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Bacteria sugar utilization

Emily L Clark, Madhu Emmadi, Katharine L Krupp, Ananda R Podilapu, Jennifer D Helble, Suvarn S Kulkarni, Danielle H Dube
Bacterial glycans contain rare, exclusively bacterial monosaccharides that are frequently linked to pathogenesis and essentially absent from human cells. Therefore, bacterial glycans are intriguing molecular targets. However, systematic discovery of bacterial glycoproteins is hampered by the presence of rare deoxy amino sugars, which are refractory to traditional glycan-binding reagents. Thus, the development of chemical tools that label bacterial glycans is a crucial step toward discovering and targeting these biomolecules...
October 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Yanhua Cui, Tingting Xu, Xiaojun Qu, Tong Hu, Xu Jiang, Chunyu Zhao
Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the most valuable homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, which, for a long time, has been widely used as a starter for the production of fermented dairy products. The key production characteristics of S. thermophilus, for example the production of extracellular polysaccharide, proteolytic enzymes and flavor substances as well as acidifying capacity etc., have an important effect on the quality of dairy products. The acidification capacity of the strains determines the manufacturing time and quality of dairy products...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Debkumar Chakraborty, Baljinder Kaur, Karthikeyan Obulisamy, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Jonathan W C Wong
Owing to its flavoring, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic nature, vanillin is widely used in foods, beverages, perfumes and pharmaceutical products. Ferulic acid (FA) is an important precursor of vanillin which is abundant in cereals like maize, rice and wheat and sugar beet. A major drawback of microbial vanillin production from FA is the degradation and biotransformation of toxic vanillin to other phenolic derivatives. The present study is undertaken to explore microbial vanillin production from FA precursor rice bran by employing vanillin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16, a natural lactic acid bacteria isolate...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Technology
Ado Van Assche, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Anna de Breij, Joseph De Brabanter, Kris A Willems, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Bart Lievens
A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping...
October 12, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bhagya Iyer, Mahendrapal Singh Rajput, Rahul Jog, Ekta Joshi, Krishna Bharwad, Shalini Rajkumar
Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Muireann Egan, Hao Jiang, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Stefan Oscarson, Douwe van Sinderen
: Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria, typically found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve strains are numerically prevalent among the gut microbiota of many healthy breast-fed infants. In the current study, we investigated glycosulfatase activity in a bacterial nursling stool isolate, B. breve UCC2003. Two putative sulfatases were identified on the genome of B. breve UCC2003. The sulfated monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate (GlcNAc-6-S) was shown to support growth of B...
September 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Linghong Sun, Jiangyan Cao, Ying Liu, Junjie Wang, Panpan Guo, Zaigui Wang
A kind of bacteria secreting cellulase and showing probiotic attributes was isolated from the cecum of goose and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and named as B. amyloliquefaciens S1. In vitro assays, the enzymatic activity of the strain was determined by the reducing-sugar method, and the proper culture conditions of producing cellulase and some properties of the cellulase were investigated. The cultural mixture of the bacteria had a high cellulase activity of 1...
August 30, 2016: Animal Biotechnology
Farnaz Dastmalchi, Seyed Hadi Razavi, Mohammad Faraji, Mohsen Labbafi
The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3...
March 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tao Sheng, Lei Zhao, Ling-Fang Gao, Wen-Zong Liu, Min-Hua Cui, Ze-Chong Guo, Xiao-Dan Ma, Shih-Hsin Ho, Ai-Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulosic biomass is one of earth's most abundant resources, and it has great potential for biofuel production because it is renewable and has carbon-neutral characteristics. Lignocellulose is mainly composed of carbohydrate polymers (cellulose and hemicellulose), which contain approximately 75 % fermentable sugars for biofuel fermentation. However, saccharification by cellulases is always the main bottleneck for commercialization. Compared with the enzyme systems of fungi, bacteria have evolved distinct systems to directly degrade lignocellulose...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ariel Rangel, Susan M Steenbergen, Eric R Vimr
UNLABELLED: The sialic acids (N-acylneuraminates) are a group of nine-carbon keto-sugars existing mainly as terminal residues on animal glycoprotein and glycolipid carbohydrate chains. Bacterial commensals and pathogens exploit host sialic acids for nutrition, adhesion, or antirecognition, where N-acetyl- or N-glycolylneuraminic acids are the two predominant chemical forms of sialic acids. Each form may be modified by acetyl esters at carbon position 4, 7, 8, or 9 and by a variety of less-common modifications...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
L Domenici, M Monti, C Bracchi, M Giorgini, V Colagiovanni, L Muzii, P Benedetti Panici
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infections still represent a significant bother for women and result in high costs to the health system. D-mannose is a simple sugar; it seems able to hinder bacteria adhesion to the urothelium. The present study aimed to determine whether D-mannose alone is effective in treating acute urinary tract infections in women and its possible utility in the management of recurrences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a pilot study, performed between April 2014 and July 2015 at Department of Gynaecological Obstetrics and Urologic Sciences of "Sapienza" University of Rome...
July 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Yuyun Lu, Jian-Yong Chua, Dejian Huang, Pin-Rou Lee, Shao-Quan Liu
This work represents the first study on the biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine via simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and malolactic fermentation (MLF) with non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Oenococcus oeni PN4. The presence of PN4 improved the utilization of sugars but did not affect ethanol production. MLF resulted in the significant degradation of malic acid with corresponding increases in pH and lactic acid. The final concentrations of acetic acid (1...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yuan Zhou, Jinghua Yang, Luxia Zhang, Xuedong Zhou, John O Cisar, Robert J Palmer
UNLABELLED: Although saliva is widely recognized as a primary source of carbon and nitrogen for growth of the dental plaque biofilm community, little is known about how different oral bacteria utilize specific salivary components. To address this question, 32 strains representing 16 genera commonly isolated from early plaque biofilms were compared for growth over two transfers in stimulated (by chewing Parafilm) whole saliva that was stabilized by heat treatment and dialysis. The cell densities, measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), ranged from ∼1 × 10(6) to 1 × 10(7)/ml for strains of Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus mitis and one strain of Streptococcus sanguinis Strains of Streptococcus mutans, Gemella haemolysans, and Granulicatella adiacens reached ∼1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(6)/ml...
September 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Elena Vinay-Lara, Song Wang, Lina Bai, Ekkarat Phrommao, Jeff R Broadbent, James L Steele
Microbial fermentation of sugars from plant biomass to alcohols represents an alternative to petroleum-based fuels. The optimal biocatalyst for such fermentations needs to overcome hurdles such as high concentrations of alcohols and toxic compounds. Lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli, have high innate alcohol tolerance and are remarkably adaptive to harsh environments. This study assessed the potential of five Lactobacillus casei strains as biocatalysts for alcohol production. L. casei 12A was selected based upon its innate alcohol tolerance, high transformation efficiency and ability to utilize plant-derived carbohydrates...
September 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Andreas Uhde, Natalie Brühl, Oliver Goldbeck, Christian Matano, Oksana Gurow, Christian Rückert, Kay Marin, Volker F Wendisch, Reinhard Krämer, Gerd M Seibold
UNLABELLED: Corynebacterium glutamicum metabolizes sialic acid (Neu5Ac) to fructose-6-phosphate (fructose-6P) via the consecutive activity of the sialic acid importer SiaEFGI, N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NanA), N-acetylmannosamine kinase (NanK), N-acetylmannosamine-6P epimerase (NanE), N-acetylglucosamine-6P deacetylase (NagA), and glucosamine-6P deaminase (NagB). Within the cluster of the three operons nagAB, nanAKE, and siaEFGI for Neu5Ac utilization a fourth operon is present, which comprises cg2936, encoding a GntR-type transcriptional regulator, here named NanR...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Umji Choi, Young-Ha Park, Yeon-Ran Kim, Yeong-Jae Seok, Chang-Ro Lee
Peptidoglycan (also known as murein) is an important envelope component of bacteria, and its turnover usually takes place at considerable levels during normal growth. Amino sugars and murein tripeptide resulting from murein degradation are used for resynthesis of peptidoglycan or as self-generated nutrients or energy sources for cell growth. PgrR (regulator of peptide glycan recycling; formerly YcjZ) was recently identified as a repressor of several genes participating in uptake and degradation of murein tripeptide...
July 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Shou-Chi Zhang, Qi-Heng Lai, Yuan Lu, Zhi-Dan Liu, Tian-Min Wang, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Hydrogen was produced from steam-exploded corn stover by using a combination of the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum and non-cellulolytic hydrogen-producing bacteria. The highest hydrogen yield of the co-culture system with C. cellulolyticum and Citrobacter amalonaticus reached 51.9 L H2/kg total solid (TS). The metabolites from the co-culture system were significantly different from those of the mono-culture systems. Formate, which inhibits the growth of C. cellulolyticum, could be consumed by the hydrogen-evolving bacteria, and transformed into hydrogen...
October 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Lin Zeng, Tanaz Farivar, Robert A Burne
UNLABELLED: Biochemical and genetic aspects of the metabolism of the amino sugars N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN) by commensal oral streptococci and the effects of these sugars on interspecies competition with the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans were explored. Multiple S. mutans wild-type isolates displayed long lag phases when transferred from glucose-containing medium to medium with GlcNAc as the primary carbohydrate source, but commensal streptococci did not...
June 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Laura I Álvarez-Añorve, Isabelle Gaugué, Hannes Link, Jorge Marcos-Viquez, Dana M Díaz-Jiménez, Sergio Zonszein, Ismael Bustos-Jaimes, Isabelle Schmitz-Afonso, Mario L Calcagno, Jacqueline Plumbridge
UNLABELLED: We have investigated the impact of growth on glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) on cellular metabolism by quantifying glycolytic metabolites in Escherichia coli Growth on GlcNAc increased intracellular pools of both GlcNAc6P and GlcN6P 10- to 20-fold compared to growth on glucose. Growth on GlcN produced a 100-fold increase in GlcN6P but only a slight increase in GlcNAc6P. Changes to the amounts of downstream glycolytic intermediates were minor compared to growth on glucose...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Sanghyun Han, Shirley A Micallef
UNLABELLED: Foodborne illness-causing enteric bacteria are able to colonize plant surfaces without causing infection. We lack an understanding of how epiphytic persistence of enteric bacteria occurs on plants, possibly as an adaptive transit strategy to maximize chances of reentering herbivorous hosts. We used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars that have exhibited differential susceptibilities to Salmonella enterica colonization to investigate the influence of plant surface compounds and exudates on enteric bacterial populations...
May 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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