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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087553/prevalence-of-obesity-and-overweight-in-african-learners-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Theodosia Adom, Thandi Puoane, Anniza De Villiers, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and overweight are an emerging problem in Africa. Obese children are at increased risk of developing hypertension, high cholesterol, orthopaedic problems and type 2 diabetes as well as increased risk of adult obesity. Prevention of childhood overweight and obesity therefore needs high priority. The review approach is particularly useful in establishing whether research findings are consistent and can be generalised across populations and settings. This systematic review aims to assess the magnitude and distribution of overweight and obesity among primary school learners within populations in Africa...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087545/predictors-of-public-support-for-nutrition-focused-policy-systems-and-environmental-change-strategies-in-los-angeles-county-2013
#2
Brenda Robles, Tony Kuo
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. METHODS: Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087084/the-impact-of-imf-conditionality-on-government-health-expenditure-a-cross-national-analysis-of-16-west-african-nations
#3
Thomas Stubbs, Alexander Kentikelenis, David Stuckler, Martin McKee, Lawrence King
How do International Monetary Fund (IMF) policy reforms-so-called 'conditionalities'-affect government health expenditures? We collected archival documents on IMF programmes from 1995 to 2014 to identify the pathways and impact of conditionality on government health spending in 16 West African countries. Based on a qualitative analysis of the data, we find that IMF policy reforms reduce fiscal space for investment in health, limit staff expansion of doctors and nurses, and lead to budget execution challenges in health systems...
December 13, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086953/student-and-faculty-perceptions-on-the-rapid-scale-up-of-medical-students-in-ethiopia
#4
Brittney S Mengistu, Holly Vins, Caitrin M Kelly, Daphne R McGee, Jennifer O Spicer, Miliard Derbew, Abebe Bekele, Damen Haile Mariam, Carlos Del Rio, Henry M Blumberg, Dawn L Comeau
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a country of over 94 million people that has a severe physician shortage with approximately only 2.5 physicians per 100,000 persons. Recently, the Ethiopian government implemented a "flood and retain" initiative to rapidly increase the quantity of physicians in Ethiopia. Consequently, medical student enrollment at Addis Ababa University (AAU) School of Medicine increased from 100 to approximately 300-400 students per class. This study evaluated the impact of the rapid scale-up in the number of medical students on the quality of medical education at AAU and the impact of the U...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086837/systemic-and-individual-factors-in-the-buprenorphine-treatment-seeking-process-a-qualitative-study
#5
Valerie M Hewell, Angel R Vasquez, Inna D Rivkin
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is a significant problem in Alaska. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use, including buprenorphine, reduces withdrawal symptoms and the harm associated with opioid abuse. Understanding consumers' treatment-seeking process is important for addressing barriers to treatment, facilitating effective service utilization, and informing policy. METHODS: To understand treatment-seeking behavior, we examined the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of those who would benefit from the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) buprenorphine...
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086835/stunting-and-severe-stunting-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-in-nigeria-a-multilevel-analysis
#6
Blessing Jaka Akombi, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho, John Joseph Hall, Dafna Merom, Thomas Astell-Burt, Andre M N Renzaho
BACKGROUND: Stunting has been identified as one of the major proximal risk factors for poor physical and mental development of children under-5 years. Stunting predominantly occurs in the first 1000 days of life (0-23 months) and continues to the age of five. This study examines factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria. METHODS: The sample included 24,529 children aged 0-59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086792/irish-general-practitioner-attitudes-toward-decriminalisation-and-medical-use-of-cannabis-results-from-a-national-survey
#7
Des Crowley, Claire Collins, Ide Delargy, Eamon Laird, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Governmental debate in Ireland on the de facto decriminalisation of cannabis and legalisation for medical use is ongoing. A cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex®) has recently been granted market authorisation in Ireland. This unique study aimed to investigate Irish general practitioner (GP) attitudes toward decriminalisation of cannabis and assess levels of support for use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP). METHODS: General practitioners in the Irish College of General Practitioner (ICGP) database were invited to complete an online survey...
January 13, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086762/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-congenital-heart-defects-among-live-births-a-population-based-cross-sectional-survey-in-shaanxi-province-northwestern-china
#8
Leilei Pei, Yijun Kang, Yaling Zhao, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND: Nearly half of the population of Northwest China live in Shaanxi province, but population-based data on the epidemiologic characteristics of congenital heart defects (CHD) in this population is limited. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of the CHD among infants born between 2010 and 2013 in Shaanxi province. METHODS: Infants born between 2010 and 2013 in Shaanxi province were surveyed using a stratified multi-stage sampling method...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081201/complex-network-analysis-for-characterizing-global-value-chains-in-equipment-manufacturing
#9
Hao Xiao, Tianyang Sun, Bo Meng, Lihong Cheng
The rise of global value chains (GVCs) characterized by the so-called "outsourcing", "fragmentation production", and "trade in tasks" has been considered one of the most important phenomena for the 21st century trade. GVCs also can play a decisive role in trade policy making. However, due to the increasing complexity and sophistication of international production networks, especially in the equipment manufacturing industry, conventional trade statistics and the corresponding trade indicators may give us a distorted picture of trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079809/a-comparison-of-the-surgical-mortality-due-to-colorectal-perforation-at-different-hospitals-with-data-from-10-090-cases-in-the-japanese-national-clinical-database
#10
Takeshi Ohki, Masakazu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Miyata, Yasuto Sato, Yoshihisa Saida, Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Hiroyuki Konno, Yasuyuki Seto, Koichi Hirata
Colorectal perforation has a high rate of mortality. We compared the incidence and fatality rates of colorectal perforation among different hospitals in Japan using data from the nationwide surgical database.Patients were registered in the National Clinical Database (NCD) between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2013. Patients with colorectal perforation were identified from surgery records by examining if acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP) and diseases associated with a high probability of colorectal perforation were noted...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079647/using-public-health-data-for-soil-pb-hazard-management-in-ohio
#11
John F Obrycki, Tyler Serafini, Darryl B Hood, Chris Alexander, Pam Blais, Nicholas T Basta
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how frequently elevated soil lead (Pb) hazards (≥400 ppm Pb) were identified in existing blood Pb site investigations in Ohio. DESIGN: This study evaluated 3050 site investigations from the Ohio Department of Health for children with blood Pb levels at or above 10 μg dL that contained bare soil Pb data. SETTING: Data were collected from existing databases maintained by the Ohio Department of Health. PARTICIPANTS: All data were de-identified prior to analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078789/-breastfeeding-without-baby-a-longitudinal-qualitative-investigation-of-how-mothers-perceive-feel-about-and-practice-human-milk-expression
#12
Julia P Felice, Sheela R Geraghty, Caroline W Quaglieri, Rei Yamada, Adriana J Wong, Kathleen M Rasmussen
Most American mothers who produce human milk (HM) now pump in place of some or all feeding at the breast, and most American infants are now fed pumped HM. We aimed to investigate mothers' perceptions of, attitudes toward, and practices for pumping and providing pumped HM. Results related to pumping are reported here. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews among a diverse sample of 20 mothers who pumped, following each from pregnancy through infant HM-feeding cessation up to 1 year postpartum. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with Atlas...
January 12, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077861/economics-and-obesity-policy
#13
REVIEW
J L Lusk
This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and pragmatically evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis public health policies.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 12 January 2017...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077833/-adaptation-process-to-group-home-living-by-older-adults
#14
Hee Sook Yoon, Sohyune Sok
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the adaptation process of older people to group homes. METHODS: Participants were twenty older adults aged 65 or older who were living in group homes. Data were collected from January to April, 2015. In-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with individual participants. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. RESULTS: From open coding, 100 concepts, 38 sub-categories, and 14 categories were identified...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077410/health-policies-on-dialysis-modality-selection-a-nationwide-population-cohort-study
#15
Yi-Chun Lin, Yen-Chung Lin, Chih-Chin Kao, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Mai-Szu Wu
OBJECTIVES: In Taiwan, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis are fully accessible to patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the usage of PD is considered low in Taiwan. Since 2005, 4 major policies have been implemented by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, namely a multidisciplinary predialysis care programme and usage increasing the PD incidence as a key performance indicator (KPI) for hospital accreditation, both of which were implemented in 2006; reimbursement of the glucose-free dialysate, icodextrin that was implemented in 2007; and insurance reimbursement for renting automated PD machines that was implemented in 2008...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077147/the-political-and-scientific-challenges-in-evaluating-compulsory-drug-treatment-centers-in-southeast-asia
#16
Thu Vuong, Nhu Nguyen, Giang Le, Marian Shanahan, Robert Ali, Alison Ritter
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges...
January 11, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077126/what-do-we-know-about-the-effects-of-exposure-to-low-alcohol-and-equivalent-product-labelling-on-the-amounts-of-alcohol-food-and-tobacco-people-select-and-consume-a-systematic-review
#17
Ian Shemilt, Vivien Hendry, Theresa M Marteau
BACKGROUND: Explicit labelling of lower strength alcohol products could reduce alcohol consumption by attracting more people to buy and drink such products instead of higher strength ones. Alternatively, it may lead to more consumption due to a 'self-licensing' mechanism. Equivalent labelling of food or tobacco (for example "Low fat" or "Low tar") could influence consumption of those products by similar mechanisms. This systematic review examined the effects of 'Low alcohol' and equivalent labelling of alcohol, food and tobacco products on selection, consumption, and perceptions of products among adults...
January 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077115/local-mandate-improves-equity-of-paid-sick-leave-coverage-seattle-s-experience
#18
Jennifer L Romich
BACKGROUND: Paid sick leave allows workers to take time off work for personal or family health needs, improving health and potentially limiting infectious diseases. The U.S. has no national sick leave mandate, and many American workers - particularly those at lower income levels - have no right to paid time off for their own or family members' health needs. This article reports on outcomes of a local mandate, the City of Seattle Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, which requires certain employers to provide paid sick leave to eligible workers...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077103/determinants-of-quality-of-shared-sanitation-facilities-in-informal-settlements-case-study-of-kisumu-kenya
#19
Sheillah Simiyu, Mark Swilling, Sandy Cairncross, Richard Rheingans
BACKGROUND: Shared facilities are not recognised as improved sanitation due to challenges of maintenance as they easily can be avenues for the spread of diseases. Thus there is need to evaluate the quality of shared facilities, especially in informal settlements, where they are commonly used. A shared facility can be equated to a common good whose management depends on the users. If users do not work collectively towards keeping the facility clean, it is likely that the quality may depreciate due to lack of maintenance...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077094/the-cut-off-value-of-tumor-size-and-appropriate-timing-of-follow-up-for-management-of-minimal-eus-suspected-gastric-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#20
Zhidong Gao, Chao Wang, Qian Xue, Jingtong Wang, Zhanlong Shen, Kewei Jiang, Kai Shen, Bin Liang, Xiaodong Yang, Qiwei Xie, Shan Wang, Yingjiang Ye
BACKGROUD: The detectable rate of minimal gastric GISTs has continuously increased. While the surveillance and management of GIST <2 cm have been deemed controversial or lack evidence-based approaches.  The aim of the current study is to propose a cut-off value of tumor size for treatment policy and the appropriate timing for endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) follow-up in the minimal EUS-suspected gastric GIST patients. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective study was performed...
January 11, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
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