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Preety, Swati Sharma, Vinita Hooda
A novel chitinase from urd bean (Vigna mungo) seeds was purified up to homogeneity and optimized with respect to its optimum working conditions of pH, temperature, and substrate concentration. Overall, 145-fold purification with 70% yield of the purified chitinase was achieved. The notable features of the purified enzyme were its appreciative substrate affinity as well as catalytic efficiency, high thermo stability (70% retention of initial activity at 70 °C after 60 min of continuous exposure), and pretty good storage stability (half-life of 45 days at 5 °C)...
March 1, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Nam G Lee, H You Joshua Sung, Chung H Yi, Hye S Jeon, Bong S Choi, Dong R Lee, Jae M Park, Tae H Lee, In T Ryu, Hyun S Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of conventional core stabilization (CCS) and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS) on anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) time, balance performance, and fear of falls in chronic hemiparetic stroke. DESIGN: Two-group randomized controlled trial with pretest-posttest design SETTING: Hospital's rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight adults with chronic hemiparetic stroke INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly divided into either CCS (n=14) or DNS (n=14) groups...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Farideh Baghishani, Abbas Mohammadipour, Hossain Hosseinzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
Tramadol, a frequently used pain reliever drug, present neurotoxic effects associated to cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, crocin has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to assess crocin's capacity to protect learning, and memory abilities on tramadol-treated rats. A total of 35 rats were divided into five groups: Control, Saline, tramadol (50 mg/kg), tramadol + crocin(30 mg/kg), crocin groups and treated orally for 28 consecutive days. Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests were done, followed by dissection of the rat's brains for toluidine blue and TUNEL staining...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Hassan Ga'al, Hatem Fouad, Jiaxin Tian, Yin Hu, Ghulam Abbas, Jianchu Mo
Silver nanoparticles have been studied in a wide range of medical and entomological research works due to their eco-friendly aspects. In our study salicylic acid (SA) and its derivative, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS), were used in a one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). First, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the formation of AgNPs. Second, the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope; energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jenny Dudman, Julienne Meyer, Cheryl Holman, Wendy Moyle
Aim To explore the experiences and challenges for residential care home staff when managing the healthcare needs of their residents, in particular those living with dementia. BACKGROUND: Increasing number of older people, with complex health and social care needs are living in residential care homes. Yet there is limited appreciation of why staff sometimes struggle to manage residents' healthcare needs, or understanding of their working relationship with district nurses (DNs), whose responsibility it is to provide nursing support...
February 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Wei Shen, Wanguo Liu, Huailin Yang, Peng Zhang, Chunsheng Xiao, Xuesi Chen
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer remains a significant challenge for curing cancer by chemotherapy. In this work, a kind of glutathione (GSH)-responsive polymer prodrug of SO2 was designed and synthesized, which presented synergistic effect with doxorubicin (DOX) for combating MCF-7 ADR human breast cancer cell. Firstly, a small molecular prodrug of SO2, N-(3-azidopropyl)-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (AP-DNs), was chemically conjugated onto the side chain of methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (γ-propargyl-l-glutamate) (mPEG-PPLG) block copolymer to generate an amphiphilic polymer prodrug of SO2, mPEG-PLG (DNs)...
February 3, 2018: Biomaterials
Jessica D Lewis, Andrew J Barros, Costi D Sifri
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) infections are common in liver transplant recipients (LTRs). Daptomycin (DAP) is an important treatment for such infections; however, DAP-nonsusceptible VRE (DNS-VRE) are increasingly frequent. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of LTRs with infections due to DNS-VRE and DAP-susceptible VRE (DS-VRE). METHODS: A single center, retrospective review of patients who underwent liver transplantation between 1/1/2010 and 12/31/15 and developed infections due to DS-VRE or DNS-VRE post-transplant was performed...
February 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
B-B Zhang, B Zhang, H Sun, W-H Lei, H Gao, Y Li, L Shao, Y Zhao, Y-D Hu, H-J Lü, X-F Wu, X-L Fan, G Wang, A J Castro-Tirado, S Zhang, B-Y Yu, Y-Y Cao, E-W Liang
Double neutron star (DNS) merger events are promising candidates of short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) progenitors as well as high-frequency gravitational wave (GW) emitters. On August 17, 2017, such a coinciding event was detected by both the LIGO-Virgo gravitational wave detector network as GW170817 and Gamma-Ray Monitor on board NASA's Fermi Space Telescope as GRB 170817A. Here, we show that the fluence and spectral peak energy of this sGRB fall into the lower portion of the distributions of known sGRBs. Its peak isotropic luminosity is abnormally low...
January 31, 2018: Nature Communications
Andrew Agbay, Laura De La Vega, Gillian Nixon, Stephanie Michelle Willerth
Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder, results from the loss of motor function when dopaminergic neurons (DNs) in the brain selectively degenerate. While pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) show promise for generating replacement neurons, current protocols for generating terminally differentiated DNs require a complicated cocktail of factors. Recent work demonstrated that a naturally occurring steroid called guggulsterone effectively differentiated PSCs into DNs, simplifying this process. In this study, we encapsulated guggulsterone into novel poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)-based microspheres and characterized its release profile over 44 days in vitro, demonstrating we can control its release over time...
January 25, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Shuguang Wang, Xixi Ji, Yu Ao, Jie Yu
Three-dimensional ordering of two-dimensional nanomaterials has long been a challenge. Simultaneously, diamond nanomaterials are difficult to synthesize due to the harsh synthesizing conditions required. Here, we report substrate-crystal-orientation dependent growth of diamond nanosheets (DNSs) by chemical vapor deposition, which generates different DNS arrays on different substrates. The DNSs are grown by the in-plane epitaxy of the diamond {111} planes. So the arrays are highly ordered and solely determined by the spatial orientation of the {111} planes in the diamond FCC structure...
January 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Silvestre Bongiovanni Abel, Edith Inés Yslas, Claudia Rosana Rivarola, Cesar Alfredo Barbero
Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-NPs) were easily obtained applying the solvent displacement method by using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as good solvent and water as poor solvent. Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), chondroitin sulfate (ChS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were used as stabilizers. Dynamic Light Scattering and Scanning Electron Microscopy corroborated the size and morphology of the formed NPs. It was demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles could controlled by setting the concentration of PANI in NMP, the NMP to water ratio, and the stabilizer´s nature...
January 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
T Elperin, N Kleeorin, M Liberman, A N Lipatnikov, I Rogachevskii, R Yu
The theory of turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures developed previously [T. Elperin et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 053001 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.90.053001] is generalized for large yet finite Reynolds numbers and the dependence of turbulent diffusion coefficient on two parameters, the Reynolds number and Damköhler number (which characterizes a ratio of turbulent and reaction time scales), is obtained. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a finite-thickness reaction wave for the first-order chemical reactions propagating in forced, homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible turbulence are performed to validate the theoretically predicted effect of chemical reactions on turbulent diffusion...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
James Chen
A high order morphing continuum theory (MCT) is introduced to model highly compressible turbulence. The theory is formulated under the rigorous framework of rational continuum mechanics. A set of linear constitutive equations and balance laws are deduced and presented from the Coleman-Noll procedure and Onsager's reciprocal relations. The governing equations are then arranged in conservation form and solved through the finite volume method with a second-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for shock preservation. A numerical example of transonic flow over a three-dimensional bump is presented using MCT and the finite volume method...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Nasser Sabet, Hassan Hassanzadeh, Jalal Abedi
A substantial viscosity increase by the addition of a low dose of nanoparticles to the base fluids can well influence the dynamics of viscous fingering. There is a lack of detailed theoretical studies that address the effect of the presence of nanoparticles on unstable miscible displacements. In this study, the impact of nonreactive nanoparticle presence on the stability and subsequent mixing of an originally unstable binary system is examined using linear stability analysis (LSA) and pseudospectral-based direct numerical simulations (DNS)...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
F Milan, M Sbragaglia, L Biferale, F Toschi
We study the deformation and dynamics of droplets in time-dependent flows using 3D numerical simulations of two immiscible fluids based on the lattice Boltzmann model (LBM). Analytical models are available in the literature, which assume the droplet shape to be an ellipsoid at all times (P.L. Maffettone, M. Minale, J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech 78, 227 (1998); M. Minale, Rheol. Acta 47, 667 (2008)). Beyond the practical importance of using a mesoscale simulation to assess "ab initio" the robustness and limitations of such theoretical models, our simulations are also key to discuss --in controlled situations-- some relevant phenomenology related to the interplay between the flow time scales and the droplet time scales regarding the "transparency" transition for high enough shear frequencies for an external oscillating flow...
January 16, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Yibo Huang, Yujiro Higuchi, Takashi Kinoshita, Ai Mitani, Yasunari Eshima, Kaoru Takegawa
Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) catalyzes hydrolysis of N-linked oligosaccharides. Although many ENGases have been characterized from various organisms, so far no fucose-containing oligosaccharides-specific ENGase has been identified in any organism. Here, we screened soil samples, using dansyl chloride (Dns)-labeled sialylglycan (Dns-SG) as a substrate, and discovered a strain that exhibits ENGase activity in the culture supernatant; this strain, named here as strain HMA12, was identified as a Sphingobacterium species by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benzon M Dy, Ashok R Shaha, Robert M Tuttle
The Delphian nodes (DNs) are frequently involved in cancers of the head and neck, including laryngeal and thyroid malignancies. Positivity in the DN has been considered a predictor of recurrence as well as an overall aggressive tumor biology. However, little has been written regarding the consequences of recurrence at the site of the DN. We present two case reports regarding recurrence in the DN and the unique challenges associated with DN metastases. In addition, we discuss our surgical approach to disease at the prelaryngeal space, including workup, imaging, and resection...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Meichun Yuan, Jingjing Yan, Jingna Xun, Chong Chen, Yuling Zhang, Min Wang, Wenqi Chu, Zhigang Song, Yunwen Hu, Shuye Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) was previously known to enter cells through clathrin or caveolar mediated endocytic pathways. However, we observed chlorpromazine (CPZ) or dynasore (DNS), which inhibit clathrin and dynamin mediated endocytosis, did not suppress EV71 cell entry in particular cell types. So the current knowledge of entry mechanisms by EV71 is not complete. METHODS: Viral infection was examined by flow cytometry or end-point dilution assays...
January 3, 2018: Virology Journal
Sheng Gong, Huayao Chen, Xinhua Zhou, Sundaram Gunasekaran
We have synthesized core-shell structured 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) functionalized antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles (MANs)-poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (PMMA-co-BA, PMB) nanocomposite latex particles via miniemulsion polymerization method. Polymerizable anionic surfactant DNS-86 (allyloxy polyoxyethylene(10) nonyl ammonium sulfate) was first introduced to synthesize core-shell nanocomposite. The morphologies of synthesized MANs and MANs/PMB latex nanocomposite particles were studied with transmission electron microscopy, which revealed particles, on average 70 nm in size, with a core-shell structure...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Hojin Kang, Areum Jo, Hyein Kim, Rin Khang, Ji-Yeong Lee, Hanna Kim, Chi-Hu Park, Jeong-Yun Choi, Yunjong Lee, Joo-Ho Shin
Our previous study found that PARIS (ZNF746) transcriptionally suppressed transketolase (TKT), a key enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in the substantia nigra (SN) of AAV-PARIS injected mice. In this study, we revealed that PARIS overexpression reprogrammed glucose metabolic pathway, leading to the increment of glycolytic proteins along with TKT reduction in the SN of AAV-PARIS injected mice. Knock-down of TKT in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells led to an increase of glycolytic enzymes and decrease of PPP-related enzymes whereas overexpression of TKT restored PARIS-mediated glucose metabolic shift, suggesting that glucose metabolic alteration by PARIS is TKT-dependent...
December 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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