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Peripherical nerve

Yun Qian, Qixin Han, Xiaotian Zhao, Jialin Song, Yuan Cheng, Zhiwei Fang, Yuanming Ouyang, Wei-En Yuan, Cunyi Fan
Peripheral nerve defect is a common and severe kind of injury in traumatic accidents. Melatonin can improve peripheral nerve recovery by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation after traumatic insults. In addition, it triggers autophagy pathways to increase regenerated nerve proliferation and to reduce apoptosis. In this study, we fabricated a melatonin-controlled-release scaffold to cure long-range nerve defects for the first time. 3D manufacture of melatonin/polycaprolactone nerve guide conduit increased Schwann cell proliferation and neural expression in vitro and promoted functional, electrophysiological and morphological nerve regeneration in vivo...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
T Godel, M Pham
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Entrapment syndromes of peripheral nerves at the elbow are common and are often diagnostically challenging disorders. Difficulties consist in lesion localization and recognition of complex spatial lesion patterns as well as in differentiation of focal and multifocal disorders. STANDARD DIAGNOSTIC METHODS: Medical history taking, neurological examination and neurophysiological tests represent the gold standard in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve lesions at the elbow, but have known methodical limitations...
June 22, 2018: Der Radiologe
Takato Morioka, Satoshi O Suzuki, Nobuya Murakami, Nobutaka Mukae, Takafumi Shimogawa, Hironori Haruyama, Ryutaro Kira, Koji Iihara
PURPOSE: Limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM) is characterized by two invariable features: a focal closed neural tube defect and a fibroneural stalk linking the skin lesion to the underlying spinal cord. Although detailed histopathological findings of the LDM stalk were originally described by Pang et al., the precise relationship between the histopathological findings and clinical manifestations including intraoperative findings has not been fully determined. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the histopathological findings of the almost entire stalk and their relevance to the clinical manifestations in six Japanese LDM patients with flat skin lesions...
June 22, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Wei Xie, Shang-You Yang, Qianqian Zhang, Yadong Zhou, Yi Wang, Ronghan Liu, Wenzhao Wang, Jixue Shi, Bin Ning, Tanghong Jia
To assess the therapeutic effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) knockdown (KD) for acute thoracic spinal cord contusion using a mouse model. Forty C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: mice in the sham-operated (Sham) group received surgical procedure without spinal cord contusion; the spinal cord injury (SCI) group mice underwent spinal cord contusion without treatment; mice in the miR-21 KD group underwent spinal cord contusion followed by a single dose subdural injection of miR-21 KD vectors (1 × 107 TU); and the negative control (NC) group mice were given subdural injection of comparable amount of NC vectors (1 × 107 TU) after spinal cord contusion...
June 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Wendy Ferguson, Carlana Coogle, Joshua Leppert, Tamara Odom-Maryon
PURPOSE: To improve knowledge and raise awareness of nurses who assist certified registered nurse anesthetists or anesthesiologists with peripheral nerve block or spinal block procedures about a potential life-threatening local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) event. DESIGN: An evidence-based practice project design. METHODS: Nurses in units where nerve block procedures were performed (ie, postanesthesia care unit, preoperative, operating room, outpatient services, labor and delivery unit) received a pretest about their knowledge of LAST events, participated in a 30-minute educational session, and then completed a post-test...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Afrânio Ferreira Evangelista, Marcos André Vannier-Santos, Gessica Sabrina de Assis Silva, Daniela Nascimento Silva, Paulo José Lima Juiz, Carolina Kymie Vasques Nonaka, Ricardo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, Cristiane Flora Villarreal
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a frequent and debilitating manifestation of diabetes mellitus, to which there are no effective therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have a great potential for the treatment of this syndrome, possibly through regenerative actions on peripheral nerves. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of MSC on spinal neuroinflammation, as well as on ultrastructural aspects of the peripheral nerve in DN-associated sensorial dysfunction...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mônica Gisele Costa Pinheiro, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda, Clélia Albino Simpson, Francisca Patrícia Barreto de Carvalho, Cáthia Alessandra Varela Ataide, Ana Luisa Brandão de Carvalho Lira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the concept of patient discharge in leprosy. METHODS: Theoretical study guided in the methodological framework of concept analysis. A bibliographical survey was held from December 2015 to January 2016 using the following bases: SCOPUS, CINAHL, PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO and BDENF, by use of the descriptors "Leprosy" and "Patient Discharge", resulting in 13 studies. RESULTS: The following were identified as possible uses for the concept: discharge by cure, drug use discharge, bacteriological discharge and post-discharge...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Colette Ridehalgh, Oliver P Sandy-Hindmarch, Aninna B Schmid
Study Design Prospective, cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. Background Small nerve fiber degeneration (SFD) commonly occurs in patients with peripheral neuropathies, resulting in deterioration in nerve function. Currently, the gold standard to identify SFD is through skin biopsies. Simple clinical tests aim to identify SFD, but their validity remains unknown. Objectives To examine the validity of clinical tests to assess SFD using carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as a model system. Methods 107 participants (22 healthy, 85 with CTS) underwent pinprick testing over the index finger, and had cold and warm detection thresholds taken (CDT, WDT) using quantitative sensory testing (QST)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Longfei Jia, Michael Chopp, Lei Wang, Xuerong Lu, Alexandra Szalad, Zheng Gang Zhang
Schwann cells actively interact with axons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Exosomes mediate intercellular communication by transferring their biomaterials, including microRNAs (miRs) into recipient cells. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from Schwann cells stimulated by high glucose (HG) exosomes accelerate development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and that exosomal cargo miRs contribute to this process. We found that HG exosomes contained high levels of miR-28, -31a, and -130a compared to exosomes derived from non-HG-stimulated Schwann cells...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiaotian Zhao, Yun Qian, Yuan Cheng, Xiaoshuang Guo, Wei-En Yuan
Non-viral vector gene delivery is generally limited by its potential toxicity problems, poor transfection abilities, serum stability, or relatively complex construction processes of modified polyplexes. Thus, we develop an efficient and stable polyplex system through convenient construction methods. Here, polyethyleneimine (PEI) 1.8 kDa and glutaraldehyde (GA) are used to construct a novel twice-condensed pDNA polyplex system using a one-pot construction method, including pH-responsive C[double bond, length as m-dash]N linkages by which different PEI molecules on one single polyplex can link with each other...
June 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Carlos Alventosa Mateu, Génesis Aurora Castillo López, Cecilia Albert Antequera
Schwannoma is a mesenchymal tumor that is mainly located in the peripheral nerves or the central nervous system. Its retroperitoneal location is rare and commonly asymptomatic. Thus, it is usually diagnosed when imaging tests are performed for other purposes. The clinical course of Schwannoma is benign but it also has malignant potential. Therefore, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. The definitive diagnosis is anatomopathological. In this context, we present a patient with retroperitoneal Schwannoma...
June 22, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Michał Stasiowski, Marek Zuber, Radosław Marciniak, Michał Kolny, Ewa Chabierska, Przemysław Jałowiecki, Aleksandra Pluta, Anna Missir
BACKGROUND: Horner's syndrome is comprised of a set of symptoms caused by a permanent or transient ipsilateral sympathetic trunk lesion or paralysis. It may occur after numerous pathologies in the cervical region, epidural, spinal anaesthesia, and interscalene, transscalene, supraclavicular, or infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The aim of this randomised, prospective clinical study was to evaluate the effect of the interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) technique on the occurrence rate of Horner's syndrome and identify contributing risk factors...
June 22, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Vesna Bucan, Desiree Vaslaitis, Claas-Tido Peck, Sarah Strauß, Peter M Vogt, Christine Radtke
Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and microenvironment for promotion of axonal regeneration. However, most repair strategies of traumatic peripheral nerve injury often lead to dissatisfying results in clinical outcome. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the microenvironment provided by nerve conduit remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the effects of from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs) originating exosomes with respect to sciatic nerve regeneration and neurite growth...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Wenjing Zhang, Cong Ning, Weiguo Xu, Hanze Hu, Mingqiang Li, Guoqing Zhao, Jianxun Ding, Xuesi Chen
Peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) is a conventional strategy for the management of acute postoperative pain. However, the short duration of the associated analgesia and the potential systemic toxicity due to the low molecular weights of local anesthetics limit their application. Methods: An in situ forming injectable Gel-microsphere (Gel-MS) system consisting of PLGA-PEG-PLGA Gel (Gel) and Gel-immobilized bupivacaine-loaded microsphere (MS/BUP) was prepared for precision-guided long-acting analgesia. A series of in vitro characterizations, such as scanning electron microscopy, rheology analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, drug release, and erosion and degradation, were carried out...
2018: Theranostics
Saïd M'Dahoma, Matthieu Poitevin, Eric Dabala, Hugo Payan, Cecilia Gabriel, Elisabeth Mocaër, Sylvie Bourgoin, Michel Hamon
Previous data showed that neuropathic pain induced by mechanical lesion of peripheral nerves has specific characteristics and responds differently to alleviating drugs at cephalic versus extracephalic level. This is especially true for tricyclic antidepressants currently used for alleviating neuropathic pain in humans which are less effective against cephalic neuropathic pain. Whether this also applies to the antidepressant agomelatine, with its unique pharmacological properties as MT1 /MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5-HT2B /5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in two rat models of neuropathic pain...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Clara Penas, Xavier Navarro
Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations lie behind the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is usually a chronic condition caused by a lesion, or pathological change, within the nervous system. Neuropathic pain appears frequently after nerve and spinal cord injuries or diseases, producing a debilitation of the patient and a decrease of the quality of life. At the cellular level, neuropathic pain is the result of neuronal plasticity shaped by an increase in the sensitivity and excitability of sensory neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Naotaka Iwamoto, Toyohiko Isu, Kyongsong Kim, Daijiro Morimoto, Juntaro Matsumoto, Kazuyoshi Yamazaki, Yasuhiro Chiba, Masanori Isobe
INTRODUCTION: Here we report our treatment results of low back and leg pain(LBLP)considering para-lumbar spine disease(PLSD)and peripheral nerve neuropathy(PNN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 103 patients who were admitted to our institute for LBLP treatment between January and December in 2014. For the treatment, we preferentially performed intensive block therapy for PLSD. RESULT: Among 103 patients, 89 patients had PLSD. In 85 patients, we performed intensive block therapy and 82 patients experienced short-term improvement of symptoms...
June 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
M Buzzi, P Versura, B Grigolo, C Cavallo, A Terzi, M Pellegrini, G Giannaccare, V Randi, E C Campos
INTRODUCTION: Various blood-derived products have been proposed for the topical treatment of ocular surface diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the different content of Growth Factors (GFs) and Interleukins (ILs) in peripheral blood (PB-S) and Cord Blood (CB-S) sera. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera were obtained from 105 healthy adult donors (PB-S) and 107 umbilical/placental veins at the time of delivery (CB-S). The levels of epithelial-GF (EGF), fibroblast-GF (FGF), platelet-derived-GF (PDGF), insulin-GF (IGF), transforming-GF alpha (TGF-α,) and beta 1-2-3 (TGF-β1-β2-β3), vascular endothelial-GF (VEGF), nerve-GF (NGF), Interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-4,IL-6,IL-10, and IL-13 were assessed by Bio-Plex Protein Array System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA, USA)...
June 13, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Anna Skogh, Anna Lesniak, Christian Sköld, Maria Karlgren, Fabienne Z Gaugaz, Richard Svensson, Shanti Diwakarla, Anna Jonsson, Rebecca Fransson, Fred Nyberg, Mathias Hallberg, Anja Sandström
The dipeptide amide H-Phe-Phe-NH2 (1) that previously was identified as a ligand for the substance P 1-7 (SP1-7 ) binding site exerts intriguing results in animal models of neuropathic pain after central but not after peripheral administration. The dipeptide 1 is derived from stepwise modifications of the anti-nociceptive heptapeptide SP1-7 and the tetrapeptide endomorphin-2 that is also binding to the SP1-7 site. We herein report a strong anti-allodynic effect of a new H-Phe-Phe-NH2 peptidomimetic (4) comprising an imidazole ring as a bioisosteric element, in the spare nerve injury (SNI) mice model after peripheral administration...
June 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
So Young Yoon, Jeeyoung Oh
Neuropathic cancer pain (NCP) is caused by nerve damage attributable to the cancer per se, and/or treatments including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; the prevalence is reported to be as high as 40%. The etiologies of NCP include direct nerve invasion or nerve compression by the cancer, neural toxicity, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. NCP is subdivided into plexopathy, radiculopathy, and peripheral neuropathies, among several other categories. The clinical characteristics of NCP differ from those of nociceptive pain in terms of both the hypersensitivity symptoms (burning, tingling, and an electrical sensation) and the hyposensitivity symptoms (numbness and muscle weakness)...
June 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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