles L Dumoulin, Raouf S Amin
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics simulations of respiratory airflow in the upper airway reveal clinically relevant information, including sites of local resistance, inhaled particle deposition, and the effect of pathological constrictions. Unlike previous simulations, which have been performed on rigid anatomical models from static medical imaging, this work utilises ciné imaging during respiration to create dynamic models and more closely represent airway physiology. METHODS: Airway movement maps were obtained from non-rigid image registration of fast-cine MRI and applied to high-spatial-resolution airway surface models...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063454/acute-effects-of-dynamic-stretching-on-muscle-flexibility-and-performance-an-analysis-of-the-current-literature
#13
REVIEW
Jules Opplert, Nicolas Babault
Stretching has long been used in many physical activities to increase range of motion (ROM) around a joint. Stretching also has other acute effects on the neuromuscular system. For instance, significant reductions in maximal voluntary strength, muscle power or evoked contractile properties have been recorded immediately after a single bout of static stretching, raising interest in other stretching modalities. Thus, the effects of dynamic stretching on subsequent muscular performance have been questioned. This review aimed to investigate performance and physiological alterations following dynamic stretching...
October 23, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061685/neuromuscular-mechanisms-of-an-elaborate-wing-display-in-the-golden-collared-manakin-manacus-vitellinus
#14
Matthew J Fuxjager, Leonida Fusani, Franz Goller, Lisa Trost, Andries Ter Maat, Manfred Gahr, Ioana Chiver, R Miller Ligon, Jennifer Chew, Barney A Schlinger
Many species perform elaborate physical displays to court mates and compete with rivals, but the biomechanical mechanisms underlying such behavior are poorly understood. Here we address this issue by studying the neuromuscular origins of display behavior in a small tropical passerine bird called the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus). Males of this species court females by dancing around the forest floor and rapidly snapping their wings together above their back. Using radio-telemetry, we collected electromyographic (EMG) recordings from the three main muscles that control avian forelimb movement, and found how these different muscles are activated to generate various aspects of display behavior...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043641/measuring-dynamic-behavior-of-trinucleotide-repeat-tracts-in-vivo-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Gregory M Williams, Jennifer A Surtees
Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) tracts are inherently unstable during DNA replication, leading to repeat expansions and/or contractions. Expanded tracts are the cause of over 40 neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. In this chapter, we focus on the (CNG)n repeat sequences that, when expanded, lead to Huntington's disease (HD), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. We describe a series of in vivo assays, using the model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to determine and characterize the dynamic behavior of TNR tracts that are in the early stages of expansion, i...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042299/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-spasticity-in-adults-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#16
REVIEW
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Djamel Bensmail, Alain Yelnik
OBJECTIVES: Spasticity causes significant long-term disability-burden, requiring comprehensive management. This review evaluates evidence from published systematic reviews of clinical trials for effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for improved spasticity outcomes. METHODS: Data sources: a literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library) databases for published systematic reviews up to 15th June 2017...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040265/analysis-of-peripheral-b-cells-and-autoantibodies-against-the-anti-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-derived-from-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-using-single-cell-manipulation-tools
#17
Tomohiro Makino, Ryuichi Nakamura, Maki Terakawa, Satoshi Muneoka, Kazuhiro Nagahira, Yuriko Nagane, Jyoji Yamate, Masakatsu Motomura, Kimiaki Utsugisawa
The majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), an organ-specific autoimmune disease, harbor autoantibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-Abs) at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle weakness. Single cell manipulation technologies coupled with genetic engineering are very powerful tools to examine T cell and B cell repertoires and the dynamics of adaptive immunity. These tools have been utilized to develop mAbs in parallel with hybridomas, phage display technologies and B-cell immortalization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030231/als-associated-mutation-sod1-g93a-leads-to-abnormal-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-osteocytes
#18
Huan Wang, Jianxun Yi, Xuejun Li, Yajuan Xiao, Kamal Dhakal, Jingsong Zhou
While the death of motor neuron is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), defects in other cell types or organs may also actively contribute to ALS disease progression. ALS patients experience progressive skeletal muscle wasting that may not only exacerbate neuronal degeneration, but likely has a significant impact on bone function. In our previous published study, we have discovered severe bone loss in an ALS mouse model with overexpression of ALS-associated mutation SOD1(G93A) (G93A)...
October 10, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021758/acute-neuromuscular-adaptations-in-the-postural-control-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-after-perturbed-walking
#19
Cristian F Pasluosta, Simon Steib, Sarah Klamroth, Heiko Gaßner, Julia Goßler, Julius Hannink, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Klaus Pfeifer, Juergen Winkler, Jochen Klucken, Bjoern M Eskofier
Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) present motor impairments reflected in the dynamics of the center of pressure (CoP) adjustments during quiet standing. One method to study the dynamics of CoP adjustments is the entropic half-life (EnHL), which measures the short-term correlations of a time series at different time scales. Changes in the EnHL of CoP time series suggest neuromuscular adaptations in the control of posture. In this study, we sought to investigate the immediate changes in the EnHL of CoP adjustments of patients with PD during one session of perturbed (experimental group) and unperturbed treadmill walking (control group)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021141/use-of-a-dynamic-gait-trainer-for-a-child-with-thoracic-level-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Wendy Altizer, Garey Noritz, Ginny Paleg
Paediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in permanent mobility impairment with consequences for activity, participation and quality of life. This case documents the effect of an overground supported stepping intervention using a dynamic gait trainer. To our knowledge, there are no published studies on this intervention for children with SCI and similar interventions have only been reported in children at American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) levels B and C.A child with a T10 (thoracic level, vertebra 10), AIS level A injury, sustained at 2 years of age, continued to make gains in all areas including participation, activity, body structure and function over the following 4 years...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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