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Dna damage and epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907095/phenotypic-plasticity-epigenetic-or-genetic-modifications-in-relation-to-the-duration-of-cd-exposure-within-a-microevolution-time-range-in-the-beet-armyworm
#1
Maria Augustyniak, Anna Płachetka-Bożek, Alina Kafel, Agnieszka Babczyńska, Monika Tarnawska, Agnieszka Janiak, Anna Loba, Marta Dziewięcka, Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka
In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations) exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed) were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent) or PBS (reference)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900050/molecular-alterations-in-the-carcinogenesis-and-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumor-factors-and-background-liver-factors
#2
Yoshikuni Inokawa, Kenichi Inaoka, Fuminori Sonohara, Masamichi Hayashi, Mitsuro Kanda, Shuji Nomoto
Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with poor prognosis worldwide, the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis and progression of this disease remain unclear. Several tumor characteristics have previously been demonstrated to be prognostic factors of survival following hepatic resection, or the recurrence of HCC or other types of cancer. Comparisons of normal tissues and HCC tumor tissues have revealed the presence of numerous molecular alterations in HCC, including genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, particularly mutations in certain genes and DNA methylation in the promoter regions of tumor-suppressor genes...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895551/oct4-methylation-mediated-silencing-as-an-epigenetic-barrier-preventing-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-dedifferentiation-in-a-murine-model-of-retinal-injury
#3
Luis I Reyes-Aguirre, Monica Lamas
Müller glia (MG) is the most abundant glial type in the vertebrate retina. Among its many functions, it is capable of responding to injury by dedifferentiating, proliferating, and differentiating into every cell types lost to damage. This regenerative ability is notoriously absent in mammals. We have previously reported that cultured mammalian MG undergoes a partial dedifferentiation, but fails to fully acquire a progenitor phenotype and differentiate into neurons. This might be explained by a mnemonic mechanism comprised by epigenetic traits, such as DNA methylation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889327/epigenetics-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jooho Lee, Yuri Kim, Simonetta Friso, Sang-Woon Choi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common hepatic disorder ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is an emerging health concern. NAFLD is a pathologic condition characterized by the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol consumption. Excess hepatic fat accumulation results from increased delivery of triglycerides (TG) to the liver or conversion of surplus carbohydrates to TG. Importantly, a subgroup of NAFLD results in hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and may progress to irreversible cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885845/dna-methylation-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Christian M Hedrich, Katrin Mäbert, Thomas Rauen, George C Tsokos
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease facilitated by aberrant immune responses directed against cells and tissues, resulting in inflammation and organ damage. In the majority of patients, genetic predisposition is accompanied by additional factors conferring disease expression. While the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive, epigenetic alterations in immune cells have been demonstrated to play a key role in disease pathogenesis through the dysregulation of gene expression...
November 25, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869444/-brca1-and-brca2-pathologists-starting-kit
#6
Petr Škapa
Dysfunction of tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is involved in the pathogenesis of malignant tumors, especially breast and ovarian carcinoma. BRCA1/2 genes may be inactivated by germinal and somatic mutations or epigenetic changes. Germinal mutations are responsible for the hereditary breast and ovarian carcinoma syndrome. Defects of BRCA1/2 genes lead to the failure of homologous recombination, the basic mechanism for DNA double strand break repair. The resultant genomic instability is associated with a high risk of malignant transformation of the cell, but it also results in a higher sensitivity of tumors to platinum-based chemotherapeutic compounds which damage DNA structure directly...
2016: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865365/implications-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-developing-therapeutic-resistance-in-oral-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Prajna Paramita Naik, Durgesh Nandini Das, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Niharika Sinha, Prakash Priyadarshi Praharaj, Rajesh Agarwal, Sujit Kumar Bhutia
Conventional therapeutics are often frequented with recurrences, refraction and regimen resistance in oral cavity cancers which are predominantly manifested by cancer stem cells (CSCs). During oncoevolution, cancer cells may undergo structural and functional reprogramming wherein they evolve as highly tolerant CSC phenotypes with greater survival advantages. The CSCs possess inherent and exclusive properties including self-renewal, hierarchical differentiation, and tumorigenicity that serve as the basis of chemo-radio-resistance in oral cancer...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863852/the-rag-recombinase-beyond-breaking
#8
Chloé Lescale, Ludovic Deriano
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are commonly seen as lesions that threaten genome integrity and contribute to cancer and aging processes. However, in the context of antigen receptor gene assembly, known as V(D)J recombination, DSBs are obligatory intermediates that allow the establishment of genetic diversity and adaptive immunity. V(D)J recombination is initiated when the lymphoid-restricted recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 are expressed and form a site-specific endonuclease (the RAG nuclease or RAG recombinase)...
November 15, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862371/helicobacter-pylori-infection-modulates-the-expression-of-mirnas-associated-with-dna-mismatch-repair-pathway
#9
Juliana C Santos, Mitsue T Brianti, Victor R Almeida, Manoela M Ortega, Wolfgang Fischer, Rainer Haas, Ander Matheu, Marcelo L Ribeiro
Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes might lead to modifications in cancer-related gene expression and cancer development. Recently, it has been shown that the infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the major causative agent of gastric cancer, induces DNA damage and inhibits MMR DNA repair. Also, it has been reported that microRNAs (miRs) have an important role in regulating genomic stability and MMR DNA repair. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify miRs regulating MMR pathway in H...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859428/low-p16-ink4a-expression-in-early-passage-human-prostate-basal-epithelial-cells-enables-immortalization-by-telomerase-expression-alone
#10
Mindy Kim Graham, Lorenzo Principessa, Lizamma Antony, Alan K Meeker, John T Isaacs
BACKGROUND: There are two principal senescence barriers that must be overcome to successfully immortalize primary human epithelial cells in culture, stress-induced senescence, and replicative senescence. The p16(INK4a) /retinoblastoma protein (p16/Rb) pathway mediates stress-induced senescence, and is generally upregulated by primary epithelial cells in response to the artificial conditions from tissue culture. Replicative senescence is associated with telomere loss. Following each round of cell division, telomeres progressively shorten...
November 8, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857131/epigenetic-silencing-of-mir-137-induces-drug-resistance-and-chromosomal-instability-by-targeting-aurka-in-multiple-myeloma
#11
Y Qin, S Zhang, S Deng, G An, X Qin, F Li, Y Xu, M Hao, Y Yang, W Zhou, H Chang, L Qiu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most prevalent hematologic malignancy. Aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs) expression has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of MM. In this study, we further demonstrated that miR-137 was significantly downregulated in MM and negatively correlated with clinical prognosis. Moreover, we described the epigenetic regulation of miR-137 and its association with progression free survival in MM patients. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-137 in MM cell line (miR-137OE) increased its sensitivity to bortezomib and eprirubicin in vitro...
November 18, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854240/the-impact-of-chemotherapy-radiation-and-epigenetic-modifiers-in-cancer-cell-expression-of-immune-inhibitory-and-stimulatory-molecules-and-anti-tumor-efficacy
#12
REVIEW
Jessica Ann Chacon, Keith Schutsky, Daniel J Powell
Genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers are used for the treatment of cancer due to their apoptotic effects on the aberrant cells. However, these therapies may also induce widespread changes within the immune system and cancer cells, which may enable tumors to avoid immune surveillance and escape from host anti-tumor immunity. Genomic destabilizers can induce immunogenic death of tumor cells, but also induce upregulation of immune inhibitory ligands on drug-resistant cells, resulting in tumor progression...
November 14, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848900/antioxidative-effects-of-rhodiola-genus-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-mechanisms-against-the-diseases
#13
Yongmei Li, Jue Wu, Ruixiu Shi, Na Li, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
Rhodiola as one of traditional medicines has been used for clinical treatments due to their strong antioxidant properties. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phenylethanol/benzyl alcohol derivatives, cyanogenic glycosides and terpenoids. The bioactive compounds had been demonstrated to be effective at scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). The structures contain phenolic hydroxyl groups and unsaturated bonds. This article reviews antioxidant capacities of the extracts and bioactive components derived from Rhodiola plants...
November 16, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821766/epigenetic-inactivation-of-the-p53-induced-long-noncoding-rna-tp53-target-1-in-human-cancer
#14
Angel Diaz-Lagares, Ana B Crujeiras, Paula Lopez-Serra, Marta Soler, Fernando Setien, Ashish Goyal, Juan Sandoval, Yutaka Hashimoto, Anna Martinez-Cardús, Antonio Gomez, Holger Heyn, Catia Moutinho, Jesús Espada, August Vidal, Maria Paúles, Maica Galán, Núria Sala, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, María Martínez-Iniesta, Lourdes Farré, Alberto Villanueva, Matthias Gross, Sven Diederichs, Sonia Guil, Manel Esteller
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of cellular homeostasis. However, their contribution to the cancer phenotype still needs to be established. Herein, we have identified a p53-induced lncRNA, TP53TG1, that undergoes cancer-specific promoter hypermethylation-associated silencing. In vitro and in vivo assays identify a tumor-suppressor activity for TP53TG1 and a role in the p53 response to DNA damage. Importantly, we show that TP53TG1 binds to the multifaceted DNA/RNA binding protein YBX1 to prevent its nuclear localization and thus the YBX1-mediated activation of oncogenes...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821628/gene-specific-dna-methylation-changes-predict-remission-in-patients-with-anca-associated-vasculitis
#15
Britta E Jones, Jiajin Yang, Akhil Muthigi, Susan L Hogan, Yichun Hu, Joshua Starmer, Candace D Henderson, Caroline J Poulton, Elizabeth J Brant, William F Pendergraft, J Charles Jennette, Ronald J Falk, Dominic J Ciavatta
ANCA-associated vasculitis is an autoimmune condition characterized by vascular inflammation and organ damage. Pharmacologically induced remission of this condition is complicated by relapses. Potential triggers of relapse are immunologic challenges and environmental insults, both of which associate with changes in epigenetic silencing modifications. Altered histone modifications implicated in gene silencing associate with aberrant autoantigen expression. To establish a link between DNA methylation, a model epigenetic gene silencing modification, and autoantigen gene expression and disease status in ANCA-associated vasculitis, we measured gene-specific DNA methylation of the autoantigen genes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PRTN3) in leukocytes of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis observed longitudinally (n=82) and of healthy controls (n=32)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820924/aging-of-cloned-animals-a-mini-review
#16
Jörg Patrick Burgstaller, Gottfried Brem
The number of species for which somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocols are established is still increasing. Due to the high number of cloned farm, companion, and sport animals, the topic of animal cloning never ceases to be of public interest. Numerous studies cover the health status of SCNT-derived animals, but very few cover the effects of SCNT on aging. However, only cloned animals that reach the full extent of the species-specific lifespan, doing so with only the normal age-related afflictions and diseases, would prove that SCNT can produce completely healthy offspring...
November 8, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816931/underlying-role-of-mitochondrial-mutagenesis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-a-disease-and-current-approaches-for-translational-research
#17
Maria Paraskevaidi, Pierre L Martin-Hirsch, Maria Kyrgiou, Francis L Martin
Mitochondrial diseases have been extensively investigated over the last three decades, but many questions regarding their underlying aetiologies remain unanswered. Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only responsible for a range of neurological and myopathy diseases but also considered pivotal in a broader spectrum of common diseases such as epilepsy, autism and bipolar disorder. These disorders are a challenge to diagnose and treat, as their aetiology might be multifactorial. In this review, the focus is placed on potential mechanisms capable of introducing defects in mitochondria resulting in disease...
November 5, 2016: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816326/regulation-of-dna-alkylation-damage-repair-lessons-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Jennifer M Soll, Robert W Sobol, Nima Mosammaparast
Alkylation chemotherapy is one of the most widely used systemic therapies for cancer. While somewhat effective, clinical responses and toxicities of these agents are highly variable. A major contributing factor for this variability is the numerous distinct lesions that are created upon alkylation damage. These adducts activate multiple repair pathways. There is mounting evidence that the individual pathways function cooperatively, suggesting that coordinated regulation of alkylation repair is critical to prevent toxicity...
November 2, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811360/p16ink4a-suppresses-brca1-deficient-mammary-tumorigenesis
#19
Alexandria Scott, Feng Bai, Ho Lam Chan, Shiqin Liu, Jinshan Ma, Joyce M Slingerland, David J Robbins, Anthony J Capobianco, Xin-Hai Pei
Senescence prevents the proliferation of genomically damaged, but otherwise replication competent cells at risk of neoplastic transformation. p16INK4A (p16), an inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, plays a critical role in controlling cellular senescence in multiple organs. Functional inactivation of p16 by gene mutation and promoter methylation is frequently detected in human breast cancers. However, deleting p16 in mice or targeting DNA methylation within the murine p16 promoter does not result in mammary tumorigenesis...
November 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810411/microbiome-driven-carcinogenesis-in-colorectal-cancer-models-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Xingmin Wang, Yonghong Yang, Mark M Huycke
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death and archetype for cancer as a genetic disease. However, the mechanisms for genetic change and their interactions with environmental risk factors have been difficult to unravel. New hypotheses, models, and methods are being used to investigate a complex web of risk factors that includes the intestinal microbiome. Recent research has clarified how the microbiome can generate genomic change in CRC. Several phenotypes among a small group of selected commensals have helped us better understand how mutations and chromosomal instability (CIN) are induced in CRC (e...
October 31, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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