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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775820/adoption-of-farm-management-systems-for-cross-compliance-an-empirical-case-in-germany
#1
Ulrike Knuth, T S Amjath-Babu, Andrea Knierim
In Germany, Farm Management Systems (FMS) have been introduced as a support to farmers' compliance with environmental and other regulations, aiming at the increase of farm level performance and sustainable farming practices. Different kinds of FMS were developed and promulgated with various approaches, determined by each federal state's agricultural advisory system. Knowledge on the FMS' uptake and effectiveness has been lacking so far. The overall aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the implementation process and selected outcomes of the policy-driven instrumental innovation of FMS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775539/from-water-use-to-water-scarcity-footprinting-in-environmentally-extended-input-output-analysis
#2
Bradley George Ridoutt, Michalis Hadjikakou, Martin Nolan, Brett A Bryan
Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) supports environmental policy by quantifying how demand for goods and services leads to resource use and emissions across the economy. However, some types of resource use and emissions require spatially-explicit impact assessment for meaningful interpretation, which is not possible in conventional EEIOA. For example, water use in locations of scarcity and abundance is not environmentally equivalent. Opportunities for spatially-explicit impact assessment in conventional EEIOA are limited because official input-output tables tend to be produced at the scale of political units which are not usually well aligned with environmentally relevant spatial units...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775472/spatial-pattern-and-determinants-of-anaemia-in-ethiopia
#3
Bedilu Alamirie Ejigu, Eshetu Wencheko, Kiros Berhane
Anaemia is a condition in which the haemoglobin concentration falls below an established cut-off value due to a decrease in the number and size of red blood cells. The current study aimed (i) to assess the spatial pattern and (ii) to identify determinants related to anaemia using the third Ethiopian demographic health survey. To achieve these objectives, this study took into account the sampling weight and the clustered nature of the data. As a result, multilevel modeling has been used in the statistical analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775468/conflicts-of-interest-of-editors-of-medical-journals
#4
Waqas Haque, Abu Minhajuddin, Arjun Gupta, Deepak Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Almost all medical journals now require authors to publicly disclose conflicts of interests (COI). The same standard and scrutiny is rarely employed for the editors of the journals although COI may affect editorial decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to determine the prevalence and magnitude of financial relationships among editors of 60 influential US medical journals (10 each for internal medicine and five subspecialties: cardiology, gastroenterology, neurology, dermatology and allergy & immunology)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775467/interactions-among-poverty-gender-and-health-systems-affect-women-s-participation-in-services-to-prevent-hiv-transmission-from-mother-to-child-a-causal-loop-analysis
#5
Jennifer Yourkavitch, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Valerie L Flax, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali, James C Thomas
Retention in care remains an important issue for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs according to WHO guidelines, formerly called the "Option B+" approach. The objective of this study was to examine how poverty, gender, and health system factors interact to influence women's participation in PMTCT services. We used qualitative research, literature, and hypothesized variable connections to diagram causes and effects in causal loop models. We found that many factors, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, service design and quality, stigma, disclosure, spouse/partner influence, decision-making autonomy, and knowledge about PMTCT, influence psychosocial health, which in turn affects women's participation in PMTCT services...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775130/taxonomy-of-clinical-encounters-during-the-first-90-days-post-delivery-of-an-initial-lower-limb-prosthesis
#6
Daniel Joseph Lee, Michael Wininger, David Mahler, Mark Parisi
BACKGROUND: The incidence and etiology of prosthetic services utilization is poorly understood during the first 90 days post-delivery of the initial lower limb prosthesis. This period is of critical importance, as prevailing policy dictates limits on the reimbursement for certain services provided during this time period. The first step in understanding the financial ramifications of such policy is to examine the taxonomy behind clinical encounters during this tenuous time period. OBJECTIVES: Quantify and categorize clinical encounters by incidence and etiology...
May 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774263/a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-posthumous-reproduction-the-significance-of-the-gender-and-margins-of-life-perspectives
#7
Yael Hashiloni-Dolev, Silke Schicktanz
The scholarly discussion of posthumous reproduction (PHR) focuses on informed consent and the welfare of the future child, for the most part overlooking cultural differences between societies. Based on a cross-cultural comparison of legal and regulatory documents, analysis of pivotal cases and study of scholarly and media discussions in Israel and Germany, this paper analyses the relevant ethical and policy issues, and questions how cultural differences shape the practice of PHR. The findings challenge the common classifications of PHR by highlighting the gender perspective and adding brain-dead pregnant women to the debate...
June 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774114/breast-cancer-and-cervical-cancer-prevention-programmes-carried-out-by-local-government-units-in-poland-in-2009-2014
#8
Anna Augustynowicz, Aleksandra Czerw, Mariola Borowska, Adam Fronczak, Andrzej Deptała
Background: In 2014 the standardised incidence rate for breast cancer in Poland reached 51.6/100,000, while the mortality rate reached 14.8/100,000. The incidence rate for breast cancer in the EU was 106.6/100,000, the mortality rate - 22.4/100,000. In 2014 the incidence rate for cervical cancer in Poland was 8.8/100,000, the mortality rate - 4.5/100,000. The incidence rate in the EU was 11.3/100,000 and the mortality rate - 3.7/100,000. Objective: The aim of the paper was to establish the number of health policy programmes concerned with breast cancer and cervical cancer in women carried out in 2009-2014 by local government units, with specification of the type of programme, type of local government units that carried out the programmes and the costs of implementation of the programmes...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773610/nhs-constitution-values-for-values-based-recruitment-a-virtue-ethics-perspective
#9
Johanna Elise Groothuizen, Alison Callwood, Ann Gallagher
Values-based recruitment is used in England to select healthcare staff, trainees and students on the basis that their values align with those stated in the Constitution of the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, it is unclear whether the extensive body of existing literature within the field of moral philosophy was taken into account when developing these values. Although most values have a long historical tradition, a tendency to assume that they have just been invented, and to approach them uncritically, exists within the healthcare sector...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772840/secure-data-access-control-for-fog-computing-based-on-multi-authority-attribute-based-signcryption-with-computation-outsourcing-and-attribute-revocation
#10
Qian Xu, Chengxiang Tan, Zhijie Fan, Wenye Zhu, Ya Xiao, Fujia Cheng
Nowadays, fog computing provides computation, storage, and application services to end users in the Internet of Things. One of the major concerns in fog computing systems is how fine-grained access control can be imposed. As a logical combination of attribute-based encryption and attribute-based signature, Attribute-based Signcryption (ABSC) can provide confidentiality and anonymous authentication for sensitive data and is more efficient than traditional "encrypt-then-sign" or "sign-then-encrypt" strategy...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772799/income-and-self-rated-mental-health-diminished-returns-for-high-income-black-americans
#11
Shervin Assari, Lisa M Lapeyrouse, Harold W Neighbors
Background: The minorities' diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. The current study was a Black⁻White comparison of the association between household income and self-rated mental health (SRMH). Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 State of the State Survey (SOSS). With representative sampling, the SOSS generates results that are generalizable to the state of Michigan. This study included 881 adults, ( n = 92) Black and ( n = 782) White...
May 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772280/an-analysis-of-palliative-care-development-in-africa-a-ranking-based-on-region-specific-macro-indicators
#12
John Y Rhee, Eduardo Garralda, Eve Namisango, Emmanuel Luyirika, Liliana de Lima, Richard A Powell, Jesús López-Fidalgo, Carlos Centeno
CONTEXT: To date, there is no study comparing palliative care (PC) development among African countries. OBJECTIVE: To analyze comparatively PC development in African countries based on region-specific indicators. METHODS: Data were obtained from the APCA Atlas of PC in Africa and a comparative analysis conducted. Nineteen indicators were developed and defined through qualitative interviews with African PC experts and a two-round modified Delphi consensus process with international experts on global PC indicators...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771677/learning-based-adaptive-optimal-tracking-control-of-strict-feedback-nonlinear-systems
#13
Weinan Gao, Zhong-Ping Jiang
This paper proposes a novel data-driven control approach to address the problem of adaptive optimal tracking for a class of nonlinear systems taking the strict-feedback form. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and nonlinear output regulation theories are integrated for the first time to compute an adaptive near-optimal tracker without any a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. Fundamentally different from adaptive optimal stabilization problems, the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, not necessarily a positive definite function, cannot be approximated through the existing iterative methods...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771399/trends-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-under-the-patient-protection-and-affordable-care-act-a-national-database-analysis-between-2008-and-2015
#14
Jennifer I Etcheson, Nicole E George, Chukwuweike U Gwam, James Nace, Alexander T Caughran, Melbin Thomas, Sana Virani, Ronald E Delanois
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act expanded health coverage for low-earning individuals and families. With more Americans having access to care, the use of elective procedures, such as total hip arthroplasty (THA), was expected to increase. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate trends in THA before and after the initiation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act regarding race, age, body mass index, and sex between 2008 and 2015. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all individuals who had undergone primary THA between 2008 and 2015...
May 16, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771210/variables-affecting-hospital-length-of-stay-a-scoping-review
#15
Sandra C Buttigieg, Lorraine Abela, Adriana Pace
Purpose Tertiary hospitals have registered an incremental rise in expenditure mostly because of the increasing demands by ageing populations. Reducing the length of stay (LOS) of patients within tertiary hospitals is one of the strategies, which has been used in the last decades to ensure health care systems' sustainability. Furthermore, LOS is one of the key performance indicators, which is widely used to assess hospital efficiency. Hence, it is crucial that policy makers use evidence-based practices in health care to aim for optimal LOS...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770944/analysis-of-pastoralists-perception-on-challenges-and-opportunities-for-sheep-and-goat-production-in-northern-kenya
#16
Mohamed Haji Abdilatif, Joshua Orungo Onono, Florence Kanini Mutua
Small ruminants' production contributes to livelihood of pastoral communities, but this faces myriad constraints. This study aimed at identifying challenges facing producers of small ruminants, prioritizing diseases and their control measures and documenting opportunities for improvement. Sixteen focus group discussions with livestock owners and 13 key informant interviews were done in selected areas in Mandera County, Northern Kenya, and both quantitative and qualitative data collected using a questionnaire guide...
May 16, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770744/older-men-s-social-integration-after-prison
#17
Jessica Wyse
This study explores the social integration processes older men experience following prison release. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and brief surveys were conducted with 20 men, 50 years of age and older, recently released from prison in a large, Eastern U.S. city. A follow-up interview was conducted with each participant. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze these data. Results show that while men are able to connect with and rely upon some family members and establish basic public benefits, older men's release experience is nonetheless marked by pervasive disconnection from key desired social relationships and roles...
June 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770704/estimating-efficiency-of-directive-2011-24-eu-cross-border-healthcare-in-member-states
#18
Mustapha D Ibrahim, Mevhibe B Hocaoglu, Berna Numan, Sahand Daneshvar
AIM: Directive 2011/24/EU on patients' rights in cross-border healthcare facilitates EU citizens' access to and reimbursement for healthcare provided or prescribed in a member state other than the member state of affiliation. MATERIALS & METHODS: The efficiency of cross-border healthcare policy is evaluated using data envelopment analysis of relevant items in Eurobarometer Survey on Safety and Quality of Care and Patients' Rights in the EU. RESULTS: Our study shows policy inefficiency in 52% of the 25 EU member states included in the analysis...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770551/implementing-community-participation-via-interdisciplinary-teams-in-primary-care-an-irish-case-study-in-practice
#19
Edel Tierney, Rachel McEvoy, Ailish Hannigan, Anne E MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: Community participation in primary care is enshrined in international and Irish health policy. However, there is a lack of evidence about how stakeholders work collectively to implement community participation within interdisciplinary teams; community perspectives are rarely captured, and a theoretical underpinning for implementation of community participation in primary care is absent. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a theoretically informed, multiperspectival empirical analysis of the implementation of community participation via primary care teams (PCTs) in Ireland...
May 16, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770438/health-insurance-and-poverty-in-trajectories-of-out-of-pocket-expenditure-among-low-income-middle-aged-adults
#20
Eunsun Kwon, Sojung Park, Timothy D McBride
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of longitudinal patterns of health insurance and poverty on out-of-pocket expenditures among low-income late middle-aged adults. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Six waves (2002-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study, in combination with RAND Center for the Study of Aging data, were used. STUDY DESIGN: A random coefficient regression analysis was conducted in a multilevel growth curve framework to estimate the impact of health insurance and poverty on out-of-pocket expenditures...
May 16, 2018: Health Services Research
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