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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340341/tridimensional-visualization-and-analysis-of-early-human-development
#1
Morgane Belle, David Godefroy, Gérard Couly, Samuel A Malone, Francis Collier, Paolo Giacobini, Alain Chédotal
Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340177/the-significance-of-internode-length-for-saltatory-conduction-looking-back-at-the-age-of-90
#2
Reinhard L Friede
The development of peripheral nerve fibers involves interdependence between the timing of Schwann cell recruitment during myelination and elongation of the nerve. This adjusts the number and the length of internodes to the length of the fiber. Saltatory conduction in longer nerves involves longer saltations; this makes internode length the factor that determines conduction velocity, thereby adjusting impulse transmission in circuits of different lengths. Myelination increases conduction velocity by means of saltatory conduction but what determines the saltatory conduction is not so much the indispensable insulating adjunct of myelin as the length of the internodes that separate the excitable membrane segments...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340171/immunohistochemical-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis-of-meningiomas-and-their-mimics
#3
Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Clémence Fleury, Caroline Fichel, Sophie Lefour, Aude Marchal Bressenot, Guillaume Gauchotte
The differential diagnosis between meningioma and others tumors can be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate different immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis between meningioma and their morphological mimics. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray with antiepithelial membrane antigen (EMA), progesterone receptor, somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A), CD34, STAT6, S100, SOX10, HMB45, MelanA, GFAP, inhibin, and BCL2 antibodies. One hundred and twenty-seven meningiomas, 26 solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/HPC), 39 schwannomas, 17 hemangioblastomas, 21 melanomas, 9 gliosarcomas, 5 neurofibromas, 9 peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 7 synovial sarcomas, and 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors were included in the microarray...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340093/the-molecular-and-morphologic-structures-that-make-saltatory-conduction-possible-in-peripheral-nerve
#4
Steven L Carroll
Saltatory conduction is the process by which action potentials are rapidly and efficiently propagated along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, saltatory conduction is made possible by a series of morphologically and molecularly distinct subdomains in both axons and their associated myelinating Schwann cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the molecular structure and physiology of the node of Ranvier and adjacent regions of the axoglial unit in peripheral nerve.
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340085/prevalence-of-neuropathic-pain-in-patients-with-traumatic-brachial-plexus-injury-a-multicenter-prospective-hospital-based-study
#5
Palma Ciaramitaro, Luca Padua, Grazia Devigili, Eugenia Rota, Stefano Tamburin, Roberto Eleopra, Giorgio Cruccu, Andrea Truini
Objective. : Prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain due to traumatic brachial plexus injury. Design. : Observational epidemiological study. Setting. : Hospital-based multicenter study. Subjects. : One hundred seven prospectively enrolled patients with brachial plexus injury. Methods. : All the patients underwent clinical examination and neurophysiological testing for a definitive diagnosis of the brachial plexus lesion...
March 3, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339448/efficacious-dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-for-painful-small-fiber-neuropathy-a-case-report
#6
Paolo Maino, Eva Koetsier, Alain Kaelin-Lang, Claudio Gobbi, Roberto Perez
Small fiber neuropathy is a disorder of the peripheral nerves with typical symptoms of burning, sharp, and shooting pain and sensory disturbances in the feet. Pain treatment depends principally on the underlying etiology with concurrent administration of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, and topical treatments like capsaicin and local anesthetics. However, treatments for pain relief in these patients frequently fail. We describe the first case of intractable painful small fiber neuropathy of the foot successfully treated with spinal cord stimulation of the left L5 dorsal root ganglion...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339447/chronic-localized-back-pain-due-to-posterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-pocnes-a-new-diagnosis
#7
Oliver B Boelens, Robert C Maatman, Marc R Scheltinga, Kees van Laarhoven, Rudi M Roumen
Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338768/integrative-blood-pressure-response-to-upright-tilt-post-renal-denervation
#8
Erin J Howden, Cara East, Justin S Lawley, Abigail S L Stickford, Myrthe Verhees, Qi Fu, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: Whether renal denervation (RDN) in patients with resistant hypertension normalizes blood pressure (BP) regulation in response to routine cardiovascular stimuli such as upright posture is unknown. We conducted an integrative study of BP regulation in patients with resistant hypertension who had received RDN to characterize autonomic circulatory control. METHODS: Twelve patients (60 ± 9 [SD] years, n = 10 males) who participated in the Symplicity HTN-3 trial were studied and compared to 2 age-matched normotensive (Norm) and hypertensive (unmedicated, HTN) control groups...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338565/corneal-nerve-morphology-sensitivity-and-tear-neuropeptides-in-contact-lens-wear
#9
Blanka Golebiowski, Cecilia Chao, Fiona Stapleton, Isabelle Jalbert
PURPOSE: To determine tear neuropeptide levels in contact lens wearers and non-wearers, and to examine relationships with indices of corneal innervation, tear function, and ocular discomfort. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-visit, investigator-masked pilot study. Assessments included Ocular Comfort Index (OCI), central and mid-peripheral corneal nerve density and morphology (HRT-Rostock), corneal sensitivity (Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer), tear Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentration (ELISA), in situ tear osmolarity (TearLab), tear secretion (Phenol Red Thread), and noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT; Keeler Tearscope)...
April 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338524/chronic-boutonniere-deformities-supple-or-stiff-a-new-surgical-technique-with-early-mobilization-in-11-cases
#10
Elodie Dubois, Frederic Teboul, Thomas Bihel, Jean-N Goubier
Injuries to the central slip of the extensor mechanism can lead to a Boutonniere deformity with important functional consequences. We report a series of 11 patients treated by lengthening-dorsalizing the lateral bands and tightening the central slip with early mobilization. The average age of the patients was 42 years (14;52). The extension defect of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint was 64 degrees (80;55) and the hyperextension of the distal interphalangeal joint was 10 degrees (15;5). The surgery was performed with peripheral nerve block (sensitive), allowing dynamic adjustment of the tendinous sutures...
March 23, 2017: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338437/contralateral-peripheral-neurotization-for-a-hemiplegic-hindlimb-after-central-neurological-injury
#11
Mou-Xiong Zheng, Xu-Yun Hua, Su Jiang, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Contralateral peripheral neurotization surgery has been successfully applied to rescue motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury (CNI). It may contribute to strengthened neural pathways between the contralesional cortex and paretic limbs. However, the effect of this surgery in the lower extremities remains unknown. In the present study the authors explored the effectiveness and safety of contralateral peripheral neurotization in treating a hemiplegic lower extremity following CNI in adult rats...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338433/letter-to-the-editor-ultrasound-in-peripheral-nerve-injuries-the-challenge
#12
Liverana Lauretti, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Eduardo Fernandez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337884/neurochemical-effects-of-photobiostimulation-in-the-trigeminal-ganglion-after-inferior-alveolar-nerve-injury
#13
D O Martins, F M Santos, L R G Britto, J B D Lemos, M Chacur
Orofacial pain is associated with peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Nerve injury results in release of chemical mediators that contribute to persistent pain conditions. The activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), promotes release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) from trigeminal nerve terminals. CGRP and SP contribute to the development of peripheral hyperalgesia. The expression of SP and CGRP by primary afferent neurons is rapidly increased in response to peripheral inflammation...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337860/clinical-features-and-long-term-outcomes-of-105-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-patients-a-single-center-experience-from-north-india
#14
Aman Sharma, Godasi S R S N K Naidu, Manish Rathi, Roshan Verma, Manish Modi, Benzeeta Pinto, Kusum Sharma, Varun Dhir, Manphool Singhal, Mahesh Prakash, Ritambhra Nada, Naresh K Panda, Ranjana W Minz
AIM: To describe the clinical features, treatment and long-term outcomes in north Indian patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). METHODS: Clinical details, Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS-v3), laboratory data, histopathology findings, treatment details and outcomes of all consecutive patients diagnosed as having GPA between April 2005 and April 2016 were retrieved. European Vasculitis Study Group definitions were used to classify patients into localized, early systemic, generalized, severe and refractory categories...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337129/novel-neuromodulation-techniques-to-assess-interhemispheric-communication-in-neural-injury-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Samuel S Shin, Galit Pelled
Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336810/role-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-trpv1-in-the-modulation-of-airway-smooth-muscle-tone-and-calcium-handling
#16
Gene T Yocum, Jun Chen, Christine H Choi, Elizabeth A Townsend, Yi Zhang, Dingbang Xu, Xiao Wen Fu, Michael J Sanderson, Charles W Emala
Asthma is a common disorder characterized, in part, by airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperresponsiveness. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed on airway nerve fibers that modulates afferent signals resulting in cough, and potentially bronchoconstriction. In the present study, the TRPV1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in primary cultured human ASM cells, and the TRPV1 protein was detected in ASM of human trachea by immunohistochemistry. Proximity ligation assays suggest that TRPV1 is expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane of human ASM cells in close association with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336415/sncam-as-a-specific-marker-of-peripheral-demyelination
#17
Adam Niezgoda, Sławomir Michalak, Jacek Losy, Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Wojciech Kozubski
Adhesion molecules are involved in nerve growth, synaptic plasticity and myelin formation and maintenance process. Neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56 or NCAM) seems to play a crucial role in all the above-mentioned events. Having found poly-sialylated NCAM increased re-expression on demyelinated axons within multiple sclerosis plaques we assessed soluble NCAM (sNCAM) in sera of patients with various types of peripheral nerve affections - demyelinating, axonal "inflammatory", axonal metabolic polyneuropathies and healthy controls...
March 20, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#18
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335992/varicella-zoster-virus-vasculopathy-the-expanding-clinical-spectrum-and-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Maria A Nagel, Dallas Jones, Ann Wyborny
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous, human alphaherpesvirus that produces varicella on primary infection then becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. In elderly and immunocompromised individuals, VZV reactivates and travels along nerve fibers peripherally resulting in zoster. However, VZV can also spread centrally and infect cerebral and extracranial arteries (VZV vasculopathy) to produce transient ischemic attacks, stroke, aneurysm, sinus thrombosis and giant cell arteritis, as well as granulomatous aortitis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335745/ipsilateral-and-contralateral-sensory-changes-in-healthy-subjects-after-experimentally-induced-concomitant-sensitization-and-hypoesthesia
#20
Elena K Enax-Krumova, Stephanie Pohl, Andrea Westermann, Christoph Maier
BACKGROUND: In unilateral neuropathic pain. e.g. after peripheral nerve injury, both positive and negative sensory signs occur often, accompanied by minor but equally directed contralateral sensory changes. To mimic this feature, we experimentally aimed to induce concomitant c-fibre sensitization and block in healthy subjects and analyzed the bilateral sensory changes by quantitative sensory testing (QST) using the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. METHODS: Twenty eight healthy subjects were firstly randomized in 2 groups to receive either topical capsaicin (0...
March 23, 2017: BMC Neurology
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