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Eunjoo Cho, Euna Lee, Eun Young Kim
The circadian clock system enables organisms to anticipate the rhythmic environmental changes and to manifest behavior and physiology at advantageous times of day. Transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL) is the basic feature of eukaryotic circadian clock and is based on the rhythmic association of circadian transcriptional activator and repressor. In Drosophila, repression of dCLOCK/CYCLE (dCLK/CYC) mediated transcription by PERIOD (PER) is critical for inducing circadian rhythms of gene expression...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Dimuthu C Senevirathna, Victoria L Blair, Melissa V Werrett, Philip C Andrews
Eight novel bismuth(III) sulfonato compounds have been synthesized and characterized using the sonochemical reaction of Bi2O3 with a range of sulfonic acids, including 2,5-dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid (2,5-DMSH), 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (2,4-DNSH), 2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonic acid (2,5-DCSH), 1,2-benzenedisulfonic acid (1,2-BDSH2), 1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (1,3-BDSH2), 2-sulfobenzoic acid (2-SBH2), 3-sulfobenzoic acid (3-SBH2), and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (NPSH). Six of the complexes (1, 2, 4, and 6-8) were structurally characterized through single-crystal X-ray crystallography...
October 14, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Koki Fujimori, Toshiki Tezuka, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Hirobumi Tada, Takuya Matsumoto, Miho Isoda, Ryota Hashimoto, Nubutaka Hattori, Takuya Takahashi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitate understanding of the etiology of diseases, discovery of new drugs and development of novel therapeutic interventions. A frequently used starting source of cells for generating iPSCs has been dermal fibroblasts (DFs) isolated from skin biopsies. However, there are also numerous repositories containing lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (LCLs) generated from a variety of patients. To date, this rich bioresource of LCLs has been underused for generating iPSCs, and its use would greatly expand the range of targeted diseases that could be studied by using patient-specific iPSCs...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Brain
L Fang, Y J Zhang, J Fang, Y Zhu
We show by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) that in different types of isotropic turbulence, the fourth-order statistical invariants have approximately a linear relation, which can be represented by a straight line in the phase plane, passing two extreme states: the Gaussian state and the restricted Euler state. Also, each DNS case corresponds to an equilibrium region that is roughly Reynolds-dependent. In addition, both the time reversal and the compressibility effect lead to nonequilibrium transition processes in this phase plane...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Meritxell Sabidó, Alessandro Caruso, Silvano Barbosa de Oliveira, Fábio Mesquita, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors...
August 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Emily R Koch, Permal Deo
BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia enhances the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to diabetic complications. Thus, controlling blood glucose levels, inhibiting the formation of AGEs and reducing ROS are key therapeutic targets in early stage type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of seven commercial liquid nutritional supplements against carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, was determined by dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside solution, respectively...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Magdalena Petrová, Ivan Rosenberg
This unit contains detailed synthetic protocols for the preparation of 4'-methoxy 2'-deoxynucleoside phosphoramidite monomers for A, G, C, T, and U. First, 3'-silyl-protected 2'-deoxynucleosides (dNs) are converted in two steps to 4',5'-enol acetates as the key starting compounds. Next, 4'-methoxy dNs are prepared by a one-pot procedure comprising N-iodosuccinimide-promoted methoxylation, hydrolysis, and reduction of the formed intermediates. Finally, 3'-phosphoramidites of 4'-methoxy dNs are obtained by a routine three-step procedure...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Daniel W Meyer, Branko Bijeljic
We devise an efficient methodology to provide a universal statistical description of advection-dominated dispersion (Péclet→∞) in natural porous media including carbonates. First, we investigate the dispersion of tracer particles by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The transverse dispersion is found to be essentially determined by the tortuosity and it approaches a Fickian limit within a dozen characteristic scales. Longitudinal dispersion was found to be Fickian in the limit for bead packs and superdiffusive for all other natural media inspected...
July 2016: Physical Review. E
Hui-Ting Song, Yuan Gao, Yi-Min Yang, Wen-Jing Xiao, Shi-Hui Liu, Wu-Cheng Xia, Zi-Lu Liu, Li Yi, Zheng-Bing Jiang
Synergistic combination of cellulase and xylanase has been performed on pre-treated substrates in many previous studies, while few on natural substrates. In this study, three unpretreated lignocellulosic substrates were studied, including corncob, corn stover, and rice straw. The results indicated that when the mixed cellulase and xylanase were applied, reducing sugar concentrations were calculated as 19.53, 15.56, and 17.35mg/ml, respectively, based on the 3,5 dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Compared to the treatment with only cellulose, the hydrolysis yields caused by mixed cellulase and xylanase were improved by 133%, 164%, and 545%, respectively...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Ralf Weigel, Manolis Polemikos, Nesrin Uksul, Joachim K Krauss
PURPOSE: Surgical treatment of Tarlov cysts is still a matter of debate. Published literature thus far includes mainly small case series with retrospective evaluation and short-term follow-up. We present a novel microsurgical technique that combines the decompression of the nerve fibers with the prevention of recurrence. The long-term follow-up is provided. METHODS: The indication for surgery was incapacitating pain refractory to medical therapy for at least 6 months...
August 23, 2016: European Spine Journal
Zuzanna Kurowska, Michael Jewett, Per Ludvik Brattås, Itzia Jimenez-Ferrer, Xuyian Kenéz, Tomas Björklund, Ulrika Nordström, Patrik Brundin, Maria Swanberg
Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease are attributed to degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons (DNs). Heterozygosity for Engrailed-1 (En1), one of the key factors for programming and maintenance of DNs, results in a parkinsonian phenotype featuring progressive degeneration of DNs in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), decreased striatal dopamine levels and swellings of nigro-striatal axons in the SwissOF1-En1+/- mouse strain. In contrast, C57Bl/6-En1+/- mice do not display this neurodegenerative phenotype, suggesting that susceptibility to En1 heterozygosity is genetically regulated...
2016: Scientific Reports
Roberto Alonso, Raúl Monroy, Luis A Trejo
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical infrastructure of any network, and, not surprisingly a common target of cybercrime. There are numerous works that analyse higher level DNS traffic to detect anomalies in the DNS or any other network service. By contrast, few efforts have been made to study and protect the recursive DNS level. In this paper, we introduce a novel abstraction of the recursive DNS traffic to detect a flooding attack, a kind of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS). The crux of our abstraction lies on a simple observation: Recursive DNS queries, from IP addresses to domain names, form social groups; hence, a DDoS attack should result in drastic changes on DNS social structure...
2016: Sensors
Masaru Yoshikawa, Yoichi Robertus Fujii
Dysfunction of ribosome biogenesis induces divergent ribosome-related diseases including ribosomopathy and occasionally results in carcinogenesis. Although many defects in ribosome-related genes have been investigated, little is known about contribution of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome-related disorders. Meanwhile, microRNA (miRNA), an important regulator of gene expression, is derived from both coding and noncoding region of the genome and is implicated in various diseases. Therefore, we performed in silico analyses using M-fold, TargetScan, GeneCoDia3, and so forth to investigate RNA relationships between rRNA and miRNA against cellular stresses...
2016: BioMed Research International
Yoshizo Matsuka, Yoshiyuki Hagiwara, Katsushi Tamaki, Hisahiro Takeuchi, Masanori Fujisawa, Takahiro Ono, Yoshihiro Tsukiyama, Kan Nagao, Kazuhiro Tsuga, Hideki Aita, Hisatomo Kondo, Kenji Fueki, Hiroaki Tsukasaki, Keisuke Nishigawa, Shogo Ozawa, Rika Kuwatsuru, Hajime Minakuchi, Toshimitsu Iinuma, Takashi Matsuura, Kanji Ishibashi, Shigehisa Fujii, Toshihiro Hirai, Keiichi Sasaki, Hirofumi Yatani, Yoshimasa Igarashi, Yuji Sato, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Tetsuo Yamamori, Takuo Kuboki, Kazuyoshi Baba, Kiyoshi Koyano, Hironobu Sato, Hideo Matsumura
PURPOSE: The Japan Prosthodontic Society (JPS) has proposed a new diagnostic nomenclature system (DNS), based on pathogenesis and etiology, to facilitate and improve prosthodontic treatment. This system specifies patient disability and the causative factor (i.e. "B (disability) caused by A (causative factor)"). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of this DNS. STUDY SELECTION: The JPS Clinical Guideline Committee assessed mock patient charts and formulated disease names using the new DNS...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
D Thejaswi, Rezwin M Alfred, Florida P D'Souza
Resonance change is a common clinical symptom in individuals with deviated nasal septum. Often this anatomical deficit is surgically treated by septoplasty. Therefore monitoring resonance changes using acoustical tools is vital. Hence, the study investigated cepstral measure differences in subjects with deviated nasal septum compared to normals. A case-control study design involving 20 subjects within 18-40 years divided into Group I of 10 subjects with deviated nasal septum (DNS) and Group II of 10 normal subjects participated...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Jazmín Alarcón-Espósito, Renato Contreras, Ricardo A Tapia, Paola R Campodónico
We report an experimental study on the effect of solvents on the model SN Ar reaction between 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and morpholine in a series of pure ionic liquids (IL). A significant catalytic effect is observed with reference to the same reaction run in water, acetonitrile, and other conventional solvents. The series of IL considered include the anions, NTf2 (-) , DCN(-) , SCN(-) , CF3 SO3 (-) , PF6 (-) , and FAP(-) with the series of cations 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([BMIM](+) ), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([EMIM](+) ), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethyl-imidazolium ([BM2 IM](+) ), and 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium ([BMPyr](+) )...
September 5, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yu-Ching Chang, Hao-Yuan Lee, Jing-Long Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chyi-Liang Chen, Chang-Teng Wu
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the common causes of poisoning in patients and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the pediatric group. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed children (age < 18 years) with CO poisoning from nonfire accidents at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010. We analyzed the patients' characteristics, management, and outcome; compared the data of patients who received hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) to those who received normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy; and identified the ri0sk factors for patients who developed delayed neurological sequelae (DNS) or permanent neurological sequelae (PNS)...
July 17, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Euna Lee, Eunjoo Cho, Doo Hyun Kang, Eun Hee Jeong, Zheng Chen, Seung-Hee Yoo, Eun Young Kim
Circadian clocks are composed of transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs) at the cellular level. In Drosophila TTFLs, the transcription factor dCLOCK (dCLK)/CYCLE (CYC) activates clock target gene expression, which is repressed by the physical interaction with PERIOD (PER). Here, we show that amino acids (AA) 657-707 of dCLK, a region that is homologous to the mouse Clock exon 19-encoded region, is crucial for PER binding and E-box-dependent transactivation in S2 cells. Consistently, in transgenic flies expressing dCLK with an AA657-707 deletion in the Clock (Clk(out)) genetic background (p{dClk-Δ};Clk(out)), oscillation of core clock genes' mRNAs displayed diminished amplitude compared with control flies, and the highly abundant dCLKΔ657-707 showed significantly decreased binding to PER...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nadine A Kasparian, Shab Mireskandari, Phyllis N Butow, Mbathio Dieng, Anne E Cust, Bettina Meiser, Kristine Barlow-Stewart, Scott Menzies, Graham J Mann
PURPOSE: People with melanoma often report pervasive fears about cancer recurrence, unmet information needs, and difficulties accessing psychological care. Interventions addressing the supportive care needs of people with melanoma are rare, and needs are often overlooked. The study evaluated a newly developed, evidence-based, psycho-educational resource for people with melanoma. METHODS: The evaluation study comprised three groups: adults at high risk of new primary disease due to multiple previous melanomas or one melanoma and dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS), adults at moderate risk due to one previous melanoma and no DNS, and health professionals involved in melanoma care...
July 27, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Shaun D Carstairs, Alexander D Miller, Alicia B Minns, Jay Duchnick, Robert H Riffenburgh, Richard F Clark, Christian A Tomaszewski
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been advocated for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. There exists considerable debate as to whether HBO prevents delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS) due to CO poisoning. Additionally, existing data in the literature supporting HBO efficacy do not identify an optimal number of HBO treatments. We sought to determine in a mouse model whether there is a difference between one versus multiple HBO sessions for the prevention of DNS. Fifty mice were randomized into five groups of ten mice each: (1) control, receiving no CO exposure or treatment; (2) CO poisoned, receiving no treatment (CO group); (3) CO poisoned, receiving normobaric oxygen for 58 min following the end of exposure (CO + NBO group); (4) CO poisoned, followed by one session of HBO(CO + HBO1); and (5) CO poisoned, followed by three HBO treatment sessions, one every 6 h (CO + HBO3)...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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