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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213385/effectiveness-of-acarbose-in-treating-elderly-patients-with-diabetes-with-postprandial-hypotension
#1
Jie Zhang, Lixin Guo
: : Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a common condition that occurs primarily in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acarbose for PPH; it also investigated possible mechanisms behind PPH development. This single-blind, randomized controlled trial included 91 elderly patients with T2DM, aged between 60 and 80 years, who were inpatients at Beijing Hospital between March 2012 and November 2014. The patients were included into one of three groups: Group A, patients with T2DM without PPH; Group B, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving placebo; and Group C, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving acarbose...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208607/induction-of-diverse-bioactive-secondary-metabolites-from-the-mangrove-endophytic-fungus-trichoderma-sp-strain-307-by-co-cultivation-with-acinetobacter-johnsonii-strain-b2
#2
Liuhong Zhang, Shah Iram Niaz, Dilfaraz Khan, Zhen Wang, Yonghong Zhu, Haiyun Zhou, Yongcheng Lin, Jing Li, Lan Liu
Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1) and C (2), and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R)-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4) and (3R)-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5), together with one new natural product (6) and twelve known compounds (3, 7-17), were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo₂(AcO)₄-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data...
February 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185012/the-synergistic-effect-of-maltose-enhances-the-anti-melanogenic-activity-of-acarbose
#3
Bum-Ho Bin, Sung Tae Kim, Jinhyuk Bhin, Kyounghee Byoun, Tae Ryong Lee, Eun-Gyung Cho
Melanocytes play an important role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by producing melanin and protecting the skin from harmful environmental factors. However, excessive up- or down-regulation of melanin production often causes hyper- or hypo-pigmented disorders, respectively, which affect the patient's quality of life. Therefore, various strategies for modulating melanin levels have been developed by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. We reported previously that voglibose, which is a well-known anti-hyperglycemic agent, could be used as an anti-melanogenic agent by inhibiting α-glucosidase activity and reducing tyrosinase protein levels...
February 9, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181177/outcomes-associated-with-generic-drugs-approved-using-product-specific-determinations-of-therapeutic-equivalence
#4
Joshua J Gagne, Jennifer M Polinski, Wenlei Jiang, Sarah K Dutcher, Jing Xie, Joyce Lii, Lisa A Fulchino, Aaron S Kesselheim
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine rates of clinical outcomes among patients before and after market introduction of generic versions of five drugs approved using product-specific equivalence determinations. METHODS: We used data from a large national insurer to identify patients who initiated a study (acarbose tablets, salmon calcitonin nasal spray, enoxaparin injection, vancomycin capsules, venlafaxine extended-release tablets) or control drug (nateglinide, glimepiride, alendronate, fondaparinux, metronidazole, sertraline, paroxetine) in each calendar month between 2003 and 2012 and to determine rates of claims-based proxies for lack of effectiveness outcomes following initiation...
February 8, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176546/inhibition-of-key-enzymes-linked-to-type-2-diabetes-by-compounds-isolated-from-aframomum-melegueta-fruit
#5
Aminu Mohammed, Victoria Awolola Gbonjubola, Neil Anthony Koorbanally, Md Shahidul Islam
CONTEXT: The use of Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae) fruit for treatment of diabetes has recently been established in Nigeria. However, compounds responsible for the antidiabetic action have not been identified. OBJECTIVE: The present study carried out the bioassay-guided isolation of possible bioactive compounds responsible for the antidiabetic action of A. melegueta fruit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The A. melegueta fruit was sequentially extracted using ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol and water, and the most active extract (EtOAc) was subjected to column chromatography on a silica gel column using solvent gradient systems of hexane (HEX):EtOAc and EtOAc:MeOH and the isolation of compounds was guided by α-glycosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities at various concentrations (30-240 μg/mL)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170007/lactucaxanthin-a-potential-anti-diabetic-carotenoid-from-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-inhibits-%C3%AE-amylase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-activity-in-vitro-and-in-diabetic-rats
#6
Sowmya Shree Gopal, Magisetty Jhansi Lakshmi, Gurunathan Sharavana, Gunaseelan Sathaiah, Yadahally N Sreerama, Vallikannan Baskaran
Intestinal and pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors offer an approach to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia through the control of dietary starch breakdown in digestion. This study hypothesized that lactucaxanthin (Lxn) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) inhibits the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In this study, the interaction of Lxn with α-amylase and α-glucosidase in silico and its inhibitory effect on these enzymes were studied using in vitro and STZ-induced diabetic rat models...
February 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168055/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-norathyriol-and-mangiferin-on-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#7
Zhi-Long Shi, Yi-Dan Liu, Yun-Yun Yuan, Da Song, Mei-Feng Qi, Xu-Juan Yang, Ping Wang, Xiao-Ying Li, Jian-Hua Shang, Zhao-Xiang Yang
Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin. Mangiferin has been reported to inhibit α-glucosidase. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been conducted to determine or compare those two compounds on inhibiting α-glucosidase in vitro and in vivo by far. In this study, we determined the inhibitory activity of norathyriol and mangiferin on α-glucosidase in vitro and evaluated their antidiabetic effect in diabetic mice. The results showed that norathyriol inhibited α-glucosidase in a noncompetitive manner with an IC50 value of 3...
2017: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167450/extraction-optimization-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-postprandial-hyperglycemia-effects-of-inhibitor-from-phoenix-dactylifera-l-parthenocarpic-fruit
#8
Hanen El Abed, Mouna Chakroun, Imen Fendri, Mohamed Makni, Mohamed Bouaziz, Noureddine Drira, Hafedh Mejdoub, Bassem Khemakhem
Phoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic, and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The aqueous ethanolic extract from P. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates demonstrated a potent inhibition of the enzymes related to type II diabetes. In this work, extraction optimization of amylase inhibitors was carried out using Box-Behnken Design. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 70% aqueous ethanol extract was performed to identify the active compounds...
February 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166749/antidiabetic-effects-of-brucea-javanica-seeds-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Abdulwali Ablat, Mohammed Farouq Halabi, Jamaludin Mohamad, Muhammad Hafiz Husna Hasnan, Hazrina Hazni, Ser-Huy Teh, Jamil A Shilpi, Zulqarnain Mohamed, Khalijah Awang
BACKGROUND: Brucea javanica (B. javanica) seeds, also known as "Melada pahit" in Indo-Malay region are traditionally used to treat diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of B. javanica seeds on nicotinamide (NA)-streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats and to analyze its chemical composition that correlate with their pharmacological activities. METHODS: A hydroethanolic extract of B...
February 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161303/comparison-of-exenatide-and-acarbose-on-intra-abdominal-fat-content-in-patients-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Li Shi, Jing Zhu, Ping Yang, Xiaoqiang Tang, Wenlong Yu, Changjie Pan, Moyu Shen, Dalong Zhu, Jinluo Cheng, Xinhua Ye
OBJECTIVE: To investigate exenatide, a GLP-1 analogue, compared with acarbose, for intra-abdominal fat reduction in patients with obesity and type-2 diabetes. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included 36 patients with obesity and type-2 diabetes, who were metformin-unresponsive, receiving metformin/exenatide (GLP-1 group) or metformin/acarbose (control group) for 3 months. Primary end-point: intra-abdominal fat content from baseline to 3 months; Secondary end-points: changes in fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbAlc), fasting insulin, blood lipids, weight, body mass index, and inflammatory cytokines from baseline to 3 months...
February 1, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160945/in-search-of-new-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-imidazolylpyrazole-derivatives
#11
Faryal Chaudhry, Sadia Naureen, Rahila Huma, Ayesha Shaukat, Mariya Al-Rashida, Nadia Asif, Mohammad Ashraf, Munawar Ali Munawar, Misbahul Ain Khan
Under three different reaction conditions (conventional heating, microwave irradiations and amino acid catalysis), a series of imidazolylpyrazoles (2a-2k) were synthesized in good to excellent yields from a mixture of three precursors: aryl(hetaryl)pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (1a-1k), benzil and ammonium acetate. α-Glucosidase inhibition assay revealed a new class of highly potent agents wherein each compound displayed significant inhibitory potentials (in terms of percentage inhibition and relative IC50 values) as compared to that of the reference drug (Acarbose)...
January 23, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148491/glucose-elicits-cephalic-phase-insulin-release-in-mice-by-activating-k-atp-channels-in-taste-cells
#12
John I Glendinning, Yonina G Frim, Ayelet Hochman, Gabrielle S Lubitz, Anthony J Basile, Anthony Sclafani
The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the orosensory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647 or a non-metabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132506/natural-prenylchalconaringenins-and-prenylnaringenins-as-antidiabetic-agents-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-and-in-vivo-anti-hyperglycemic-and-anti-hyperlipidemic-effects
#13
Hua Sun, Dong Wang, Xiaotong Song, Yazhou Zhang, Weina Ding, Xiaolin Peng, Xiaoting Zhang, Yashan Li, Ying Ma, Run-Ling Wang, Peng Yu
Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase decreases postprandial blood glucose levels and delays glucose absorption, making it a treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. This study examined in vivo and in vitro anti-diabetic activities of natural prenylchalconaringenins 1-2 and prenylnaringenins 3-4, found in hops and beer. 3'-Geranylchalconaringenin (2) competitively and irreversibly inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 = 1.08 μM) with activity 50-fold higher than acarbose (IC50 = 51.30 μM) and showed moderate inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 = 20...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130771/effects-of-acarbose-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-prediabetic-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-crossover-trial
#14
Xiuying Zhang, Zhiwei Fang, Chunfang Zhang, Huihua Xia, Zhuye Jie, Xueyao Han, Yingli Chen, Linong Ji
INTRODUCTION: The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is an efficacious medicine for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the response of gut microbiota to acarbose is important, as the microbiota may have a critical role in the development of metabolic diseases, and acarbose is metabolized exclusively within the gastrointestinal tract. We explored the changes in the proportion and diversity of gut microbiota before and after treatment with acarbose in patients with prediabetes...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120427/oral-anti-diabetic-pharmacological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Ruth Martis, Brenda Hughes, Janet Rowan, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health issue with rates increasing globally. Gestational diabetes, glucose intolerance first recognised during pregnancy, usually resolves after birth and is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Treatment options can include oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating women with GDM...
January 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109184/comparative-cardiovascular-risks-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-with-other-2-nd-and-3-rd-line-antidiabetic-drugs-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Jin-Shang Wu
AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) are suggested as 2(nd) and 3(rd) add-on antidiabetic treatment for type 2 diabetes. Previous studies only assessed cardiovascular effects of DPP4i as 2(nd) line treatment, included sulfonylurea as only one comparator, and yielded inconclusive results on the risk of heart failure. This study therefore evaluated comparative cardiovascular risks of DPP4i with other 2(nd) and 3(rd) line antidiabetic drugs. METHODS: Based on a large nation-wide diabetic cohort, 113,051 patients with type 2 diabetes newly on metformin-based dual or triple therapy were identified in 2009-2011 and followed until death or 2013...
January 21, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107971/screening-of-enzyme-inhibitors-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-by-magnetic-immobilized-%C3%AE-glucosidase-coupled-with-capillary-electrophoresis
#17
Dong-Mei Liu, Juan Chen, Yan-Ping Shi
As the close correlation between α-glucosidase inhibitors and the treatment of diabetes, in combination with capillary electrophoresis (CE), a method was developed to screen α-glucosidase inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by immobilizing α-glucosidase on magnetic nanoparticles. Such a magnetic immobilization would be beneficial for enzyme reusability, stability and separation. In this work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method. And the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), size and zeta potential analysis...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105946/a-physarum-inspired-prize-collecting-steiner-tree-approach-to-identify-subnetworks-for-drug-repositioning
#18
Yahui Sun, Pathima Nusrath Hameed, Karin Verspoor, Saman Halgamuge
BACKGROUND: Drug repositioning can reduce the time, costs and risks of drug development by identifying new therapeutic effects for known drugs. It is challenging to reposition drugs as pharmacological data is large and complex. Subnetwork identification has already been used to simplify the visualization and interpretation of biological data, but it has not been applied to drug repositioning so far. In this paper, we fill this gap by proposing a new Physarum-inspired Prize-Collecting Steiner Tree algorithm to identify subnetworks for drug repositioning...
December 5, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100083/%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-activity-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-some-cyclic-urea-and-carbamate-derivatives
#19
Jelena B Popović-Djordjević, Ivana I Jevtić, Nadja Dj Grozdanić, Sandra B Šegan, Mario V Zlatović, Milovan D Ivanović, Tatjana P Stanojković
The inhibitory activities of selected cyclic urea and carbamate derivatives (1-13) toward α-glucosidase (α-Gls) in in vitro assay were examined in this study. All examined compounds showed higher inhibitory activity (IC50) against α-Gls compared to standard antidiabetic drug acarbose. The most potent was benzyl (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbamate (12) with IC50 = 49.85 ± 0.10 µM. In vitro cytotoxicity of the investigated compounds was tested on three human cancer cell lines HeLa, A549 and MDA-MB-453 using MTT assay...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097882/antidiabetic-agents-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-heart-diseases
#20
Judy W M Cheng, Hisham A Badreldin, Dhiren K Patel, Snehal H Bhatt
This article reviews evidence of benefits and risk of antidiabetic agents in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, with a focus on medications approved by the FDA since 2008. Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE and Current Content database (both 1966 to October 1, 2016) using the search terms insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, acarbose, miglitol, albiglutide, exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, pramlintide, meglitinide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, colesevalam, bromocriptine, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, (HF) and stroke...
January 18, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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