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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322219/two-dimensional-turbulence-in-symmetric-binary-fluid-mixtures-coarsening-arrest-by-the-inverse-cascade
#1
Prasad Perlekar, Nairita Pal, Rahul Pandit
We study two-dimensional (2D) binary-fluid turbulence by carrying out an extensive direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the forced, statistically steady turbulence in the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations. In the absence of any coupling, we choose parameters that lead (a) to spinodal decomposition and domain growth, which is characterized by the spatiotemporal evolution of the Cahn-Hilliard order parameter ϕ, and (b) the formation of an inverse-energy-cascade regime in the energy spectrum E(k), in which energy cascades towards wave numbers k that are smaller than the energy-injection scale kin j in the turbulent fluid...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297886/reynolds-number-scaling-of-velocity-increments-in-isotropic-turbulence
#2
Kartik P Iyer, Katepalli R Sreenivasan, P K Yeung
Using the largest database of isotropic turbulence available to date, generated by the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations on an 8192^{3} periodic box, we show that the longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale identically in the inertial range. By examining the DNS data at several Reynolds numbers, we infer that the contradictory results of the past on the inertial-range universality are artifacts of low Reynolds number and residual anisotropy. We further show that both longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale on locally averaged dissipation rate, just as postulated by Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypothesis, and that, in isotropic turbulence, a single independent scaling adequately describes fluid turbulence in the inertial range...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273984/study-of-risk-factors-for-development-of-voice-disorders-and-its-impact-on-the-quality-of-life-of-school-teachers-in-mangalore-india
#3
Arati Alva, Megna Machado, Kiran Bhojwani, Suja Sreedharan
INTRODUCTION: School teachers are most prone to the development and detrimental effects of voice disorders as a consequence of their work. The risk factors for development of dysphonia in teachers are multifactorial. AIM: The primary aim of our study was to investigate the various risk factors that influence the onset and progression of voice disorders in school teachers in the Indian context. We wanted to assess the effect of voice problems on the physical, psychosocial and functional aspect of a teacher's life...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262612/gold-dendrites-co-deposited-with-m13-virus-as-a-biosensor-platform-for-nitrite-ions
#4
Yeji Seo, Shanmugam Manivannan, Inhak Kang, Seung-Wuk Lee, Kyuwon Kim
We developed a biosensor for nitrite ion on an electrode surface modified with M13 viruses and gold nanostructures. Gold dendritic nanostructures (Au-DNs) are electrochemically co-deposited from 4E peptides engineered M13 virus (M134E) mixed electrolyte on to the ITO electrode. The M134E could specifically nucleate Au precursor (Gold (III) chloride), which enable the efficient growth of dendritic nanostructures, whereas such dendritic structures were not obtained in the presence of wild-type and Y3E peptides engineered M13 viruses...
February 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250248/comparative-effects-of-denosumab-or-bisphosphonate-treatment-on-bone-mineral-density-and-calcium-metabolism-in-postmenopausal-women
#5
A Augoulea, E Tsakonas, I Triantafyllopoulos, D Rizos, E Armeni, N Tsoltos, S Tournis, E Deligeoroglou, A Antoniou, I Lambrinoudaki
OBJECTIVES: To clarify potential differences between denosumab (DNS) and bisphosphonates (BIS) in terms of bone density and bone metabolism, in a sample of postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 113 postmenopausal women aged 53-66 years were treated with either DNS or BIS for 12 months. Bone densitometry and laboratory tests were compared between baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Femoral neck BMD increased in both treatment-arms (FN-BMD, DNS: 0...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208245/preparation-of-yellow-green-emissive-carbon-dots-and-their-application-in-constructing-a-fluorescent-turn-on-nanoprobe-for-imaging-of-selenol-in-living-cells
#6
Qin Wang, Shengrui Zhang, Yaogang Zhong, Xiao-Feng Yang, Zheng Li, Hua Li
Selenocysteine (Sec) carries out the majority of the functions of the various Se-containing species in vivo. Thus, it is of great importance to develop sensitive and selective assays to detect Sec. Herein, a carbon-dot-based fluorescent turn-on probe for highly selective detection of selenol in living cells is presented. The highly photoluminescent carbon dots that emit yellow-green fluorescence (Y-G-CDs; λmax = 520 nm in water) were prepared by using m-aminophenol as carbon precursor through a facile solvothermal method...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184988/cloning-evaluation-and-high-level-expression-of-a-thermo-alkaline-pectate-lyase-from-alkaliphilic-bacillus-clausii-with-potential-in-ramie-degumming
#7
Cheng Zhou, Yanfen Xue, Yanhe Ma
Alkaline pectate lyases (Pels) have potential application in bioscouring of the textile industry. In this study, a thermo-alkaline Pel (BacPelA) gene from an alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii strain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The mature BacPelA exhibited maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 70 °C and showed high cleavage capability on methylated pectins. BacPelA showed the highest specific activity of 936.2 U mg(-1) on ≥85% methylated pectin and 675.5 U mg(-1) on standard substrate polygalacturonic acid (PGA) upon evaluation of the absorbance at 235 nm (A235)...
February 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165743/design-and-synthesis-of-novel-and-selective-phosphodiesterase-2-pde2a-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-memory-disorders
#8
Laurent Gomez, Mark Eben Massari, Troy Vickers, Graeme Freestone, William Vernier, Kiev Ly, Rui Xu, Margaret McCarrick, Tami Marrone, Markus Metz, Yingzhou G Yan, Zachary W Yoder, Robert Lemus, Nicola J Broadbent, Richard Barido, Noelle Warren, Kara Schmelzer, David Neul, Dong Lee, Carsten B Andersen, Kristen Sebring, Kathleen Aertgeerts, Xianbo Zhou, Ali Tabatabaei, Marco Peters, J Guy Breitenbucher
A series of potent and selective [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine PDE2a inhibitors is reported. The design and improvement of the binding properties of this series was achieved using X-ray crystal structures in conjunction with careful analysis of electronic and structural requirements for the PDE2a enzyme. One of the lead compounds, compound 27 (DNS-8254), was identified as a potent and highly selective PDE2a enzyme inhibitor with favorable rat pharmacokinetic properties. Interestingly, the increased potency of compound 27 was facilitated by the formation of a halogen bond with the oxygen of Tyr827 present in the PDE2a active site...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160709/normal-viscous-force-of-pendular-liquid-bridge-between-two-relatively-moving-particles
#9
Kimiaki Washino, Ei L Chan, Taku Matsumoto, Seiji Hashino, Takuya Tsuji, Toshitsugu Tanaka
In this work, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of a pendular liquid bridge formed between two relatively moving particles are performed to evaluate the normal component of the viscous force exerted on the particles. The viscous force obtained are non-dimensionalised in order to clarify the parameters which can affect the dimensionless force. The DNS results are compared with the viscous force models in literature which are commonly used in DEM simulations. It is found that these models cannot be used with large inter-particle separation distance...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114366/progressive-enrichment-of-stemness-features-and-tumor-stromal-alterations-in-multistep-hepatocarcinogenesis
#10
Jeong Eun Yoo, Young-Joo Kim, Hyungjin Rhee, Haeryoung Kim, Ei Yong Ahn, Jin Sub Choi, Massimo Roncalli, Young Nyun Park
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subset of tumor cells, contribute to an aggressive biological behavior, which is also affected by the tumor stroma. Despite the role of CSCs and the tumor stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of stemness have not yet been studied in relation to tumor stromal alterations in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated the expression status of stemness markers and tumor stromal changes in B viral carcinogenesis, which is the main etiology of HCC in Asia. Stemness features of tumoral hepatocytes (EpCAM, K19, Oct3/4, c-KIT, c-MET, and CD133), and tumor stromal cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD68, CD163, and IL-6 were analyzed in 36 low grade dysplastic nodules (DNs), 48 high grade DNs, 30 early HCCs (eHCCs), and 51 progressed HCCs (pHCCs) by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111737/expression-of-dna-methylation-related-proteins-in-invasive-lobular-carcinoma-of-breast-comparison-to-invasive-ductal-carcinoma
#11
Yoon Jin Cha, Hye Min Kim, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the expression of DNA methylation-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of breast with those of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of breast and to assess its potential clinical application. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of DNS methylation-related proteins (5-meC, DNMT1, DNMT3B and ISL-1) was applied to tissue microarrays generated from 108 ILCs and 203 IDCs. Protein expression and its correlation with clinicopatholgic variables were statistically analyzed...
January 23, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078553/expression-of-apoptosis-regulatory-genes-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-neonates-born-to-mothers-with-diabetes
#12
Hossein Haghir, Javad Hami, Nassim Lotfi, Mostafa Peyvandi, Simagol Ghasemi, Mehran Hosseini
Diabetes during pregnancy impairs the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and causes cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring. However, the exact mechanism by which the maternal diabetes affects the development of the brain remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes in pregnancy on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes and the numerical density of degenerating dark neurons (DNs) in the hippocampus of offspring at the first postnatal two weeks...
April 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056425/fcd-type-ii-and-mtor-pathway-evidence-for-different-mechanisms-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dysmorphic-neurons
#13
Laura Rossini, Flavio Villani, Tiziana Granata, Laura Tassi, Giovanni Tringali, Francesco Cardinale, Eleonora Aronica, Roberto Spreafico, Rita Garbelli
Type II focal cortical dysplasia (FCD II) is a malformation of cortical development, frequently associated with intractable epilepsy, characterised by cortical dyslamination, dysmorphic neurons (DNs) and balloon cells (BCs). We investigated the expression of pS6 (downstream target) and pPDK1-pAkt (upstream targets) as evidence for mTOR pathway activation and their co-expression with Interleukin-1β in FCD II surgical specimens and compared the findings with control non-epileptic tissue, non-malformed epileptic tissue or acquired epilepsy-Rasmussen's Encephalitis (RE) occasionally presenting pS6 and Interleukin-1β positive abnormal neurons...
January 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039980/effects-of-a-small-magnetic-field-on-homoclinic-bifurcations-in-a-low-prandtl-number-fluid
#14
Arnab Basak, Krishna Kumar
Effects of a uniform magnetic field on homoclinic bifurcations in Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a fluid of Prandtl number Pr = 0.01 are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS). A uniform magnetic field is applied either in the vertical direction or in the horizontal direction. For a weak vertical magnetic field, the possibilities of both forward and backward homoclinic bifurcations are observed leading to a spontaneous gluing of two limit cycles into one as well as a spontaneous breaking of a limit cycle into two for lower values of the Chandrasekhar's number ( Q≤5)...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036289/expression-of-pannexin-1-and-2-in-cortical-lesions-from-intractable-epilepsy-patients-with-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#15
Song Li, Zhenle Zang, Jiaojiang He, Xin Chen, Sixun Yu, Yuchun Pei, Zhi Hou, Ning An, Hui Yang, Chunqing Zhang, Shiyong Liu
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of intractable epilepsy in children however the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of FCD and FCD induced epilepsy remain unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that the large-pore ion channels, pannexin 1 (Panx1) and 2 (Panx2), are involved in epilepsy and brain development. In this study, we investigated the expression of Panx1 and Panx2 in surgical samples from patients with FCD type Ia (FCDIa), type IIa (FCDIIa), and type IIb (FCDIIb) and in age-matched autopsy control samples...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967192/unsteady-turbulence-cascades
#16
Susumu Goto, J C Vassilicos
We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5/3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941264/a-sensitive-precolumn-derivatization-method-for-determination-of-piperazine-in-vortioxetine-hydrobromide-using-a-c8-column-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#17
Shubo Dong, Zhengyu Yan, Hanyue Yang
A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established to determine the trace residues of piperazine in vortioxetine hydrobromide. The presence of piperazine was determined by precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters SunFire C8 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) in gradient elution mode, using formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Detection was performed in a single quadrupole mass spectrometer in single ion monitoring mode using positive ionization...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935673/cell-density-dependence-of-host-defense-peptide-activity-and-selectivity-in-the-presence-of-host-cells
#18
LETTER
Filippo Savini, Vincenzo Luca, Alessio Bocedi, Renato Massoud, Yoonkyung Park, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Lorenzo Stella
Host-defense peptides (HDPs) are promising compounds against multidrug-resistant microbes. In vitro, their bactericidal and toxic concentrations are significantly different, but this might be due to the use of separate assays, with different cell densities. For experiments with a single cell type, the cell-density dependence of the active concentration of the DNS-PMAP23 HDP could be predicted based on the water/cell-membrane partition equilibrium and exhibited a lower bound at low cell counts. On the basis of these data, in the simultaneous presence of both bacteria and an excess of human cells, one would expect no significant toxicity, but also inhibition of the bactericidal activity due to peptide sequestration by host cells...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906638/gene-duplications-and-losses-among-vertebrate-deoxyribonucleoside-kinases-of-the-non-tk1-family
#19
Zeeshan Mutahir, Louise Slot Christiansen, Anders R Clausen, Martin W Berchtold, Zoran Gojkovic, Birgitte Munch-Petersen, Wolfgang Knecht, Jure Piškur
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) salvage deoxyribonucleosides (dNs) and catalyze the rate limiting step of this salvage pathway by converting dNs into corresponding monophosphate forms. These enzymes serve as an excellent model to study duplicated genes and their evolutionary history. So far, among vertebrates only four mammalian dNKs have been studied for their substrate specificity and kinetic properties. However, some vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, and birds, apparently possess a duplicated homolog of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857884/tumor-selective-cytotoxicity-of-a-novel-pentadiene-analogue-on-human-leukemia-lymphoma-cells
#20
Yahaira Santiago-Vázquez, Umashankar Das, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Sarah T Baca, Yoshira Ayala-Marin, Carolina Lema, Swagatika Das, Alaa Baryyan, Jonathan R Dimmock, Renato J Aguilera
BACKGROUND: A novel series of structurally divergent 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadiene analogues 1-10 displayed marked cytotoxic potencies towards a number of human leukemia/lymphoma cells. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel selective cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis. METHODS: The Differential Nuclear Staining (DNS) screening protocol was utilized to measure the cytotoxicity of all experimental dienones on several cancerous cells. Additionally, the selective cytotoxicity index was calculated by comparing the dienone's cytotoxicity between leukemia/lymphoma cells vs...
2016: Clinical Cancer Drugs
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