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Fan Xie, Shengxiang Gong, Wei Zhang, Jinhong Wu, Zhengwu Wang
In this study, we extracted lignin from Canna edulis ker residue. Its chemical structure, inhibitory activity on α-D-glucosidase, and kinetics as well as interaction mechanism was investigated by using spectrum analysis and docking simulation. The isolated lignin was composed by guaiacyl and syringal units, and exhibited stronger inhibition on α-D-glucosidase than acarbose with the half maximal inhibitory concentration at 5.3±0.3mM. It was a non-competitive inhibitior with Km and Ki values of 0.53±0.02mM and 0...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wei Chen, Xiaojie Liu, Shandong Ye
BACKGROUND: Metformin has been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis. It has been shown that the subclinical inflammatory responses play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we determined the effects of metformin on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 in blood and urine of patients with type 2 diabetes. There were 210 patients with type 2 diabetes, which were randomized into metformin (n = 112) and non-metformin (gliclazide, acarbose, and repaglinide, n = 98) groups...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Fei Ren, Long Chen, Qunyi Tong
Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) was first employed to generate mutants of Actinomyces JN537 for improving acarbose production. To obtain higher acarbose producing strains, the method of screening the strains for susceptibility to penicillin was used after treatment with ARTP. The rationale for the strategy was that mutants showing penicillin susceptibility were likely to be high acarbose producers, as their ability to synthesize cell walls was weak which might enhance metabolic flux to the pathway of acarbose biosynthesis...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Dong Young Lee, Heejung Yang, Hyun Woo Kim, Sang Hyun Sung
Three new polyhydroxytriterpenoid derivatives, 23-O-neochebuloylarjungenin 28-O-β-d-glycopyranosyl ester (1), 23-O-4'-epi-neochebuloylarjungenin (2), and 23-O-galloylpinfaenoic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (17) were isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. along with fourteen known ones. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and acid hydrolysis. After evaluating for Baker's yeast α-glucosidase, rat intestinal α-glucosidase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activities of all the isolated compounds, 23-O-galloylarjunolic acid (11, IC50 21...
November 16, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yoshihiro Saito, Joji Ishikawa, Kazumasa Harada
BACKGROUND Postprandial hypotension, induced by an absorption of glucose from intestine, could be treated by acarbose; however, it was unclear whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor reduced postprandial hypotension. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old woman who had experienced episodes of dizziness and hypotension after eating was admitted to our hospital. During 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, there were repeated episodes of marked postprandial hypotension; i.e., a significant systolic blood pressure reduction within two hours after eating (from -58 to -64 mm Hg after meals)...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Shuyan Gu, Yuhang Zeng, Demin Yu, Xiaoqian Hu, Hengjin Dong
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the long-term cost-effectiveness of saxagliptin+metformin (SAXA+MET) versus acarbose+metformin (ACAR+MET) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on MET alone. METHODS: Systematic literature reviews were performed to identify studies directly comparing SAXA+MET versus ACAR+MET, and to obtain diabetes-related events costs which were modified by hospital surveys. A Cardiff Diabetes Model was used to estimate the long-term economic and health treatment consequences in patients with T2DM...
2016: PloS One
Tsun-Thai Chai, Chee-Siong Khoo, Chong-Siang Tee, Fai-Chu Wong
BACKGROUND: Alternanthera sessilis is a medicinal herb which is consumed as vegetable and used as traditional remedies of various ailments in Asia and Africa. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antiglucosidase and antioxidant activity of solvent fractions of A. sessilis leaf and callus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaf and callus methanol extracts were fractionated to produce hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
M Nirmali Wickramaratne, J C Punchihewa, D B M Wickramaratne
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has caused a major burden to the health sector in the developing countries and has shown an increasing trend among the urban population. It is estimated that most patients are with type II diabetes which could be easily treated with dietary changes, exercise, and medication. Sri Lanka carries a long history ayurvedic medicine where it uses the plant for treating many diseases. Therefore it is important to screen medicinal plants scientifically so they could be used safely and effectively in the traditional medical system and also be used for further investigations...
November 15, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Marta Markiewicz, Christian Jungnickel, Stefan Stolte, Anna Białk-Bielińska, Jolanta Kumirska, Wojciech Mrozik
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease affecting a large portion of the world population and is treated by orally administered drugs. Since these drugs are often taken in high doses and are excreted unchanged or partially metabolised many of them are nowadays detected in surface waters or wastewater treatment plants effluents. Unmetabolised antidiabetics or some of their transformation products retain their pharmacological activity, therefore their presence in the environment is highly undesired. One of the main routes of elimination from wastewaters or surface waters is biodegradation...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
María Torres-Naranjo, Alirica Suárez, Gianluca Gilardoni, Luis Cartuche, Paola Flores, Vladimir Morocho
The phytochemical investigation of Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia, collected in Loja-Ecuador, led to the isolation of nine known compounds identified as: lupeol acetate (1); cis-p-coumaric acid (2); lupeol (3); β-sitosterol (4) trans-p-coumaric acid (5); linoleic acid (6) (+)-catechin (7); afzelin (8) and quercitrin (9). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on analysis of NMR and MS data, as well as comparison with the literature. The hypoglycemic activity of crude extracts and isolated compounds was assessed by the ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes...
November 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yu-Hsin Chen, Der-Cherng Tarng, Harn-Shen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of pioglitazone on renal outcome, including urinary albumin excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), in diabetic patients. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, open-labeled, controlled study. SETTING: Taipei Veterans General Hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas and metformin, whose glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were between 7% and 10% and eGFR was between 45 and 125 mL/min/1...
2016: PloS One
Guangcheng Wang, Zhiyun Peng, Jing Wang, Juan Li, Xin Li
A novel series of 2,4,5-triarylimidazole-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized via copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne click chemistry, and evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. All tested compounds showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 ranging from 15.16±0.18 to 48.15±0.37μM, in comparison to the standard drug, acarbose (IC50=817.38±6.27μM). Among all the tested compounds, 5j was found to be the most active compound with IC50 value of 15.16±0.18μM and behaved as a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of 14...
October 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Shuyan Gu, Yiming Mu, Suodi Zhai, Yuhang Zeng, Xuemei Zhen, Hengjin Dong
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of dapagliflozin versus acarbose as monotherapy in treatment-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. METHODS: The Cardiff Diabetes Model, an economic model designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of comparator therapies in diabetes was used to simulate disease progression and estimate the long-term effect of treatments on patients. Systematic literature reviews, hospital surveys, meta-analysis and indirect treatment comparison were conducted to obtain model-required patient profiles, clinical data and costs...
2016: PloS One
Dhiraj Kumar Choudhary, Abha Mishra
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The proper management of blood glucose level is an indicator in the treatment of this complex pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of Vicia faba crude seed extracts on the activities of α-amylase. Phytochemical screening, FTIR and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of a phenolic compound with percentage yield of 9.87% in the acetone extract. Acetone extract of seed had highest inhibitory potential against porcine α-amylase (IC50 value of 2...
October 28, 2016: Bioengineered
Jamiyu A Saliu, Ganiyu Oboh, Olasunkanmi S Omojokun, João B T Rocha, Maria R Schetinger, Jessie Guterries, Naiara Stefanello, Fabiano Carvalho, Roberta Schmatz, Vera M Morsch, Aline Boligon
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of Padauk leaf on brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in the platelet of high fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: The animals were divided into six groups (n=7): normal control rats; diabetic rats+high fat diet (HFD); diabetic rats+HFD+Metformin; diabetic rats+HFD+acarbose; diabetic rats+HFD+10% Padauk leaf; normal rats+basal diet+10% Padauk leaf...
October 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sung-In Choi, Mi Hwa Park, Ji-Sook Han
This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of G. procumbens extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was 0.092±0.018 and 0.084±0.027 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting that the α-amylase inhibition activity of the G...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
A P van Beek, M Emous, M Laville, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and release of gastrointestinal hormones, resulting in gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping occurs 1-3 h after carbohydrate ingestion, caused by an incretin-driven hyperinsulinemic response resulting in hypoglycemia...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Faten K Abd El-Hady, Walid Fayad, Carmine Iodice, Zeinab A El-Shahid, Mohamed S Abdel-Aziz, Egle Crudele, Giuseppina Tommonaro
Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge...
October 14, 2016: Current Microbiology
- Alamgeer, Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq, Sajid Bashir, Ikram Ullah, Sabeha Karim, Muhammad Rashid, Muhammad Nasir Hayat Malik, Haroonur Rashid
The aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the hypoglycemic activity of different solvents extracts of Thymus serpyllum in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with single intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg). Glibenclamide and acarbose were used as standard drugs. The crude powder of Thymus serpyllum (500 mg/kg b.w) significantly reduced blood glucose level in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Various extracts of Thymus serpyllum were compared for their hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rabbits...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Na Wang, Jin-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Yan Xing, Zhao-Jun Yang, Bo Zhang, Xin Wang, Wen-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: The present post hoc analysis investigated whether changes in endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (∆GLP-1) levels are associated with weight loss in newly diagnosed diabetes patients. METHODS: In all, 784 subjects from the Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as initial Hypoglycemic treatment (MARCH) study were stratified according to ∆GLP-1. Changes in clinical and physiological parameters were evaluated across ∆GLP-1 subgroups (low, medium, and high) to assess correlations between ∆GLP-1 and weight loss in acarbose- versus metformin-treated groups...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
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