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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087330/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-a-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-1838-heme-peroxidase-with-a-potential-role-in-extracellular-matrixes
#1
Aina-Cathrine Øvergård, Christiane Eichner, Frank Nilsen, Sussie Dalvin
Heme peroxidases are the most abundant type of peroxidase catalyzing a H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of substrates. They are involved in numerous processes like the innate immune response, hormone and prostaglandin synthesis and crosslinking of proteins within extracellular matrixes (ECM) as well as molecules within the cuticle and chorion of arthropods and nematodes. In the present study, a Lepeophtheirus salmonis heme peroxidase (LsHPX) 1 was characterized. Amino acids in the active site of heme peroxidases were conserved, and the predicted protein sequence showed the highest similarity to genes annotated as chorion peroxidases and genes suggested to be involved in cuticle hardening or adhesion...
January 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065847/a-drosophila-model-of-gdap1-function-reveals-the-involvement-of-insulin-signalling-in-the-mitochondria-dependent-neuromuscular-degeneration
#2
Víctor López Del Amo, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Marta Seco-Cervera, José Luis García-Giménez, Federico Vicente Pallardó, Antonio Pineda-Lucena, Máximo Ibo Galindo
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a rare peripheral neuropathy for which there is no specific treatment. Some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth are due to mutations in the GDAP1 gene. A striking feature of mutations in GDAP1 is that they have a variable clinical manifestation, according to disease onset and progression, histology and mode of inheritance. Studies in cellular and animal models have revealed a role of GDAP1 in mitochondrial morphology and distribution, calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. To get a better understanding of the disease mechanism we have generated models of over-expression and RNA interference of the Drosophila Gdap1 gene...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060927/acute-effects-of-three-neuromuscular-warm-up-strategies-on-several-physical-performance-measures-in-football-players
#3
Francisco Ayala, Ana Calderón-López, Juan Carlos Delgado-Gosálbez, Sergio Parra-Sánchez, Carlos Pomares-Noguera, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Alejandro López-Valenciano, Mark De Ste Croix
No studies have analysed the acute effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee warm-up programmes on major physical performance measures. The aim of this study was to analyse the acute (post-exercise) effects of the FIFA 11+, Harmoknee and dynamic warm-up routines on several physical performance measures in amateur football players. A randomized, crossover and counterbalanced study design was used to address the purpose of this study. A total of sixteen amateur football players completed the following protocols in a randomized order on separate days: a) FIFA 11+; b) Harmoknee; and c) dynamic warm-up (DWU)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039397/physical-exercise-in-aging-human-skeletal-muscle-increases-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-expression-levels-and-affects-mitochondria-dynamics
#4
Sandra Zampieri, Cristina Mammucari, Vanina Romanello, Laura Barberi, Laura Pietrangelo, Aurora Fusella, Simone Mosole, Gaia Gherardi, Christian Höfer, Stefan Löfler, Nejc Sarabon, Jan Cvecka, Matthias Krenn, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Feliciano Protasi, Antonio Musarò, Marco Sandri, Rosario Rizzuto
Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033651/axons-get-ahead-insights-into-axon-guidance-and-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#5
REVIEW
John K Chilton, Sarah Guthrie
Cranial nerves innervate head muscles in a well-characterised and highly conserved pattern. Identification of genes responsible for human congenital disorders of these nerves, combined with the analysis of their role in axonal development in animal models has advanced understanding of how neuromuscular connectivity is established. Here we focus on the ocular motor system, as an instructive example of the success of this approach in unravelling the aetiology of human strabismus. The discovery that ocular motility disorders can arise from mutations in transcription factors, including HoxA1, HoxB1, MafB, Phox2A and Sall4, has revealed gene regulatory networks that pattern the brainstem and/or govern the differentiation of cranial motor neurons...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018246/acetylcholine-induced-inhibition-of-presynaptic-calcium-signals-and-transmitter-release-in-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#6
Eduard Khaziev, Dmitry Samigullin, Nikita Zhilyakov, Nijaz Fatikhov, Ellya Bukharaeva, Alexei Verkhratsky, Evgeny Nikolsky
Acetylcholine (ACh), released from axonal terminals of motor neurons in neuromuscular junctions regulates the efficacy of neurotransmission through activation of presynaptic nicotinic and muscarinic autoreceptors. Receptor-mediated presynaptic regulation could reflect either direct action on exocytotic machinery or modulation of Ca(2+) entry and resulting intra-terminal Ca(2+) dynamics. We have measured free intra-terminal cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) using Oregon-Green 488 microfluorimetry, in parallel with voltage-clamp recordings of spontaneous (mEPC) and evoked (EPC) postsynaptic currents in post-junctional skeletal muscle fiber...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002649/toward-modeling-locomotion-using-electromyography-informed-3d-models-application-to-cerebral-palsy
#7
REVIEW
M Sartori, J W Fernandez, L Modenese, C P Carty, L A Barber, K Oberhofer, J Zhang, G G Handsfield, N S Stott, T F Besier, D Farina, D G Lloyd
This position paper proposes a modeling pipeline to develop clinically relevant neuromusculoskeletal models to understand and treat complex neurological disorders. Although applicable to a variety of neurological conditions, we provide direct pipeline applicative examples in the context of cerebral palsy (CP). This paper highlights technologies in: (1) patient-specific segmental rigid body models developed from magnetic resonance imaging for use in inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics pipelines; (2) efficient population-based approaches to derive skeletal models and muscle origins/insertions that are useful for population statistics and consistent creation of continuum models; (3) continuum muscle descriptions to account for complex muscle architecture including spatially varying material properties with muscle wrapping; (4) muscle and tendon properties specific to CP; and (5) neural-based electromyography-informed methods for muscle force prediction...
December 21, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002180/effect-of-whole-body-vibration-on-neuromuscular-activation-of-leg-muscles-during-dynamic-exercises-in-individuals-with-stroke
#8
Lin-Rong Liao, Marco Yiu Chung Pang
This study examined the leg muscle activity during exposure to different whole-body vibration (WBV) intensities while performing various dynamic exercises in chronic stroke patients. Thirty chronic stroke patients performed a series of dynamic exercises under three conditions: 1) low-intensity WBV [peak acceleration: 0.96 units of gravity of Earth (g)], 2) high-intensity WBV (1.61g), and 3) no WBV (NWBV). Neuromuscular activation was recorded with surface electromyography (EMG) on bilateral biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GS) in both legs and was reported as EMGrms (root mean square) normalized to % maximal voluntary contraction...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941275/increased-postural-sway-and-changes-in-the-neuromuscular-activities-of-the-ankle-stabilizing-muscles-at-ovulation-in-healthy-young-women
#9
Haneul Lee, JongEun Yim
Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries among the physically active subjects. Ankle inversion-eversion laxity is greater and dynamic postural control is less in women compared with men. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in postural sway and its effects on the neuromuscular activities of the ankle stabilizing muscles during the menstrual cycle in young women. Fourteen young women with regular menstrual cycles participated in this experiment. Postural sway and electromyographic signals of the lateral gastrocnemius, peroneus longus (PL), and tibialis anterior (TA) were recorded while the participants performed eight different balance tasks at ovulation and early follicular phase during one full menstrual cycle...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935170/ultrasound-of-oral-and-masticatory-muscles-why-every-neuromuscular-swallow-team-should-have-an-ultrasound-machine
#10
Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Marloes Lagarde, Nens van Alfen
Patients with neuromuscular disorders often present with swallowing difficulties due to oral phase problems and pharyngeal residue after swallow. It is important to assess the underlying pathology and cause of the swallowing disturbance in this patient group, such as dystrophic changes in oral and masticatory muscles. This allows for more patient-tailored recommendations, for example optimal compensation strategies to maintain function for longer. Ultrasound can show structural changes caused by dystrophy or denervation of muscles, detect involuntary movements such as fasciculations, and provide dynamic video images of tongue motion during swallowing attempts...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923175/errors-in-the-ankle-plantarflexor-force-production-are-related-to-the-gait-deficits-of-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Brenda L Davies, Rashelle M Hoffman, Kathleen Healey, Rana Zabad, Max J Kurz
BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often have limited mobility that is thought to be due to the neuromuscular impairments of the ankle. Greater isometric motor control of the ankle has been associated with better standing postural balance but its relationship to mobility is less understood. The objectives of this investigation were to quantify the motor control of the ankle plantarflexors of individuals with MS during a dynamic isometric motor task, and explore the relationship between the ankle force control and gait alterations...
December 3, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918658/countermovement-jump-phase-characteristics-of-senior-and-academy-rugby-league-players
#12
John J McMahon, Shannon Murphy, Sophie J E Rej, Paul Comfort
PURPOSE: Gross measures of countermovement jump (CMJ) performance are commonly used to track maturational changes in neuromuscular function within rugby league (RL). The purpose of this study was to conduct both a gross and a more detailed temporal phase analysis of the CMJ performances of senior and academy RL players, to provide greater insight into how neuromuscular function differs between these groups. METHODS: Twenty senior and fourteen academy (under-19) male RL players performed three maximal effort CMJs on a force platform with forward dynamics subsequently employed to allow gross performance measures and entire kinetic and kinematic-time curves to be compared between groups...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896682/methods-of-power-force-velocity-profiling-during-sprint-running-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Matt R Cross, Matt Brughelli, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin
The ability of the human body to generate maximal power is linked to a host of performance outcomes and sporting success. Power-force-velocity relationships characterize limits of the neuromuscular system to produce power, and their measurement has been a common topic in research for the past century. Unfortunately, the narrative of the available literature is complex, with development occurring across a variety of methods and technology. This review focuses on the different equipment and methods used to determine mechanical characteristics of maximal exertion human sprinting...
November 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869410/the-effect-of-strength-training-based-on-process-approach-intervention-on-balance-of-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#14
Hasan Kordi, Mehdi Sohrabi, Alireza Saberi Kakhki, Seyed R Attarzadeh Hossini
INTRODUCTION: Balance is one of the main problems of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). According to process-oriented approach, besides strength training, neuromuscular adaptations can improve balance. OBJETIVE: To evaluate the effects of strength training on improving static and dynamic balance in DCD children. METHODS AND POPULATION: Children between 7 to 9 years old in Tehran participated in the study through randomized controlled trial design...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866730/hereditary-neuropathies-an-update
#15
REVIEW
T Stojkovic
Hereditary neuropathies are the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease represents the most common form with an average prevalence ranging from 1/2500 to 1/1200, depending on the studies. To date and with the advances of the latest generation sequencing, more than 80 genes have been identified. Although the common clinical phenotype comprises a progressive distal muscle weakness and sensory loss, foot deformities and decreased or absent tendon reflexes, clinical and electrophysiological phenotypes exhibit great variability...
December 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865065/how-do-we-recognize-the-child-with-osas
#16
Koen F Joosten, Helena Larramona, Silvia Miano, Dick Van Waardenburg, Athanasios G Kaditis, Nele Vandenbussche, Refika Ersu
Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing includes a spectrum of clinical entities with variable severity ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The clinical suspicion for OSAS is most often raised by parental report of specific symptoms and/or abnormalities identified by the physical examination which predispose to upper airway obstruction (e.g., adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders). Symptoms and signs of OSAS are classified into those directly related to the intermittent pharyngeal airway obstruction (e...
November 16, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856712/rates-of-performance-loss-and-neuromuscular-activity-in-men-and-women-during-cycling-evidence-for-a-common-metabolic-basis-of-muscle-fatigue
#17
Christopher W Sundberg, Sandra K Hunter, Matthew W Bundle
The durations that muscular force and power outputs can be sustained until failure fall predictably on an exponential decline between an individual's 3-s burst maximum to the maximum performance they can sustain aerobically. The exponential time constants describing these rates of performance loss are similar across individuals suggesting that a common metabolically-based mechanism governs muscle fatigue; however, these conclusions come from studies mainly on men. To test whether the same physiological understanding can be applied to women, we compared the performance-duration relationships and neuromuscular activity between 7 men (23...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854220/-get-the-balance-right-pathological-significance-of-autophagy-perturbation-in-neuromuscular-disorders
#18
Perrine Castets, Stephan Frank, Michael Sinnreich, Markus A Rüegg
Recent research has revealed that autophagy, a major catabolic process in cells, is dysregulated in several neuromuscular diseases and contributes to the muscle wasting caused by non-muscle disorders (e.g. cancer cachexia) or during aging (i.e. sarcopenia). From there, the idea arose to interfere with autophagy or manipulate its regulatory signalling to help restore muscle homeostasis and attenuate disease progression. The major difficulty for the development of therapeutic strategies is to restore a balanced autophagic flux, due to the dynamic nature of autophagy...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852738/contributions-of-rapid-neuromuscular-transmission-to-the-fine-control-of-acoustic-parameters-of-birdsong
#19
Caitlin Mencio, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Franz Goller
Neural control of complex vocal behaviors, such as birdsong and speech, requires integration of biomechanical nonlinearities through muscular output. Although control of airflow and tension of vibrating tissues are known functions of vocal muscles, it remains unclear how specific muscle characteristics contribute to specific acoustic parameters. To address this gap, we removed heparan sulfate chains using heparitinases to subtly perturb neuromuscular transmission in the syrinx of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849388/competition-level-differences-on-the-lower-quarter-y-balance-test-in-baseball-players
#20
Robert J Butler, Garrett Bullock, Todd Arnold, Phillip Plisky, Robin Queen
CONTEXT: Decreased performance in dynamic balance has previously been associated with a history of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball players. Previous research on dynamic balance in soccer players has shown that test performance depends on competition level. However, dynamic balance has yet to be examined in baseball players. OBJECTIVE: To understand normative values and determine differences in dynamic balance, as measured by the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test, across competition levels in baseball players...
December 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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