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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Zacharias G Laoutidis, Georgia E Lekka, Kanellos T Kioulos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the existing literature on clinical trials with glutamatergic agents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the overall effect size. DATA SOURCES: We searched in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies, using the following search terms: (glutamate OR glutaminergic OR glutamatergic OR NMDA OR AMPA OR kainate) AND (obsessive-compulsive disorder OR obsessive OR compulsive OR OCD)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Matthew J Gazzellone, Mehdi Zarrei, Christie L Burton, Susan Walker, Mohammed Uddin, S M Shaheen, Julie Coste, Rageen Rajendram, Reva J Schachter, Marlena Colasanto, Gregory L Hanna, David R Rosenberg, Noam Soreni, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christian R Marshall, Janet A Buchanan, Daniele Merico, Paul D Arnold, Stephen W Scherer
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition, thought to have a significant genetic component. When onset occurs in childhood, affected individuals generally exhibit different characteristics from adult-onset OCD, including higher prevalence in males and increased heritability. Since neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with copy number variations (CNVs), we considered their potential role in the etiology of OCD. METHODS: We genotyped 307 unrelated pediatric probands with idiopathic OCD (including 174 that were part of complete parent-child trios) and compared their genotypes with those of 3861 population controls, to identify rare CNVs (<0...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Maria Ljungberg, Marie K L Nilsson, Karin Melin, Lars Jönsson, Arvid Carlsson, Åsa Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Tord Ivarsson, Maria Carlsson, Göran Starck
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Mònica Giménez, Andrés Guinea-Izquierdo, Victoria Villalta-Gil, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Eva Real, Jesús Pujol, Ben J Harrison, Josep Maria Haro, Joao R Sato, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Narcís Cardoner, Pino Alonso, José Manuel Menchón, Carles Soriano-Mas
The extent of functional abnormalities in frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still unclear. Although neuroimaging studies, in general, and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI), in particular, have provided relevant information regarding such alterations, rs-fMRI studies have been typically limited to the analysis of between-region functional connectivity alterations at low-frequency signal fluctuations (i.e., <0.08 Hz). Conversely, the local attributes of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal across different frequency bands have been seldom studied, although they may provide valuable information...
October 22, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Stijn Servaes, Dorien Glorie, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Leonie Wyffels, Sigrid Stroobants, Steven Staelens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Rubin Khoddam, Nicholas J Jackson, Adam M Leventhal
AIM: The complex interplay of externalizing and internalizing problems in substance use risk is not well understood. This study tested whether the relationship of conduct problems and several internalizing disorders with future substance use is redundant, incremental, or interactive in adolescents. METHODS: Two semiannual waves of data from the Happiness and Health Study were used, which included 3383 adolescents (M age=14.1years old; 53% females) in Los Angeles who were beginning high school at baseline...
October 17, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Alessandro Minarini, Silvia Ferrari, Martina Galletti, Nina Giambalvo, Daniela Perrone, Giulia Rioli, Gian Maria Galeazzi
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Aristide Merola, Alberto Romagnolo, Laura Rizzi, Mario Giorgio Rizzone, Maurizio Zibetti, Michele Lanotte, George Mandybur, Andrew P Duker, Alberto J Espay, Leonardo Lopiano
To determine the clinical and demographic correlates of persistent, remitting, and new-onset impulse control behaviors (ICBs) before and after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the pre- and post-surgical prevalence of ICBs, classified as impulse control disorders (ICD), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), and punding in 150 consecutive PD STN-DBS-treated patients and determined the association with motor, cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric endpoints...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Kasper D Tidemand, Hans E M Christensen, Niclas Hoeck, Pernille Harris, Jane Boesen, Günther H Peters
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) catalyses the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Full-length TPH2 is poorly characterized due to low purification quantities caused by its inherent instability. Three truncated variants of human TPH2 (rch TPH2; regulatory and catalytic domain, NΔ47-rch TPH2; truncation of 47 residues in the N terminus of rch TPH2, and ch TPH2; catalytic domain) were expressed, purified, and examined for changes in transition temperature, inactivation rate, and oligomeric state...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Sujita Kumar Kar
Melasma is a hyperpigmented dermatological condition common in females. Drugs such as steroids, cosmetics, and photosensitizing agents are known to cause melasma. We report here a case of an adult male with obsessive-compulsive disorder, receiving clomipramine, who developed melasma.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Dirk De Ridder, Sook Ling Leong, Patrick Manning, Sven Vanneste, Paul Glue
BACKGROUND: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a brain disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2.3%, causing severe functional impairment as a result of anxiety and distress, persistent and repetitive, unwanted, intrusive thoughts (obsessions), and repetitive ritualized behavior (compulsions). Approximately 40-60% of patients with OCD fail to satisfactorily respond to standard treatments. Intractable OCD has been treated by anterior capsulotomy and cingulotomy, but more recently neurostimulation approaches have become more popular due to their reversibility...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Vlasios Brakoulias, Emmanouil Tsalamanios
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Vladan Starcevic, Vlasios Brakoulias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to examine the relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disturbance, with a particular focus on the diagnostic, aetiological and treatment implications of these relationships. RECENT FINDINGS: Personality disorders are common in OCD. They interact in various ways and in accordance with a number of the proposed models. The relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most important, but it can be conceptualised in different ways and may vary from one person to another...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
A Kibleur, G Gras-Combe, D Benis, J Bastin, T Bougerol, S Chabardès, M Polosan, O David
High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can be used to treat severe obsessive-compulsive disorders that are refractory to conventional treatments. The mechanisms of action of this approach possibly rely on the modulation of associative-limbic subcortical-cortical loops, but remain to be fully elucidated. Here in 12 patients, we report the effects of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on behavior, and on electroencephalographic responses and inferred effective connectivity during motor inhibition processes involved in the stop signal task...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Paul M Harris, Lynne M Drummond
Aims and method To examine how often referring community mental health teams (CMHTs) utilised treatment recommendations made by the national highly specialised service for patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We analysed all patient notes for admissions to the unit (August 2012-August 2014) and recorded how many treatment recommendations were implemented by CMHTs prior to admission and at 6 months post-discharge. Results Overall, 66% of our recommendations were met by CMHTs prior to admission and 74% after discharge...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Lauren Luhrs, Cynthia Manlapaz, Karen Kedzie, Sandhya Rao, Sara Cabrera-Ghayouri, John Donello, Daniel Gil
Noradrenergic signaling, through the α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors modulates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addiction. However, it is unknown whether the α2B receptor has any significant role in CNS function. The present study elucidates the potential role of the α2B receptor in CNS function via the discovery and use of the first subtype selective α2B antagonist (AGN-209419), and behavioral analyses of α-receptor KO mice...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Melanie S Fischer, Donald H Baucom, Brian R Baucom, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Jennifer S Kirby, Cynthia M Bulik
Impaired emotion regulation and maladaptive strategies to manage distress are central to psychopathology, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion regulation can be fostered or thwarted by romantic partners, and the tendency to rely on interpersonally oriented emotion regulation may vary by disorder. This study examined coregulation as a form of interpersonal emotion regulation in OCD and AN. We hypothesized that OCD is associated with exaggerated and AN with diminished coregulation, and that OCD patients have greater overall levels of emotional arousal than AN patients...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Shin-Eui Park, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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