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Bacteria sugar utilization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229699/the-nitrogen-regulatory-pii-protein-glnb-and-n-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate-epimerase-nane-allosterically-activate-glucosamine-6-phosphate-deaminase-nagb-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Irina A Rodionova, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
Amino sugars are good sources of both ammonia and fructose-6-phosphate, produced by glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase, NagB. NagB is known to be allosterically regulated by N-acetyl-glucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) and the phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, HPr, in Escherichia coli We provide evidence that NanE, GlcNAc-6P epimerase, and the uridylylated PII protein also allosterically activate NagB by direct protein-protein interactions. NanE is essential for neuraminic acid (NANA) and N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) utilization, and PII is known to be a central metabolic nitrogen regulator...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193551/the-microbial-community-of-a-biofilm-contact-reactor-for-the-treatment-of-winery-wastewater
#2
Danielle Marguerite de Beer, Marelize Botes, Thomas Eugene Cloete
AIMS: To utilize a three-tiered approach to provide insight into the microbial community structure, the spatial distribution and the metabolic capabilities of organisms of a biofilm in the two towers of a high rate biological contact reactor treating winery wastewater. METHODS AND RESULTS: Next generation sequencing indicated that bacteria primarily responsible for removal of carbohydrates, sugars and alcohol were more abundant in tower 1 than tower 2 while nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria were more abundant in tower 2...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165235/synthesis-of-n-acetyl-d-quinovosamine-in-rhizobium-etli-ce3-is-completed-after-its-4-keto-precursor-is-linked-to-a-carrier-lipid
#3
Tiezheng Li, K Dale Noel
Bacterial O-antigens are synthesized on lipid carriers before being transferred to lipopolysaccharide core structures. Rhizobium etli CE3 lipopolysaccharide is a model for understanding O-antigen biological function. CE3 O-antigen structure and genetics are known. However, proposed enzymology for CE3 O-antigen synthesis has been examined very little in vitro, and even the sugar added to begin the synthesis is uncertain. A model based on mutagenesis studies predicts that 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (QuiNAc) is the first O-antigen sugar and that genes wreV, wreQ and wreU direct QuiNAc synthesis and O-antigen initiation...
November 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145079/microbial-transcript-and-metabolome-analysis-uncover-discrepant-metabolic-pathways-in-autotrophic-and-mixotrophic-anammox-consortia
#4
Ying Feng, Yunpeng Zhao, Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu
The ability of anammox bacteria to utilize organic matter has drawn extensive attention. However, the metabolic discrepancies between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia need to be further explored. Here, microbial transcript and metabolomic analysis were conducted for the samples harvested in the reactors and batch assays to investigate the phenotype discrepancies and intrinsic causes in autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia. Results showed that metabolically active community structures did not show significant difference between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia (C/N = 0...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140539/cross-regulation-among-arabinose-xylose-and-rhamnose-utilization-systems-in-e-coli
#5
Debika Choudhury, Supreet Saini
Bacteria frequently encounter multiple sugars in their natural surroundings. While the dynamics of utilization of glucose containing sugar mixtures have been well investigated, there are few reports addressing regulation of utilization of glucose-free mixtures particularly pentoses. These sugars comprise a considerable fraction in hemicellulose which can be converted by suitable biocatalysts to biofuels and other value-added products. Hence understanding of transcriptional cross-regulation among different pentose sugar utilization systems is essential for successful development of industrial strains...
November 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093754/a-seven-gene-cluster-in-ruminiclostridium-cellulolyticum-is-essential-for-signalization-uptake-and-catabolism-of-the-degradation-products-of-cellulose-hydrolysis
#6
Aurélie Fosses, Maria Maté, Nathalie Franche, Nian Liu, Yann Denis, Romain Borne, Pascale de Philip, Henri-Pierre Fierobe, Stéphanie Perret
Background: Like a number of anaerobic and cellulolytic Gram-positive bacteria, the model microorganism Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum produces extracellular multi-enzymatic complexes called cellulosomes, which efficiently degrade the crystalline cellulose. Action of the complexes on cellulose releases cellobiose and longer cellodextrins but to date, little is known about the transport and utilization of the produced cellodextrins in the bacterium. A better understanding of the uptake systems and fermentation of sugars derived from cellulose could have a major impact in the field of biofuels production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076803/mtlr-negatively-regulates-mannitol-utilization-by-vibrio-cholerae
#7
Tanner Byer, Jessica Wang, Mark G Zhang, Naomi Vather, Anna Blachman, Bryan Visser, Jane M Liu
The phosphoenopyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) enables Vibrio cholerae - and other bacteria - to recognize and transport exogenous carbon sources for energy, including the six-carbon sugar alcohol, mannitol. The mannitol-specific PTS transporter is encoded by mtlA and its expression is expected to be regulated by the putative repressor encoded by the mtlR gene. Here, we show that mtlR overexpression inhibits V. cholerae growth in medium supplied with mannitol as the sole carbon source and represses MtlA-mediated biofilm formation...
October 27, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029078/prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-and-pectic-oligosaccharides-to-promote-anti-inflammatory-commensal-bacteria-in-the-human-colon
#8
Wing Sun Faith Chung, Marjolein Meijerink, Birgitte Zeuner, Jesper Holck, Petra Louis, Anne S Meyer, Jerry M Wells, Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilise pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. Eubacterium eligens DSM3376 utilises apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024084/characterization-of-and-lipopolysaccharide-binding-to-the-e-coli-lptc-protein-dimer
#9
Kathryn M Schultz, Candice S Klug
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. LPS is a large lipid containing several acyl chains as its hydrophobic base and numerous sugars as its hydrophilic core and O-antigen domains, and is an essential element of the organisms' natural defenses in adverse environmental conditions. LptC is one of seven members of the lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) protein family that functions to transport LPS from the inner membrane (IM) to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of the bacterium...
October 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986379/functional-analysis-of-the-glucan-degradation-locus-gdl-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii-reveals-essential-roles-of-component-glycoside-hydrolases-in-plant-biomass-deconstruction
#10
Jonathan M Conway, Bennett S McKinley, Nathaniel L Seals, Diana Hernandez, Piyum A Khatibi, Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gina L Lipscomb, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The ability to hydrolyze microcrystalline cellulose is an uncommon feature in the microbial world, but one that can be exploited for conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-based fuels and chemicals. Understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which microorganisms deconstruct cellulosic material is key to achieving this objective. The Glucan Degradation Locus (GDL) in the genomes of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species encodes polysaccharide lyases (PLs), unique cellulose binding proteins (tāpirins), and putative post-translational modifying enzymes, in addition to multi-domain, multi-functional glycoside hydrolases (GHs), thereby representing an alternative paradigm for plant biomass degradation, as compared to fungal or cellulosomal systems...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972167/functional-analysis-of-an-unusual-porin-like-channel-that-imports-chitin-for-alternative-carbon-metabolism-in-escherichia-coli
#11
H Sasimali M Soysa, Albert Schulte, Wipa Suginta
Escherichia coli have the genetic potential to use chitin as a carbon source in the absence of glucose, importing it via the chitin-uptake channel EcChiP for processing by the glucosamine catabolic pathway. The chip gene is usually not expressed when E. coli are grown on glucose-enriched nutrients, providing a general regulatory mechanism for the pathway. EcChiP is unusual in that it is homologous to porins and monomeric instead of trimeric, the typical form of sugar-specific channels, making it unclear how this channel operates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970222/disruption-of-a-transcriptional-repressor-by-an-is-element-integration-leads-to-the-activation-of-a-novel-silent-cellobiose-transporter-in-lactococcus-lactis-mg1363
#12
Ana Solopova, Jan Kok, Oscar P Kuipers
L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains typically carry many dairy niche-specific adaptations. During adaptation to the milk environment these former plant strains have acquired various pseudogenes and insertion sequence elements indicative of ongoing genome decay and frequent transposition events in their genomes. Here, we describe the re-activation of a silenced plant sugar utilization cluster in an L. lactis MG1363 derivative lacking the two main cellobiose transporters PtcBACelB and PtcBAC upon applying selection pressure to utilize cellobiose...
September 29, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963627/ferric-iron-and-extracellular-electron-shuttling-increase-xylose-utilization-and-butanol-production-during-fermentation-with-multiple-solventogenic-bacteria
#13
Jovan Popovic, Xiaofeng Ye, Anne Haluska, Kevin T Finneran
Xylose is the second most abundant sugar derived from lignocellulose; it is considered less desirable than glucose for fermentation, and strategies that specifically increase xylose utilization in wild-type cells are goals for biofuel production. Xylose consumption, butanol production, and hydrogen production increased in both Clostridium beijerinckii and a novel solventogenic bacterium (strain DC-1) when anthraquinone-2,6,-disulfonate (AQDS) or riboflavin were used as redox mediators to transfer electrons to poorly crystalline Fe(OH)3 as an extracellular electron sink...
November 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939442/association-of-cytolethal-distending-toxin-ii-gene-positive-escherichia-coli-with-escherichia-albertii-an-emerging-enteropathogen
#14
Atsushi Hinenoya, Noritomo Yasuda, Natsuko Mukaizawa, Sikander Sheikh, Yuko Niwa, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Masahiro Asakura, Teizo Tsukamoto, Akira Nagita, M John Albert, Shinji Yamasaki
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli have been isolated from patients with diarrhea, sepsis and urinary tract infection. CDT of E. coli is divided into five types (CDT-I through CDT-V) based on differences in amino acid sequences and its genomic location. However, in our recent studies, a few strains of cdt-II gene-positive bacteria, initially identified as atypical E. coli, were re-identified as Escherichia albertii, an emerging enteropathogen, by extensive characterization including multilocus sequence (MLS) analysis and sugar utilization tests...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928206/microbial-metabolic-networks-at-the-mucus-layer-lead-to-diet-independent-butyrate-and-vitamin-b12-production-by-intestinal-symbionts
#15
Clara Belzer, Loo Wee Chia, Steven Aalvink, Bhawani Chamlagain, Vieno Piironen, Jan Knol, Willem M de Vos
Akkermansia muciniphila has evolved to specialize in the degradation and utilization of host mucus, which it may use as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Mucus degradation and fermentation by A. muciniphila are known to result in the liberation of oligosaccharides and subsequent production of acetate, which becomes directly available to microorganisms in the vicinity of the intestinal mucosa. Coculturing experiments of Amuciniphila with non-mucus-degrading butyrate-producing bacteria Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii resulted in syntrophic growth and production of butyrate...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902173/concept-for-recycling-waste-biomass-from-the-sugar-industry-for-chemical-and-biotechnological-purposes
#16
Magdalena Modelska, Joanna Berlowska, Dorota Kregiel, Weronika Cieciura, Hubert Antolak, Jolanta Tomaszewska, Michał Binczarski, Elzbieta Szubiakiewicz, Izabela A Witonska
The objective of this study was to develop a method for the thermally-assisted acidic hydrolysis of waste biomass from the sugar industry (sugar beet pulp and leaves) for chemical and biotechnological purposes. The distillates, containing furfural, can be catalytically reduced directly into furfurayl alcohol or tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The sugars present in the hydrolysates can be converted by lactic bacteria into lactic acid, which, by catalytic reduction, leads to propylene glycol. The sugars may also be utilized by microorganisms in the process of cell proliferation, and the biomass obtained used as a protein supplement in animal feed...
September 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901274/revalorizing-lignocellulose-for-the-production-of-natural-pharmaceuticals-and-other-high-value-bioproducts
#17
Heng-Phon Too, Congqiang Zhang
Lignocellulose is the most plentiful, renewable natural resource on earth and has been successfully used for the production of biofuels. A significant challenge is to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendly and efficient processes for the conversion of lignocellulose material into suitable substrates for biotransformation. A number of approaches have been explored to convert lignocellulose into sugars, e.g. combining chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In nature, there are organisms that can biotransform the complex lignocellulose efficiently, such as wood-degrading fungi (brown rot and white rot fungi), bacteria (e...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867763/utilization-of-fishery-processing-by-product-squid-pens-for-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-production-by-paenibacillus-sp
#18
Van Bon Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, San-Lang Wang
The supernatants (the solution part received after centrifugation) of squid pens fermented by four species of Paenibacillus showed potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidases derived from yeast (79-98%) and rats (76-83%). The inhibition of acarbose-a commercial antidiabetic drug, used against yeast and rat α-glucosidases-was tested for comparison; it showed inhibitory activity of 64% and 88%, respectively. Other chitinolytic or proteolytic enzyme-producing bacterial strains were also used to ferment squid pens, but no inhibition activity was detected from the supernatants...
August 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856785/lifestyle-determining-extrachromosomal-replicon-pamv1-and-its-contribution-to-the-carbon-metabolism-of-the-methylotrophic-bacterium-paracoccus-aminovorans-jcm-7685
#19
Jakub Czarnecki, Lukasz Dziewit, Maria Puzyna, Emilia Prochwicz, Agnieszka Tudek, Daniel Wibberg, Andreas Schlüter, Alfred Pühler, Dariusz Bartosik
Plasmids play an important role in the adaptation of bacteria to changeable environmental conditions. As the main vectors of horizontal gene transfer, they can spread genetic information among bacteria, sometimes even across taxonomic boundaries. Some plasmids carry genes involved in the utilization of particular carbon compounds, which can provide a competitive advantage to their hosts in particular ecological niches. Analysis of the multireplicon genome of the soil bacterium P. aminovorans JCM 7685 revealed the presence of an extrachromosomal replicon pAMV1 (185 kb) with a unique structure and properties...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849247/the-unusual-cellulose-utilization-system-of-the-aerobic-soil-bacterium-cytophaga-hutchinsonii
#20
REVIEW
Yongtao Zhu, Mark J McBride
Cellulolytic microorganisms play important roles in global carbon cycling and have evolved diverse strategies to digest cellulose. Some are 'generous,' releasing soluble sugars from cellulose extracellularly to feed both themselves and their neighbors. The gliding soil bacterium Cytophaga hutchinsonii exhibits a more 'selfish' strategy. It digests crystalline cellulose using cell-associated cellulases and releases little soluble sugar outside of the cell. The mechanism of C. hutchinsonii cellulose utilization is still poorly understood...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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