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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352023/monoamine-abnormalities-in-the-sapap3-knockout-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-related-behaviour
#1
Jesse Wood, Zoe LaPalombara, Susanne E Ahmari
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of illness-related disability, but the neural mechanisms underlying OCD symptoms are unclear. One potential mechanism of OCD pathology is monoamine dysregulation. Because of the difficulty of studying monoamine signalling in patients, animal models offer a viable alternative to understanding this aspect of OCD pathophysiology. We used HPLC to characterize post-mortem monoamine levels in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial OFC, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral striatum of SAPAP-3 knockout (KO) mice, a well-validated model of compulsive-like behaviours in OCD...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349890/case-report-cytochrome-p450-implications-for-comorbid-adhd-and-ocd-pharmacotherapy
#2
Michaela K Hogan, Nikhil P Rao
TOPIC: This case report details the treatment of an early adolescent already receiving treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who presents with recurrent obsessive-compulsive disorder. Potential atomoxetine (Strattera) and fluoxetine (Prozac) interactions via Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) pathways are examined and alternate therapies are recommended. PURPOSE: Provide a discussion of psychopharmacogenomics, especially in the case of combining medications, CYP450 enzymes, and clinical implications in the context of the burgeoning field of precision medicine...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349864/the-morphometric-co-atrophy-networking-of-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders
#3
Franco Cauda, Andrea Nani, Tommaso Costa, Sara Palermo, Karina Tatu, Jordi Manuello, Sergio Duca, Peter T Fox, Roberto Keller
By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration...
January 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#4
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343875/-trazodone-prolonged-release-in-bipolar-disorder-ii-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-comorbidity-a-case-report
#5
Liliana Lorettu, Giampiero Meli, Elena Antonioli, Antonio Zeppa, Paolo Milia, Alessandra Nivoli
Approximately 21% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) also have an additional diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This condition is associated with a more severe prognosis and complicates the treatment of BD. In our case report we provide documentary evidence of our experience with trazodone prolonged release in the treatment of depressive phase in a patient with BD II-OCD comorbidity. Rationality in the choise of treatment was based on the need to manage depressive and obsessive symptoms without facilitating hypomania switches...
November 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343228/problematic-internet-use-and-psychiatric-co-morbidity-in-a-population-of-japanese-adult-psychiatric-patients
#6
Hille T de Vries, Takashi Nakamae, Kenji Fukui, Damiaan Denys, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and psychiatric co-morbidity among adult psychiatric patients. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-three adult psychiatric patients were recruited over a 3-month period...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340590/efficacy-and-safety-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-tourette-syndrome-the-international-tourette-syndrome-deep-brain-stimulation-public-database-and-registry
#7
Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, James Frederick Leckman, Mauro Porta, Domenico Servello, Fan-Gang Meng, Jens Kuhn, Daniel Huys, Juan Carlos Baldermann, Thomas Foltynie, Marwan I Hariz, Eileen M Joyce, Ludvic Zrinzo, Zinovia Kefalopoulou, Peter Silburn, Terry Coyne, Alon Y Mogilner, Michael H Pourfar, Suketu M Khandhar, Man Auyeung, Jill Louise Ostrem, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Marie-Laure Welter, Luc Mallet, Carine Karachi, Jean Luc Houeto, Bryan Timothy Klassen, Linda Ackermans, Takanobu Kaido, Yasin Temel, Robert E Gross, Harrison C Walker, Andres M Lozano, Benjamin L Walter, Zoltan Mari, William S Anderson, Barbara Kelly Changizi, Elena Moro, Sarah Elizabeth Zauber, Lauren E Schrock, Jian-Guo Zhang, Wei Hu, Kyle Rizer, Erin H Monari, Kelly D Foote, Irene A Malaty, Wissam Deeb, Aysegul Gunduz, Michael S Okun
Importance: Collective evidence has strongly suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for Tourette syndrome. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of DBS in a multinational cohort of patients with Tourette syndrome. Design, Setting, and Participants: The prospective International Deep Brain Stimulation Database and Registry included 185 patients with medically refractory Tourette syndrome who underwent DBS implantation from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016, at 31 institutions in 10 countries worldwide...
January 16, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338800/a-preliminary-investigation-of-pathways-to-inflated-responsibility-beliefs-in-children-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Lindsey M Collins, Meredith E Coles
BACKGROUND: Cognitive theorists posit that inflated responsibility beliefs contribute to the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Salkovskis et al. (1999) proposed that experiencing heightened responsibility, overprotective parents and rigid rules, and thinking one influenced or caused a negative life event act as 'pathways' to the development of inflated responsibility beliefs, thereby increasing risk for OCD. Studies in adults with OCD and non-clinical adolescents support the link between these experiences and responsibility beliefs (Coles et al...
January 17, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338020/autonomic-stress-reactivity-and-craving-in-individuals-with-problematic-internet-use
#9
Tania Moretta, Giulia Buodo
The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336012/predictors-and-consequences-of-health-anxiety-symptoms-a-novel-twin-modeling-study
#10
C López-Solà, M Bui, J L Hopper, L F Fontenelle, C G Davey, C Pantelis, P Alonso, O A van den Heuvel, B J Harrison
OBJECTIVE: The question of how to best conceptualize health anxiety (HA) from a diagnostic and etiological perspective remains debated. The aim was to examine the relationship between HA and the symptoms of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive-related disorders in a normative twin population. METHOD: Four hundred and ninety-six monozygotic adult twin pairs from the Australian Twin Registry participated in the study (age, 34.4 ± 7.72 years; 59% females). Validated scales were used to assess each domain...
January 15, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332084/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#11
Benjamin B Whiting, Alexander C Whiting, Donald M Whiting
The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been proven to be a safe and efficacious treatment for the management of many diseases. The most common indication for thalamic DBS remains essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders in the world. ET patients should be considered for surgical intervention when their tremor has demonstrated to be refractory to medication, a characteristic estimated to be present in roughly 50% of ET cases. Advantages of DBS over thalamotomy include its reversibility, the ability to adjust stimulation settings to optimize efficacy and minimize side effects, the ability to perform bilateral procedures safely, and an association with a lower risk of postoperative cognitive problems...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332078/magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-treating-movement-disorders
#12
Young Goo Kim, Eun Jung Kweon, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Jin Woo Chang
Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery has recently gained favor as a novel, noninvasive alternative to conventional neurosurgery. In contrast to traditional ablative interventions, transcranial MRgFUS surgery is entirely imaging-guided and uses continuous temperature measurements at the target and surrounding tissue taken in real-time. Unlike Gamma Knife radiosurgery, MRgFUS surgery can make a lesion immediately and does not use ionizing radiation. Moreover, since no metallic device is implanted, MR imaging-based diagnosis is not restricted throughout life...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331882/association-analysis-of-slc6a4-and-htr2a-genes-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-influence-of-the-stin2-polymorphism
#13
Chayenne Karine Ferreira Gomes, Tamiris Vieira-Fonseca, Fernanda Brito Melo-Felippe, Juliana Braga de Salles Andrade, Leonardo F Fontenelle, Fabiana Barzotti Kohlrausch
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a complex and chronic disorder characterized by recurrent thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors. Given the potent anti-obsessional effects of the so-called serotonin reuptake inhibitors, genes related to serotonergic system may be well implicated in the etiopathogenesis of OCD. The gene encoding the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), which shows a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in intron 2 (STin2), have been previously associated with OCD...
December 16, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330217/a-systematic-review-of-network-meta-analyses-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-common-mental-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Taryn Williams, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
QUESTION: Network meta-analyses (NMAs) of treatment efficacy across different pharmacological treatments help inform clinical decision-making, but their methodological quality may vary a lot depending also on the quality of the included primary studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological treatment for common mental disorders in order to assess the methodological quality of these NMAs, and to relate study characteristics to the rankings of efficacy and tolerability...
January 12, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324911/psychological-consideration-in-patients-with-cerebral-gliomas-candidates-for-intra-operative-radiation-therapy-based-on-tumor-location
#15
Tohid Emami Meybodi, Masoumeh Najafi, Ali Keipourfard, Amir Nikouei, Afsoun Seddighi
OBJECTIVE: Intra-operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) is gaining popularity as an adjuvant option to surgical resection, in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for increasing survival rate, which a highly aggressive cerebral tumor with poor prognosis. Τhe authors plan to investigate the effects of IORT combined with surgical resection on the psychological status of these patients based on tumor location. SUBJECT AND METHODS: From December 2013 to February 2017, we have enrolled 109 patients with high grade cerebral gliomas, documented by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321703/executive-functions-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-panic-disorder-patients-in-comparison-to-healty-controls
#16
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310732/chronic-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-prognostic-factors
#17
Lucas J B van Oudheusden, Merijn Eikelenboom, Harold J G M van Megen, Henny A D Visser, Koen Schruers, Gert-Jan Hendriks, Nic van der Wee, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Patricia van Oppen, Anton J L M van Balkom
BACKGROUND: The course of illness in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) varies significantly between patients. Little is known about factors predicting a chronic course of illness. The aim of this study is to identify factors involved in inducing and in maintaining chronicity in OCD. METHODS: The present study is embedded within the Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study, an ongoing multicenter naturalistic cohort study designed to identify predictors of long-term course and outcome in OCD...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309797/treatment-of-pandas-and-pans-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Sofia Sigra, Eva Hesselmark, Susanne Bejerot
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are a subtype of acute-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) thought to be caused by an autoimmune response to group A streptococcal infection. Based on this proposed pathophysiology, alternative treatments for acute-onset OCD have been introduced, including antibiotics and immunomodulatory interventions. However, the literature on treatment of PANDAS is diverse, and clinical consensus regarding optimal treatment strategy is lacking...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306946/piloting-a-personalized-computerized-inhibitory-training-program-for-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Eyal Kalanthroff, Shari A Steinman, Andrew B Schmidt, Raphael Campeas, Helen B Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306518/brain-related-comorbidities-in-boys-and-men-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-descriptive-study
#20
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Johan S H Vles, Marlien W Aalbers, Richard F M Chin, Jos G M Hendriksen
AIM: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is more than a muscle disease since there is a higher prevalence of neuropsychological comorbidities. Similarly, the prevalence of epilepsy is increased. Given the nowadays-increasing interest in brain-related comorbidities in DMD, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between DMD, epilepsy, and associated neurodevelopmental disorders in an international sample of DMD patients. METHOD: Using a questionnaire-based study we investigated the occurrence of self/by-proxy reported brain-related comorbidities in a group of 228 DMD patients...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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