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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078553/expression-of-apoptosis-regulatory-genes-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-neonates-born-to-mothers-with-diabetes
#1
Hossein Haghir, Javad Hami, Nassim Lotfi, Mostafa Peyvandi, Simagol Ghasemi, Mehran Hosseini
Diabetes during pregnancy impairs the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and causes cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring. However, the exact mechanism by which the maternal diabetes affects the development of the brain remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes in pregnancy on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes and the numerical density of degenerating dark neurons (DNs) in the hippocampus of offspring at the first postnatal two weeks...
January 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056425/fcd-type-ii-and-mtor-pathway-evidence-for-different-mechanisms-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dysmorphic-neurons
#2
Laura Rossini, Flavio Villani, Tiziana Granata, Laura Tassi, Giovanni Tringali, Francesco Cardinale, Eleonora Aronica, Roberto Spreafico, Rita Garbelli
Type II focal cortical dysplasia (FCD II) is a malformation of cortical development, frequently associated with intractable epilepsy, characterised by cortical dyslamination, dysmorphic neurons (DNs) and balloon cells (BCs). We investigated the expression of pS6 (downstream target) and pPDK1-pAkt (upstream targets) as evidence for mTOR pathway activation and their co-expression with Interleukin-1β in FCD II surgical specimens and compared the findings with control non-epileptic tissue, non-malformed epileptic tissue or acquired epilepsy-Rasmussen's Encephalitis (RE) occasionally presenting pS6 and Interleukin-1β positive abnormal neurons...
December 7, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039980/effects-of-a-small-magnetic-field-on-homoclinic-bifurcations-in-a-low-prandtl-number-fluid
#3
Arnab Basak, Krishna Kumar
Effects of a uniform magnetic field on homoclinic bifurcations in Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a fluid of Prandtl number Pr = 0.01 are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS). A uniform magnetic field is applied either in the vertical direction or in the horizontal direction. For a weak vertical magnetic field, the possibilities of both forward and backward homoclinic bifurcations are observed leading to a spontaneous gluing of two limit cycles into one as well as a spontaneous breaking of a limit cycle into two for lower values of the Chandrasekhar's number ( Q≤5)...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036289/expression-of-pannexin-1-and-2-in-cortical-lesions-from-intractable-epilepsy-patients-with-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#4
Song Li, Zhenle Zang, Jiaojiang He, Xin Chen, Sixun Yu, Yuchun Pei, Zhi Hou, Ning An, Hui Yang, Chunqing Zhang, Shiyong Liu
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of intractable epilepsy in children however the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of FCD and FCD induced epilepsy remain unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that the large-pore ion channels, pannexin 1 (Panx1) and 2 (Panx2), are involved in epilepsy and brain development. In this study, we investigated the expression of Panx1 and Panx2 in surgical samples from patients with FCD type Ia (FCDIa), type IIa (FCDIIa), and type IIb (FCDIIb) and in age-matched autopsy control samples...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967192/unsteady-turbulence-cascades
#5
Susumu Goto, J C Vassilicos
We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5/3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941264/a-sensitive-precolumn-derivatization-method-for-determination-of-piperazine-in-vortioxetine-hydrobromide-using-a-c8-column-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#6
Shubo Dong, Zhengyu Yan, Hanyue Yang
A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established to determine the trace residues of piperazine in vortioxetine hydrobromide. The presence of piperazine was determined by precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters SunFire C8 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) in gradient elution mode, using formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Detection was performed in a single quadrupole mass spectrometer in single ion monitoring mode using positive ionization...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935673/cell-density-dependence-of-host-defense-peptide-activity-and-selectivity-in-the-presence-of-host-cells
#7
Filippo Savini, Vincenzo Luca, Alessio Bocedi, Renato Massoud, Yoonkyung Park, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Lorenzo Stella
Host-defense peptides (HDPs) are promising compounds against multidrug-resistant microbes. In vitro, their bactericidal and toxic concentrations are significantly different, but this might be due to the use of separate assays, with different cell densities. For experiments with a single cell type, the cell-density dependence of the active concentration of the DNS-PMAP23 HDP could be predicted based on the water/cell-membrane partition equilibrium and exhibited a lower bound at low cell counts. On the basis of these data, in the simultaneous presence of both bacteria and an excess of human cells, one would expect no significant toxicity, but also inhibition of the bactericidal activity due to peptide sequestration by host cells...
December 9, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906638/gene-duplications-and-losses-among-vertebrate-deoxyribonucleoside-kinases-of-the-non-tk1-family
#8
Zeeshan Mutahir, Louise Slot Christiansen, Anders R Clausen, Martin W Berchtold, Zoran Gojkovic, Birgitte Munch-Petersen, Wolfgang Knecht, Jure Piškur
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) salvage deoxyribonucleosides (dNs) and catalyze the rate limiting step of this salvage pathway by converting dNs into corresponding monophosphate forms. These enzymes serve as an excellent model to study duplicated genes and their evolutionary history. So far, among vertebrates only four mammalian dNKs have been studied for their substrate specificity and kinetic properties. However, some vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, and birds, apparently possess a duplicated homolog of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857884/tumor-selective-cytotoxicity-of-a-novel-pentadiene-analogue-on-human-leukemia-lymphoma-cells
#9
Yahaira Santiago-Vázquez, Umashankar Das, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Sarah T Baca, Yoshira Ayala-Marin, Carolina Lema, Swagatika Das, Alaa Baryyan, Jonathan R Dimmock, Renato J Aguilera
BACKGROUND: A novel series of structurally divergent 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadiene analogues 1-10 displayed marked cytotoxic potencies towards a number of human leukemia/lymphoma cells. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel selective cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis. METHODS: The Differential Nuclear Staining (DNS) screening protocol was utilized to measure the cytotoxicity of all experimental dienones on several cancerous cells. Additionally, the selective cytotoxicity index was calculated by comparing the dienone's cytotoxicity between leukemia/lymphoma cells vs...
2016: Clinical Cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830213/nanoparticle-stochastic-motion-in-the-inertial-regime-and-hydrodynamic-interactions-close-to-a-cylindrical-wall
#10
Helena Vitoshkin, Hsiu-Yu Yu, David M Eckmann, Portonovo S Ayyaswamy, Ravi Radhakrishnan
We have carried out direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equation together with the particle equations governing the motion of a nanosized particle or nanoparticle (NP) in a cylindrical tube. The effects of the confining boundary, its curvature, particle size, and particle density variations have all been investigated. To reveal how the nature of the temporal correlations (hydrodynamic memory) in the inertial regime is altered by the full hydrodynamic interaction due to the confining boundaries, we have employed the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method to determine the dynamical relaxation of a spherical NP located at various positions in the medium over a wide span of time scales compared to the fluid viscous relaxation time τv = a(2)/v, where a is the spherical particle radius and v is the kinematic viscosity...
2016: Physical Review Fluids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795725/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-its-precursors-in-103-hbv-related-cirrhotic-explanted-livers-a-study-from-south-iran
#11
Shahrzad Yazdanpanah, Bita Geramizadeh, Saman Nikeghbalian, Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini
BACKGROUND: The most common cause of liver transplantation in Iran is hepatitis B positive cirrhosis, and it also one of the major and important causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most cases with HCC follow a multistep sequence. Morphologic lesions during hepatocarcinogenesis include dysplastic lesions and small cancerous lesions (2 cm in diameter; early HCC). However, insufficient information is available on the incidence of HCC and its precursors in hepatitis B-related cirrhosis...
August 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756446/diversification-of-the-molecular-clockwork-for-tissue-specific-function-insight-from-a-novel-drosophila-clock-mutant-homologous-to-a-mouse-clock-allele
#12
Eunjoo Cho, Euna Lee, Eun Young Kim
The circadian clock system enables organisms to anticipate the rhythmic environmental changes and to manifest behavior and physiology at advantageous times of the day. Transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL) is the basic feature of the eukaryotic circadian clock and is based on the rhythmic association of circadian transcriptional activator and repressor. In Drosophila, repression of dCLOCK/CYCLE (dCLK/CYC) mediated transcription by PERIOD (PER) is critical for inducing circadian rhythms of gene expression...
November 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739672/polynuclear-bismuth-oxido-sulfonato-clusters-polymers-and-ion-pairs-from-bi2o3-under-mild-conditions
#13
Dimuthu C Senevirathna, Victoria L Blair, Melissa V Werrett, Philip C Andrews
Eight novel bismuth(III) sulfonato compounds have been synthesized and characterized using the sonochemical reaction of Bi2O3 with a range of sulfonic acids, including 2,5-dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid (2,5-DMSH), 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (2,4-DNSH), 2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonic acid (2,5-DCSH), 1,2-benzenedisulfonic acid (1,2-BDSH2), 1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (1,3-BDSH2), 2-sulfobenzoic acid (2-SBH2), 3-sulfobenzoic acid (3-SBH2), and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (NPSH). Six of the complexes (1, 2, 4, and 6-8) were structurally characterized through single-crystal X-ray crystallography...
November 7, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716287/modeling-neurological-diseases-with-induced-pluripotent-cells-reprogrammed-from-immortalized-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines
#14
Koki Fujimori, Toshiki Tezuka, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Hirobumi Tada, Takuya Matsumoto, Miho Isoda, Ryota Hashimoto, Nubutaka Hattori, Takuya Takahashi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitate understanding of the etiology of diseases, discovery of new drugs and development of novel therapeutic interventions. A frequently used starting source of cells for generating iPSCs has been dermal fibroblasts (DFs) isolated from skin biopsies. However, there are also numerous repositories containing lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (LCLs) generated from a variety of patients. To date, this rich bioresource of LCLs has been underused for generating iPSCs, and its use would greatly expand the range of targeted diseases that could be studied by using patient-specific iPSCs...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627399/relation-of-the-fourth-order-statistical-invariants-of-velocity-gradient-tensor-in-isotropic-turbulence
#15
L Fang, Y J Zhang, J Fang, Y Zhu
We show by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) that in different types of isotropic turbulence, the fourth-order statistical invariants have approximately a linear relation, which can be represented by a straight line in the phase plane, passing two extreme states: the Gaussian state and the restricted Euler state. Also, each DNS case corresponds to an equilibrium region that is roughly Reynolds-dependent. In addition, both the time reversal and the compressibility effect lead to nonequilibrium transition processes in this phase plane...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608165/hiv-prevalence-among-pregnant-women-in-brazil-a-national-survey
#16
Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Meritxell Sabidó, Alessandro Caruso, Silvano Barbosa de Oliveira, Fábio Mesquita, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors...
August 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585435/nutritional-supplements-modulate-fluorescent-protein-bound-advanced-glycation-endproducts-and-digestive-enzymes-related-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Emily R Koch, Permal Deo
BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia enhances the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to diabetic complications. Thus, controlling blood glucose levels, inhibiting the formation of AGEs and reducing ROS are key therapeutic targets in early stage type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of seven commercial liquid nutritional supplements against carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, was determined by dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside solution, respectively...
September 1, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584701/synthesis-of-4-methoxy-2-deoxynucleoside-phosphoramidites-for-incorporation-into-oligonucleotides
#18
Magdalena Petrová, Ivan Rosenberg
This unit contains detailed synthetic protocols for the preparation of 4'-methoxy 2'-deoxynucleoside phosphoramidite monomers for A, G, C, T, and U. First, 3'-silyl-protected 2'-deoxynucleosides (dNs) are converted in two steps to 4',5'-enol acetates as the key starting compounds. Next, 4'-methoxy dNs are prepared by a one-pot procedure comprising N-iodosuccinimide-promoted methoxylation, hydrolysis, and reduction of the formed intermediates. Finally, 3'-phosphoramidites of 4'-methoxy dNs are obtained by a routine three-step procedure...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575217/pore-scale-dispersion-bridging-the-gap-between-microscopic-pore-structure-and-the-emerging-macroscopic-transport-behavior
#19
Daniel W Meyer, Branko Bijeljic
We devise an efficient methodology to provide a universal statistical description of advection-dominated dispersion (Péclet→∞) in natural porous media including carbonates. First, we investigate the dispersion of tracer particles by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The transverse dispersion is found to be essentially determined by the tortuosity and it approaches a Fickian limit within a dozen characteristic scales. Longitudinal dispersion was found to be Fickian in the limit for bead packs and superdiffusive for all other natural media inspected...
July 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560367/synergistic-effect-of-cellulase-and-xylanase-during-hydrolysis-of-natural-lignocellulosic-substrates
#20
Hui-Ting Song, Yuan Gao, Yi-Min Yang, Wen-Jing Xiao, Shi-Hui Liu, Wu-Cheng Xia, Zi-Lu Liu, Li Yi, Zheng-Bing Jiang
Synergistic combination of cellulase and xylanase has been performed on pre-treated substrates in many previous studies, while few on natural substrates. In this study, three unpretreated lignocellulosic substrates were studied, including corncob, corn stover, and rice straw. The results indicated that when the mixed cellulase and xylanase were applied, reducing sugar concentrations were calculated as 19.53, 15.56, and 17.35mg/ml, respectively, based on the 3,5 dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Compared to the treatment with only cellulose, the hydrolysis yields caused by mixed cellulase and xylanase were improved by 133%, 164%, and 545%, respectively...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
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