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Peripherical nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244032/evaluation-methods-as-quality-control-in-the-generation-of-decellularized-peripheral-nerve-allografts
#1
Charlot Philips, Ria Cornelissen, Víctor Carriel
Nowadays, the high incidence of peripheral nerve injuries and the low success ratio of surgical treatments are driving research to the generation of novel alternatives to repair critical nerve defects. In this sense, tissue engineering emerged as a possible alternative with special attention for decellularization techniques. Tissue decellularization offers the possibility to obtain a cell-free, natural extracellular matrix (ECM), characterized by an adequate three-dimensional organization and proper molecular composition to repair different tissues or organs, including peripheral nerves...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243182/the-facial-nerve-anatomy-and-associated-disorders-for-oral-health-professionals
#2
Kojiro Takezawa, Grant Townsend, Mounir Ghabriel
The facial nerve, the seventh cranial nerve, is of great clinical significance to oral health professionals. Most published literature either addresses the central connections of the nerve or its peripheral distribution but few integrate both of these components and also highlight the main disorders affecting the nerve that have clinical implications in dentistry. The aim of the current study is to provide a comprehensive description of the facial nerve. Multiple aspects of the facial nerve are discussed and integrated, including its neuroanatomy, functional anatomy, gross anatomy, clinical problems that may involve the nerve, and the use of detailed anatomical knowledge in the diagnosis of the site of facial nerve lesion in clinical neurology...
December 14, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242105/affective-and-non-affective-touch-evoke-differential-brain-responses-in-2-month-old-infants
#3
Emma H Jönsson, Kalle Kotilahti, Juha Heiskala, Helena Backlund Wasling, Håkan Olausson, Ilona Croy, Hanna Mustaniemi, Petri Hiltunen, Jetro J Tuulari, Noora M Scheinin, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson, Ilkka Nissilä
Caressing touch is an effective way to communicate emotions and to create social bonds. It is also one of the key mediators of early parental bonding. The caresses are generally thought to represent a social form of touching and indeed, slow, gentle brushing is encoded in specialized peripheral nerve fibers, the C-tactile (CT) afferents. In adults, areas such as the posterior insula and superior temporal sulcus are activated by affective, slow stroking touch but not by fast stroking stimulation. However, whether these areas are activated in infants, after social tactile stimulation, is unknown...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242055/late-disseminated-lyme-disease-associated-pathology-and-spirochete-persistence-post-treatment-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
Nicholas A Crossland, Xavier Alvarez, Monica E Embers
Non-human primates currently serve as the best experimental model for Lyme disease due to their close genetic homology with humans and demonstration of all three phases of disease following infection with Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi (Bb). We investigated the pathology associated with late disseminated Lyme disease (12 to 13 months following tick inoculation) in doxycycline-treated (28 days; 5mg/kg, oral, 2x/day) and untreated rhesus macaques (Rm). Minimal to moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, with a predilection for perivascular spaces and collagenous tissues, was observed in multiple tissues including the cerebral leptomeninges, brainstem, peripheral nerves from both fore and hind limbs, stifle synovium and perisynovial adipose tissue, urinary bladder, skeletal muscle, myocardium, and visceral pericardium...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240833/vagal-nerve-stimulation-triggers-widespread-responses-and-alters-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-brain
#5
Jiayue Cao, Kun-Han Lu, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy for epilepsy and depression. However, its efficacy varies and its mechanism remains unclear. Prior studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map brain activations with VNS in human brains, but have reported inconsistent findings. The source of inconsistency is likely attributable to the complex temporal characteristics of VNS-evoked fMRI responses that cannot be fully explained by simplified response models in the conventional model-based analysis for activation mapping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239897/ex-vivo-expression-of-chemokine-receptors-on-cells-surrounding-cutaneous-nerves-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#6
Jenjira Mountford, Fitri Octaviana, Riwanti Estiasari, Denise Dewanto Setiawan, Ibnu Ariyanto, Silvia Lee, Jessica Gaff, Constance Chew, Connie Jackaman, Peter Kamerman, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic anti-retroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Accumulating evidence indicates that the neuropathy is immune-mediated. We hypothesise that chemokines produced locally in the skin promote migration of macrophages and T-cells into the tissue, damaging cutaneous nerves causing HIV-SN. DESIGN: We assessed chemokine receptor expression on infiltrating CD14 and CD3 cells around cutaneous nerves in standardised skin biopsies from HIV-SN+ patients (n = 5), HIV-SN- patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239325/therapeutic-capacities-of-human-and-mouse-skeletal-muscle-derived-stem-cells-for-a-long-gap-peripheral-nerve-injury
#7
Tetsuro Tamaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238976/a-spontaneously-immortalized-schwann-cell-line-from-aldose-reductase-deficient-mice-as-a-useful-tool-for-studying-polyol-pathway-and-aldehyde-metabolism
#8
Naoko Niimi, Hideji Yako, Shizuka Takaku, Hiroshi Kato, Takafumi Matsumoto, Yasumasa Nishito, Kazuhiko Watabe, Saori Ogasawara, Hiroki Mizukami, Soroku Yagihashi, Sookja K Chung, Kazunori Sango
The increased glucose flux into the polyol pathway via aldose reductase (AR) is recognized as a major contributing factor for the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, whereas little is known about the functional significance of AR in the peripheral nervous system. Spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell lines established from long-term cultures of AR-deficient and normal C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and peripheral nerves can be useful tools for studying the physiological and pathological roles of AR...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238502/profile-of-facial-palsy-in-arar-northern-saudi-arabia
#9
Wasan Lafi Alanazi, Nagah Mohamed Abo El-Fetoh, Shahad Lafi Alanazi, Mohammed Abdullah Alkhidhr, Mohammed Abdullah Alanazi, Dounia Saleh Alonazi, Atheer Bader Alanzi, Reem Homoud Alshammari, Mashael Jaza Alshammari, Basmah Abdullah Alanazi, Samiyah Sarhan Alanazi
Background: The term facial palsy generally refers to weakness of the facial muscles, mainly resulting from temporary or permanent damage to the facial nerve. Common causes of facial paralysis include infection or inflammation of the facial nerve, head trauma, head or neck tumor, stroke. Objective: To outline the incidence of several etiologies and the profile of patients with peripheral facial paralysis attending the outpatient clinic of the neurology department in Hospitals of Arar City, Saudi Arabia...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238215/electrical-stimulation-of-the-posterior-tibial-nerve-reduces-neuropathic-pain-in-patients-with-polyneuropathy
#10
Ron Dabby, Menachem Sadeh, Ilan Goldberg, Vitaly Finkelshtein
Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) is caused by neuronal damage to the peripheral nervous system and usually affects the distal extremities. This open-label study examined the effect of short-term peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) on individuals with PNP due to polyneuropathy. A total of 12 patients (mean age, 63.0 ± 10.0 years, 41.7% male) with daily bilateral PNP for at least 6 months (mean duration, 7.4 ± 7.8 years) received a total of six direct electrical stimulation therapies to the posterior tibial nerve at 3-4-day intervals...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238211/interdependency-between-mechanical-parameters-and-afferent-nerve-discharge-in-remodeled-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rat-intestine
#11
Jingbo Zhao, Jian Yang, Donghua Liao, Hans Gregersen
Background: Gastrointestinal disorders are very common in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis is still not well understood. Peripheral afferent nerves may be involved due to the complex regulation of gastrointestinal function by the enteric nervous system. Objective: We aimed to characterize the stimulus-response function of afferent fibers innervating the jejunum in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rat model. A key question is whether changes in afferent firing arise from remodeled tissue or from adaptive afferent processes...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237933/advance-of-peripheral-nerve-injury-repair-and-reconstruction
#12
Bao-Guo Jiang, Na Han, Feng Rao, Yi-Lin Wang, Yu-Hui Kou, Pei-Xun Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236959/aging-decreases-chorda-tympani-nerve-responses-to-nacl-and-alters-morphology-of-fungiform-taste-pores-in-rats
#13
Zachary D Whiddon, Spencer T Rynberg, Thomas G Mast, Joseph M Breza
Sensory processing is susceptible to decline with age. The sense of taste is, however, generally thought to be resistant to aging. We investigated how chorda-tympani nerve responses and fungiform-taste pores are affected by aging in the Sprague-Dawley rat, a model system for salt taste. First, we measured chorda-tympani nerve responses to NH4Cl and NaCl solutions in young (3-5 months old) and aged (14-15 months old) rats. Aged rats had significantly attenuated chorda-tympani responses to 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0...
December 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236601/optimal-reference-electrode-positioning-for-electroneurography-at-the-orbicularis-oculi-a-case-report-and-short-review
#14
Nobushige Takahashi, Osamu Takahashi, Ryosuke Ushijima, Rie Umebayashi, Junji Nishikawa
Electroneurography is one of the most useful tests for evaluating facial nerve function. Because many patients with peripheral facial palsy complain of difficulty with eye closure, recording compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the orbicularis oculi (OC) is important. However, electromyographers often encounter OC CMAPs that have an initial positivity. In the present study, facial motor potentials of a healthy subject were recorded using an electrode on the acromion and electrical activities over the facial muscles were evaluated...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235541/biodegradable-bisvinyl-sulfonemethyl-crosslinked-gelatin-conduit-promotes-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-adult-rats
#15
Chien-Hsin Ko, Ming-You Shie, Jia-Horng Lin, Yi-Wen Chen, Chun-Hsu Yao, Yueh-Sheng Chen
In our previous study, we found that gelatin-based materials exhibit good conductivity and are non-cytotoxic. In this study, gelatin was cross-linked with bisvinyl sulfonemethyl (BVSM) to fabricate a biodegradable conduit for peripheral nerve repair. First, BVSM on the prepared conduit was characterized to determine its mechanical properties and contact angle. The maximum tensile strength and water contact angle of the gelatin-BVSM conduits were 23 ± 4.8 MPa and 74.7 ± 9°, which provided sufficient mechanical strength to resist muscular contraction; additionally, the surface was hydrophilic...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234894/amputation-neuroma-mimicking-lymph-node-metastasis-of-remnant-gastric-cancer-a-case-report
#16
Kenichiro Furukawa, Yutaka Tanizawa, Kimihide Kusafuka, Noriyuki Nishiwaki, Keiichi Fujiya, Hayato Omori, Sanae Kaji, Makoto Hikage, Rie Makuuchi, Tomoyuki Irino, Masanori Tokunaga, Etsuro Bando, Taiichi Kawamura, Masanori Terashima
BACKGROUND: Amputation neuromas (ANs) are reactive hyperplasia of nerve tissues that occur after a trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerves. Only two previous reports of ANs occurring around the stomach and post gastrectomy have been reported. We report the case of a patient with AN near the remnant stomach who underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old man underwent distal gastrectomy, D1+ lymphadenectomy, and Billroth-I reconstruction for early gastric cancer in another hospital at 63 years of age...
December 12, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234659/accessory-muscle-of-the-flexor-digitorum-superficialis-and-its-clinical-implications
#17
Edie Benedito Caetano, João José Sabongi Neto, Lucas Augusto Ayres Ribas, Edson Vinícius Milanello
Anatomical variations of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle and tendon unit are frequently reported by anatomists and clinicians. Anatomical muscle variations of the FDS and its tendons may include variations of muscle belly, presence of accessory or duplicate tendons, abnormal tendon connections, and absence of muscle or tendon components. Such variations may or may not have clinical implications. This report presents a case not described previously: a unilateral accessory muscle of the flexor digitorum superficialis which was connected by a thick tendon to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle; it was directed proximally to the insertion of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, next to the superficialis head of the pronator teres muscle...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234567/nerve-entrapment-in-the-hip-region-current-concepts-review
#18
RobRoy Martin, Hal David Martin, Benjamin R Kivlan
The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the anatomy, etiology, evaluation, and treatment techniques for nerve entrapments of the hip region. Nerve entrapment can occur around musculotendinous, osseous, and ligamentous structures because of the potential for increased strain and compression on the peripheral nerve at those sites. The sequela of localized trauma may also result in nerve entrapment if normal nerve gliding is prevented. Nerve entrapment can be difficult to diagnose because patient complaints may be similar to and coexist with other musculoskeletal conditions in the hip and pelvic region...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234455/vibration-thresholds-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-assessed-by-multiple-frequency-vibrometry-a-case-control-study
#19
Magnus Flondell, Birgitta Rosén, Gert Andersson, Tommy Schyman, Lars B Dahlin, Anders Björkman
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compression neuropathy, but there is no gold standard for establishing the diagnosis. The ability to feel vibrations in the fingertips is dependent on the function in cutaneous receptors and afferent nerves. Our aim was to investigate vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) in patients with CTS using multi-frequency vibrometry. Methods: Sixty-six patients (16 men and 50 women) with CTS, diagnosed from clinical signs and by electroneurography, and 66 matched healthy controls were investigated with multi-frequency vibrometry...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234067/the-human-blood-nerve-barrier-transcriptome
#20
Steven P Palladino, E Scott Helton, Preti Jain, Chaoling Dong, Michael R Crowley, David K Crossman, Eroboghene E Ubogu
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB), formed by tight junction-forming microvessels within peripheral nerve endoneurium, exists to regulate its internal microenvironment essential for effective axonal signal transduction. Relatively little is known about the unique human BNB molecular composition. Such knowledge is crucial to comprehend the relationships between the systemic circulation and peripheral nerves in health, adaptations to intrinsic or extrinsic perturbations and alterations that may result in disease. We performed RNA-sequencing on cultured early- and late-passage adult primary human endoneurial endothelial cells and laser-capture microdissected endoneurial microvessels from four cryopreserved normal adult human sural nerves referenced to the Genome Reference Consortium Human Reference 37 genome browser, using predefined criteria guided by known transcript or protein expression in vitro and in situ...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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