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Kwashiorkor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615653/importance-of-serum-amino-acid-profile-for-induction-of-hepatic-steatosis-under-protein-malnutrition
#1
Hiroki Nishi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Hiroyasu Kamei, Yuki Goda, Mikako Kumano, Yuka Toyoshima, Asako Takenaka, Masato Masuda, Yasushi Nakabayashi, Ryuji Shioya, Naoyuki Kataoka, Fumihiko Hakuno, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi
We previously reported that a low-protein diet caused animals to develop fatty liver containing a high level of triglycerides (TG), similar to the human nutritional disorder "kwashiorkor". To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we cultured hepatocytes in amino acid-sufficient or deficient medium. Surprisingly, the intracellular TG level was increased by amino acid deficiency without addition of any lipids or hormones, accompanied by enhanced lipid synthesis, indicating that hepatocytes themselves monitored the extracellular amino acid concentrations to induce lipid accumulation in a cell-autonomous manner...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361980/outcomes-of-children-aged-6-59%C3%A2-months-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-at-the-gado-outpatient-therapeutic-center-in-cameroon
#2
Judwin Alieh Ndzo, Alan Jackson
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess outcomes [rates of recovery, default, case fatality; rate of weight gain and rate of Mean Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) gain] of children aged 6-59 months with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) at the Outpatient Therapeutic Center at Gado Refugee Camp, Cameroon, in relation to international standards. We retrospectively analysed files of 254 children with SAM aged 6-59 months admitted from April 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS: 72.8% got discharged as recovered, 0...
January 24, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302321/developmental-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Meta van den Heuvel, Wieger Voskuijl, Kate Chidzalo, Marko Kerac, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Robert Bandsma, Melissa Gladstone
Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Particularly an important research gap exists in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is a high prevalence of SAM and a high rate of co-occurring HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175577/aflatoxin-exposure-in-nigerian-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition
#4
Amy McMillan, Justin B Renaud, Kevin M N Burgess, Adebola E Orimadegun, Olusegun O Akinyinka, Stephen J Allen, J David Miller, Gregor Reid, Mark W Sumarah
Aflatoxin exposure is an important public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa as well as parts of Latin America and Asia. In addition to hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic aflatoxin exposure is believed to play a role in childhood growth impairment. The most reliable biomarker of chronic aflatoxin exposure is the aflatoxin-albumin adduct, as measured by ELISA or isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In this report, we have used high resolution LC-MS/MS with IDMS to quantitate AFB1 -lysine in an extremely vulnerable population of Nigerian children suffering from severe acute malnutrition...
January 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158905/genome-sequence-and-description-of-mobilicoccus-massiliensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-stool-of-a-nigerian-boy-with-kwashiorkor
#5
N Mathlouthi, S I Traore, T Cimmino, S Khelaifia, T T Nguyen, F Cadoret, C Couderc, D Raoult, J-M Rolain
Mobilicoccus massiliensis strain SIT2 (= CSUR P1306 = DSM 29065) is a new type strain of Mobilicoccus sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a 2-year-old Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. M. massiliensis is Gram positive, facultatively anaerobic, nonsporulating and motile. The 3 842 438 bp long genome contains 3362 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes, including one 5S rRNA gene, one 16S rRNA gene, one 23S rRNA gene and 46 tRNA genes.
November 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130721/the-nutritional-limitations-of-plant-based-beverages-in-infancy-and-childhood
#6
Isidro Vitoria
Breastfeeding, infant formula and cow's milk are basic foods in infant nutrition. However, they are being increasingly replaced either totally or partially by plant-based beverages.The composition of 164 plant-based beverages available in Spain was reviewed based on the nutritional labeling of the package and the manufacturers' webpages. This was compared to the composition of cow's milk and infant formula. In addition, the nutritional disease associated with consumption of plant-based beverages in infants and children was reviewed by means of a literature search in Medline and Embase since 1990 based on the key words "plant-based beverages" or "rice beverages" or "almond beverages" or "soy beverages" and "infant" or "child"...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984257/from-kwashiorkor-to-edematous-malnutrition
#7
Preeti Singh, Anju Seth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933421/severe-childhood-malnutrition
#8
REVIEW
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, James A Berkley, Robert H J Bandsma, Marko Kerac, Indi Trehan, André Briend
The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children <5 years of age living in low-income and middle-income countries and include stunting, wasting and kwashiorkor, of which severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588566/gut-bacteria-missing-in-severe-acute-malnutrition-can-we-identify-potential-probiotics-by-culturomics
#9
Maryam Tidjani Alou, Matthieu Million, Sory I Traore, Donia Mouelhi, Saber Khelaifia, Dipankar Bachar, Aurelia Caputo, Jeremy Delerce, Souleymane Brah, Daouda Alhousseini, Cheikh Sokhna, Catherine Robert, Bouli A Diallo, Aldiouma Diallo, Philippe Parola, Michael Golden, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult
Severe acute malnutrition is the world-leading cause of children under-five's death. Recent metagenomics studies have established a link between gut microbiota and severe acute malnutrition, describing an immaturity with a striking depletion in oxygen-sensitive prokaryotes. Amoxicillin and therapeutic diet cure most of the children with severe acute malnutrition but an irreversible disruption of the gut microbiota is suspected in the refractory and most severe cases. In these cases, therapeutic diet may be unable to reverse the microbiota alteration leading to persistent impaired development or death...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537869/a-child-with-kwashiorkor-misdiagnosed-as-atopic-dermatitis
#10
Marcus Henrique de S B Xavier, Eduardo De Magalhães, Gilmar Ferraz Oliveira, Mariana Keltke Magalhães, Cláudio Prates de Almeida E Oliveira, Natália Bragança Oliveira
Although uncommon, kwashiorkor continues to occur in developed, but mainly in developing nations. It is a type of protein-calorie malnutrition that occurs in the setting of insufficient protein intake in the presence of sufficient caloric intake. Skin and hair changes should prompt a thorough dietary history and appropriate dietary intervention. We report a case of a 12-month old girl in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, who presented with diffuse edema, desquamation, and irritability misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis...
May 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504629/-acute-malnutrition-in-children
#11
Maren Johanne Rytter, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Henrik Friis, Vibeke Brix Christensen
The prevalence of malnutrition has declined significantly over the last 30 years. Despite this, malnutrition remains a major cause of illness and death among children worldwide, particularly in low- and medium-income countries. Marasmus and kwashiorkor are the most life-threatening forms of malnutrition. Treatment protocols enable effective treatment, but only a minority of malnourished children have access to treatment. Furthermore, treating children with complicated malnutrition requiring hospitalization remains a clinical challenge...
May 15, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468633/myocardial-and-haemodynamic-responses-to-two-fluid-regimens-in-african-children-with-severe-malnutrition-and-hypovolaemic-shock-afrim-study
#12
Nchafatso Obonyo, Bernadette Brent, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Irene Kuipers, Sidney Wong, Kenji Shiino, Jonathan Chan, John Fraser, Job B M van Woensel, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: Fluid therapy in severely malnourished children is hypothesized to be deleterious owing to compromised cardiac function. We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) fluid resuscitation guidelines for hypovolaemic shock using myocardial and haemodynamic function and safety endpoints. METHODS: A prospective observational study of two sequential fluid management strategies was conducted at two East African hospitals. Eligible participants were severely malnourished children, aged 6-60 months, with hypovolaemic shock secondary to gastroenteritis...
May 3, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#13
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
April 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289546/genome-sequence-and-description-of-anaeromassilibacillus-senegalensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-gut-of-patient-with-kwashiorkor
#14
E Guilhot, M T Alou, J-C Lagier, N Labas, C Couderc, J Delerce, A Diallo, C Sokhna, P-E Fournier, D Raoult, S Khelaifia
Using the culturomics strategy, a wide range of anaerobic bacteria was discovered including Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis strain mt9(T) (= CSUR P1511 = DSM 102954), isolated from the gut microbiota of a 1-year-old Senegalese patient with kwashiorkor. This Gram-negative strain is a strictly anaerobic, spore-forming rod motile by a polar flagellum. The 3 511 289 bp long genome of this strain contains 3046 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes, including 45 tRNA and four rRNA genes, and exhibits a G+C content of 52...
May 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279227/treatment-outcomes-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-treated-within-outpatient-therapeutic-program-otp-at-wolaita-zone-southern-ethiopia-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#15
Mulugeta Yohannis Kabalo, Canaan Negash Seifu
BACKGROUND: Children in third world countries suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in an extent of public health important. SAM management protocol available this time brought the approach from facility-based to community-based by Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP). But, little was known about the treatment outcomes of the program in Ethiopia. Thus, this study was aimed to assess treatment outcomes of SAM and identify factors associated among children treated at OTP in Wolaita Zone...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852657/kwashiorkor-an-unexpected-complication-to-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Camilla Viola Buskbjerg Palm, Jacob Stampe Frølich, Lena Sønder Snogdal, René Klinkby Støving
We present the case of a woman aged 48 years, diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) at the age of 12. She was admitted to a highly specialised eating disorder facility with distended abdomen, muscular atrophy, ulcerative dermatitis, electrolyte derangements and low serum albumin. Her weight was 53.1 kg, corresponding to a body mass index (BMI) of 17.9 kg/m(2) After initial stabilisation, a therapeutic ascites puncture relieved the patient from 6500 mL of ascites. After 6 weeks of nutritional and diuretic treatment, the patient was discharged with a weight of 46...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807038/metabolomic-changes-in-serum-of-children-with-different-clinical-diagnoses-of-malnutrition
#17
Valeria Di Giovanni, Celine Bourdon, Dominic X Wang, Swapna Seshadri, Edward Senga, Christian J Versloot, Wieger Voskuijl, Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Ling Zhang, John Parkinson, Mark J Manary, Robert Hj Bandsma
BACKGROUND: Mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains high despite standardized rehabilitation protocols. Two forms of SAM are classically distinguished: kwashiorkor and marasmus. Children with kwashiorkor have nutritional edema and metabolic disturbances, including hypoalbuminemia and hepatic steatosis, whereas marasmus is characterized by severe wasting. The metabolic changes underlying these phenotypes have been poorly characterized, and whether homeostasis is achieved during hospital stay is unclear...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651550/prevalence-and-outcome-of-severe-malnutrition-in-children-less-than-five-year-old-in-omdurman-paediatric-hospital-sudan
#18
Shaza O H Kanan, Mohammed Osman Swar
This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient's hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients' record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (51.4%) with a male: female ratio of 1:0...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627096/-prevention-and-therapy-of-sarcopenia-in-the-ageing
#19
REVIEW
Zdeněk Zadák
UNLABELLED: Sarcopenia is one of the severe disorders associated with nutritional imbalance. While sarcopenia is an inseparable part of the process of ageing as people get older, it plays a vital role in pathological situations such as protein-calorie and kwashiorkor malnutrition, it accompanies various diseases of rheumatic character and is an almost ever-present feature of the clinical picture of oncological patients. Sarcopenia in people under strain is fatally manifested mainly in the elderly, medically fragile patients...
December 0: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621821/-flaviflexus-massiliensis-a-new-bacterial-species-isolated-from-the-human-gut
#20
S I Traore, S Khelaifia, P-E Fournier, D Raoult
Herein, we report the main characteristics of 'Flaviflexus massiliensis' strain SIT4(T) (CSURP1300), a new bacterium that was isolated from the stool specimen of a 2-year-old girl from Niger suffering from kwashiorkor.
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
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