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Dna damage and epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774504/environmental-toxins-and-male-fertility
#1
REVIEW
Mahmoud Mima, David Greenwald, Samuel Ohlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Global industrialization has increased population exposure to environmental toxins. A global decline in sperm quality over the last few decades raises questions about the adverse impact of environmental toxins on male reproductive health. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple animal- and human-based studies on exposure to environmental toxins suggest a negative impact on semen quality, in terms of sperm concentration, motility, and/or morphology. These toxins may exert estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects, which in turn alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA), induce sperm DNA damage, or cause sperm epigenetic changes...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767555/protective-effect-of-the-bet-protein-inhibitor-jq1-in-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#2
Liping Sun, Jing Liu, Yanggang Yuan, Xinzhou Zhang, Zheng Dong
As a potent chemotherapy drug, cisplatin is also notorious for its side effects including nephrotoxicity in kidneys, presenting a pressing need to identify renoprotective agents. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity involves epigenetic regulations, including changes in histone acetylation. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are "readers" of the epigenetic code of histone acetylation. Here, we investigated the potential renoprotective effects of JQ1, a small molecule inhibitor of BET proteins. We show that JQ1 significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice as indicated by the measurements of kidney function, histopathology, and renal tubular apoptosis...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763836/salicylic-acid-and-nitric-oxide-alleviate-high-temperature-induced-oxidative-damage-in-lablab-purpureus-l-plants-by-regulating-bio-physical-processes-and-dna-methylation
#3
Krishna Kumar Rai, Nagendra Rai, Shashi Pandey Rai
Salicylic acid (SA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) modulates plant growth and development processes and recent findings have also revealed their involvement in the regulation of epigenetic factors under stress condition. In the present study, some of these factors were comparatively studied in hyacinth bean plants subjected to high temperature (HT) environment (40-42 °C) with and without exogenous application of SA and SNP under field condition. Exogenous application of SA and SNP substantially modulated the growth and biophysical process of hyacinth bean plants under HT environment...
April 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762710/base-flipping-dynamics-from-an-intrahelical-to-an-extrahelical-state-exerted-by-thymine-dna-glycosylase-during-dna-repair-process
#4
Lin-Tai Da, Jin Yu
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a DNA repair enzyme that excises a variety of mismatched or damaged nucleotides (nts), e.g. dU, dT, 5fC and 5caC. TDG is shown to play essential roles in maintaining genome integrity and correctly programming epigenetic modifications through DNA demethylation. After locating the lesions, TDG employs a base-flipping strategy to recognize the damaged nucleobases, whereby the interrogated nt is extruded from the DNA helical stack and binds into the TDG active site. The dynamic mechanism of the base-flipping process at an atomistic resolution, however, remains elusive...
May 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757967/epigenetics-of-subcellular-structure-functioning-in-the-origin-of-risk-or-resilience-to-comorbidity-of-neuropsychiatric-and-cardiometabolic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Carlos Manuel Zapata-Martín Del Campo, Martín Martínez-Rosas, Verónica Guarner-Lans
Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial function, protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear processes such as telomere length and DNA repair may be subject to epigenetic cues that relate the genomic expression and environmental exposures in early stages of life. They may also be involved in the comorbid appearance of cardiometabolic (CMD) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD) during adulthood. Mitochondrial function and protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum are associated with oxidative stress and elevated intracellular calcium levels and may also underlie the vulnerability for comorbid CMD and NPD...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752770/one-carbon-cycle-support-rescues-sperm-damages-in-experimentally-induced-varicocele-in-rats
#6
Parisa Mohammadi, Hassan Hassani Bafrani, Marziyeh Tavalaee, Maurizio Dattilo, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that micronutrients in support of the one-carbon cycle and glutathione synthesis are effective in improving sperm damage following surgical varicocele in rats and that this effect is achieved without suffering a rebound reductive stress as seen with oral antioxidants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical varicocele was induced in adult male Wistar rats and resulted in significant damage to testis and sperm cells measured 2 and 4 months post-surgery...
May 11, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719834/genomic-instabilities-cellular-senescence-and-aging-in-vitro-in-vivo-and-aging-like-human-syndromes
#7
REVIEW
Gabriel Lidzbarsky, Danielle Gutman, Huda Adwan Shekhidem, Lital Sharvit, Gil Atzmon
As average life span and elderly people prevalence in the western world population is gradually increasing, the incidence of age-related diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, and dementia is increasing, bearing social and economic consequences worldwide. Understanding the molecular basis of aging-related processes can help extend the organism's health span, i.e., the life period in which the organism is free of chronic diseases or decrease in basic body functions. During the last few decades, immense progress was made in the understanding of major components of aging and healthy aging biology, including genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic changes, proteostasis, nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and intracellular communications...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715525/cell-division-control-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#8
REVIEW
Justine Collier
Caulobacter crescentus is a free-living Alphaproteobacterium that thrives in oligotrophic environments. This review focuses on the regulatory network used by this bacterium to control the levels of cell division proteins, their organization inside the cell and their activity as a function of the cell cycle. Strikingly, C. crescentus makes frequent use of master transcriptional regulators and epigenetic signals, most likely to synchronize cell division with other events of the cell cycle. In addition, cellular metabolism and DNA damage sensors emerge as central players regulating cell division in response to changing environmental conditions...
April 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698744/hyperoxia-induces-epigenetic-changes-in-newborn-mice-lungs
#9
Miroslaw Bik-Multanowski, Cecilie Revhaug, Agnieszka Grabowska, Artur Dobosz, Anna Madetko-Talowska, Magdalena Zasada, Ola Didrik Saugstad
Supplemental oxygen exposure is a risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Reactive oxygen species may damage lung tissue, but hyperoxia also has the potential to alter genome activity via changes in DNA methylation. Understanding the epigenetic potential of hyperoxia would enable further improvement of the therapeutic strategies for BPD. Here we aimed to identify hyperoxia-related alterations in DNA methylation, which could affect the activity of crucial genetic pathways involved in the development of hyperoxic lung injury...
April 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697303/2017-michael-fry-award-lecture-when-dna-is-actually-not-a-target-radiation-epigenetics-as-a-tool-to-understand-and-control-cellular-response-to-ionizing-radiation
#10
Igor Koturbash
In addition to the generally accepted potential of ionizing radiation to cause DNA damage, its capability to target the cellular epigenome has become increasingly evident. Epigenetics unifies the chemical marks and molecules that collectively facilitate the proper reading of genetic material. Among the epigenetic mechanisms of regulation, methylation of DNA is known to be the key player in the postirradiation response by controlling the expression of genetic information and activity of transposable elements...
April 26, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687888/epigenetics-of-aberrant-cardiac-wound-healing
#11
Adam Russell-Hallinan, Chris J Watson, John A Baugh
Remodeling of cardiac tissue architecture is essential for normal organ development and maintaining homeostasis after injury. Injurious insults to the heart, such as hypertension and myocardial infarction, promote cellular responses including stimulation of resident inflammatory cells, activation of endothelial cells and recruitment of immune cells, hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, and activation of fibroblasts. The physiological goal of this coordinated cellular response is to repair damaged tissue while maintaining or restoring cardiac contractile function...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687201/folate-promotes-s-adenosyl-methionine-reactions-and-the-microbial-methylation-cycle-and-boosts-ruminants-production-and-reproduction
#12
REVIEW
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Lamei Wang, Mohamed E Abd El Hack, Ayman A Swelum, Ren Hao, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
Folate has gained significant attention due to its vital role in biological methylation and epigenetic machinery. Folate, or vitamin (B9 ), is only produced through a de novo mechanism by plants and micro-organisms in the rumen of mature animals. Although limited research has been conducted on folate in ruminants, it has been noted that ruminal synthesis could not maintain folate levels in high yielding dairy animals. Folate has an essential role in one-carbon metabolism and is a strong antiproliferative agent...
April 23, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685979/the-past-and-presence-of-gene-targeting-from-chemicals-and-dna-via-proteins-to-rna
#13
REVIEW
T M Geel, M H J Ruiters, R H Cool, L Halby, D C Voshart, L Andrade Ruiz, K E Niezen-Koning, P B Arimondo, M G Rots
The ability to target DNA specifically at any given position within the genome allows many intriguing possibilities and has inspired scientists for decades. Early gene-targeting efforts exploited chemicals or DNA oligonucleotides to interfere with the DNA at a given location in order to inactivate a gene or to correct mutations. We here describe an example towards correcting a genetic mutation underlying Pompe's disease using a nucleotide-fused nuclease (TFO-MunI). In addition to the promise of gene correction, scientists soon realized that genes could be inactivated or even re-activated without inducing potentially harmful DNA damage by targeting transcriptional modulators to a particular gene...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685966/excision-of-the-doubly-methylated-base-n-4-5-dimethylcytosine-from-dna-by-escherichia-coli-nei-and-fpg-proteins
#14
Marina Alexeeva, Prashanna Guragain, Almaz N Tesfahun, Miglė Tomkuvienė, Aysha Arshad, Rūta Gerasimaitė, Audronė Rukšėnaitė, Giedrė Urbanavičiūtė, Magnar Bjørås, Jon K Laerdahl, Arne Klungland, Saulius Klimašauskas, Svein Bjelland
Cytosine (C) in DNA is often modified to 5-methylcytosine (m5 C) to execute important cellular functions. Despite the significance of m5 C for epigenetic regulation in mammals, damage to m5 C has received little attention. For instance, almost no studies exist on erroneous methylation of m5 C by alkylating agents to doubly or triply methylated bases. Owing to chemical evidence, and because many prokaryotes express methyltransferases able to convert m5 C into N 4 ,5-dimethylcytosine (m N 4,5 C) in DNA, m N 4,5 C is probably present in vivo We screened a series of glycosylases from prokaryotic to human and found significant DNA incision activity of the Escherichia coli Nei and Fpg proteins at m N 4,5 C residues in vitro The activity of Nei was highest opposite cognate guanine followed by adenine, thymine (T) and C...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676998/an-epigenetic-biomarker-of-aging-for-lifespan-and-healthspan
#15
Morgan E Levine, Ake T Lu, Austin Quach, Brian H Chen, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Lifang Hou, Andrea A Baccarelli, James D Stewart, Yun Li, Eric A Whitsel, James G Wilson, Alex P Reiner, Abraham Aviv, Kurt Lohman, Yongmei Liu, Luigi Ferrucci, Steve Horvath
Identifying reliable biomarkers of aging is a major goal in geroscience. While the first generation of epigenetic biomarkers of aging were developed using chronological age as a surrogate for biological age, we hypothesized that incorporation of composite clinical measures of phenotypic age that capture differences in lifespan and healthspan may identify novel CpGs and facilitate the development of a more powerful epigenetic biomarker of aging. Using an innovative two-step process, we develop a new epigenetic biomarker of aging, DNAm PhenoAge, that strongly outperforms previous measures in regards to predictions for a variety of aging outcomes, including all-cause mortality, cancers, healthspan, physical functioning, and Alzheimer's disease...
April 18, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669110/chronic-occupational-exposure-endured-by-tobacco-farmers-from-brazil-and-association-with-dna-damage
#16
Vívian F Silva Kahl, Varinderpal Singh Dhillon, Daniel Simon, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Mirian Salvador, Cátia Dos Santos Branco, Mónica Cappetta, Wilner Martínez-López, Flávia V Thiesen, Johnny F Dias, Claudia Telles de Souza, Michael Fenech, Juliana da Silva
Tobacco farming is an important economic income in Brazil, although it has been challenged as regard the occupational exposure to both pesticides and nicotine endured by farmers. Chronic occupational exposure to complex mixtures can lead to health hazardous. We examined genomic instability and epigenetic changes in tobacco farmers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures and nicotine at tobacco fields. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in blood cells. Genomic DNA was isolated, and telomere length was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659445/ten-eleven-translocation-1-regulates-methylation-of-autophagy-related-genes-in-human-glioma
#17
Rui Fu, Yan Ding, Jie Luo, Kuan Ming Huang, Xiang Jun Tang, Dong Sheng Li, Shi Wen Guo
Ten-eleven translocation 1 catalyzes the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which plays an important role in epigenetics and is related to the malignant biological behavior of tumors. However, its regulatory role in glioma remains unclear. In this study, the levels of 5mC and 5hmC were detected using immunohistochemistry, dot-blot, hMeDIP-chip, and western blot in glioma tissues and normal brain tissues, whereas 5hmC differentially enriched genes were determined and further validated...
June 13, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656392/epigenetic-modifications-preserve-the-hyperaccumulator-noccaea-caerulescens-from-ni-geno-toxicity
#18
Mariolina Gullì, Laura Marchi, Rosaria Fragni, Annamaria Buschini, Giovanna Visioli
The Ni hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens has adapted to live in a naturally stressed environment, evolving a complex pattern of traits to cope with adverse conditions. Evidence is accumulating regarding the important role of epigenetic modifications in regulating plant responses to stress. In this study, we present data from the natural "open-field" adaptation of the Ni hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens to serpentine soil and provide the first evidence of the involvement of epigenetic changes in response to the high Ni content present in plant leaves...
April 15, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644708/reactive-oxygen-species-impact-on-sperm-dna-and-its-role-in-male-infertility
#19
REVIEW
A D Bui, R Sharma, R Henkel, A Agarwal
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied as a cause of male infertility. Excessive levels of ROS coupled with a deficiency in antioxidants can lead to oxidative stress (OS), which in turn can lead to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, telomere shortening, epigenetic alterations and Y chromosomal microdeletions. In this review, we discuss how OS induces DNA damage and the types of DNA damage that can occur. We also briefly touch on the clinical consequences of OS-induced DNA damage.
April 11, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627753/cr-vi-induced-methylation-and-down-regulation-of-dna-repair-genes-and-its-association-with-markers-of-genetic-damage-in-workers-and-16hbe-cells
#20
Guiping Hu, Ping Li, Xiaoxing Cui, Yang Li, Ji Zhang, Xinxiao Zhai, Shanfa Yu, Shichuan Tang, Zuchang Zhao, Jing Wang, Guang Jia
To examine the mechanism of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]-induced carcinogenesis, a cross-sectional study in workers with or without exposure to Cr(VI) as well as in vitro administration of Cr(VI) in 16HBE cells was conducted. We explored the associations between Cr(VI) exposure, methylation modification of DNA repair genes and their expression levels, and genetic damage. Results showed that hypermethylation of CpG sites were observed in both occupationally exposed workers and 16HBE cells administrated Cr(VI)...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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