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Bacteria sugar utilization

Xuan Qin, Xin Wang
Nucleotides and their sugar conjugates are fundamental molecules in life, participating in processes of DNA/RNA composition, cell wall build-up, glycosylation reactions, and signal conduction. Therefore, the quantification of these compounds in biological samples significantly benefits the understanding of their functions. However, nucleotides and nucleotide sugars are extremely hydrophilic, causing bad retention and peak symmetry on regular C18 chromatographic columns. To solve this problem, ion-pair (IP) chromatography, ion-exchange (IE) chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were applied, of which differentiated mechanisms were utilized to increase the retention of the analytes on the stationary phases...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Xin Fang, Jonathan M Monk, Nathan Mih, Bin Du, Anand V Sastry, Erol Kavvas, Yara Seif, Larry Smarr, Bernhard O Palsson
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is considered a leading bacterial trigger of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). E. coli isolates from IBD patients primarily belong to phylogroup B2. Previous studies have focused on broad comparative genomic analysis of E. coli B2 isolates, and identified virulence factors that allow B2 strains to reside within human intestinal mucosa. Metabolic capabilities of E. coli strains have been shown to be related to their colonization site, but remain unexplored in IBD-associated strains...
June 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Rimi Biswas, Angana Sarkar
High arsenic groundwater contamination causes serious health risks in many developing countries, particularly in India and Bangladesh. The arsenic fluxes in aquifers are primarily controlled by bacterial populations through biogeochemical cycle. In this present study, two gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from shallow aquifers of Bhojpur district in Bihar during the early winter season, able to withstand arsenite (As3+ ) concentration upto 70 mM and 1000 mM of arsenate (As5+ ) concentration...
June 11, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
John Justo Ambuchi, Zhaohan Zhang, Yue Dong, Linlin Huang, Yujie Feng
The quest to understand and subsequently improve the role played by bacteria and archaea in the degradation of organic matter both in natural and engineered anaerobic ecosystems has intensified the utilization of nanoparticles. Microbial communities are known to syntrophically cooperate during the anaerobic conversion of substrates into methane gas via the direct exchange of electrons. In this study, the role of hematite (Fe2 O3 -750 mg/L) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-1500 mg/L) during the degradation of beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) in a batch experiment was investigated...
June 4, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Elavarasan Tamilmani, Rohit Radhakrishnan, K Sankaran
Our investigations on extracellular biochemical events to find readily and sensitively detectable/measurable molecular targets for developing easier, simpler, and quicker diagnostic methods and tools for bacterial pathogens led to the observation that bacteria grown in the presence of glucose produced a compound capable of quenching fluorescein. Under the experimental conditions, among various sugars, glucose was found to induce maximum amount of the quencher when Escherichia coli was grown in presence of 50 mM glucose in rarified LB...
June 2, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini
Ethanol bio-production in Brazil has some unique characteristics that inevitably lead to bacterial contamination, which results in the production of organic acids and biofilms and flocculation that impair the fermentation yield by affecting yeast viability and diverting sugars to metabolites other than ethanol. The ethanol-producing units commonly give an acid treatment to the cells after each fermentative cycle to decrease the bacterial number, which is not always effective. An alternative strategy must be employed to avoid bacterial multiplication but must be compatible with economic, health and environmental aspects...
May 25, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
André S Santos, Rommel T Ramos, Artur Silva, Raphael Hirata, Ana L Mattos-Guaraldi, Roberto Meyer, Vasco Azevedo, Liza Felicori, Luis G C Pacheco
Biochemical tests are traditionally used for bacterial identification at the species level in clinical microbiology laboratories. While biochemical profiles are generally efficient for the identification of the most important corynebacterial pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae, their ability to differentiate between biovars of this bacterium is still controversial. Besides, the unambiguous identification of emerging human pathogenic species of the genus Corynebacterium may be hampered by highly variable biochemical profiles commonly reported for these species, including Corynebacterium striatum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Corynebacterium xerosis...
May 11, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Lin Zeng, Lulu Chen, Robert A Burne
Bacteria prioritize sugar metabolism via carbohydrate catabolite repression, which regulates global gene expression to optimize the catabolism of preferred substrates. Here, we report an unusual long-term memory effect in certain Streptococcus mutans strains that alters adaptation to growth on lactose after prior exposure to glucose or fructose. In strain GS-5, cells that were first cultured on fructose then transferred to lactose displayed an exceptionally long lag (>11 h) and slower growth, compared to cells first cultured on glucose or cellobiose, which displayed a reduction in lag phase by as much as 10 h...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rune Nygaard Monrad, Jens Eklöf, Kristian B R M Krogh, Peter Biely
Glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE15) are involved in microbial degradation of lignocellulosic plant materials. GEs are capable of degrading complex polymers of lignin and hemicellulose cleaving ester bonds between glucuronic acid residues in xylan and lignin alcohols. GEs promote separation of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose which is crucial for efficient utilization of biomass as an energy source and feedstock for further processing into products or chemicals...
May 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Balaram Mohapatra, Tulasi Satyanarayana, Pinaki Sar
Molecular and eco-physiological characterization of arsenic (As)-transforming and hydrocarbon-utilizing Achromobacter type strain KAs 3-5T has been investigated in order to gain an insight into As-geomicrobiology in the contaminated groundwater. The bacterium is isolated from As-rich groundwater of West Bengal, India. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the strain KAs 3-5T is closely related to Achromobacter mucicolens LMG 26685T (99.17%) and Achromobacter animicus LMG 26690T (99...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Xiangyun Zhi, Iman Tajer Abdullah, Ozcan Gazioglu, Irfan Manzoor, Sulman Shafeeq, Oscar P Kuipers, N Luisa Hiller, Peter W Andrew, Hasan Yesilkaya
Microbes communicate with each other by using quorum sensing (QS) systems and modulate their collective 'behavior' for in-host colonization and virulence, biofilm formation, and environmental adaptation. The recent increase in genome data availability reveals the presence of several putative QS sensing circuits in microbial pathogens, but many of these have not been functionally characterized yet, despite their possible utility as drug targets. To increase the repertoire of functionally characterized QS systems in bacteria, we studied Rgg144/Shp144 and Rgg939/Shp939, two putative QS systems in the important human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
R E Muck, E M G Nadeau, T A McAllister, F E Contreras-Govea, M C Santos, L Kung
Additives have been available for enhancing silage preservation for decades. This review covers research studies published since 2000 that have investigated the efficacy of silage additives. The review has been divided into 6 categories of additives: homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB), obligate heterofermentative LAB, combination inoculants containing obligate heterofermentative LAB plus homofermentative LAB, other inoculants, chemicals, and enzymes. The homofermentative LAB rapidly decrease pH and increase lactic acid relative to other fermentation products, although a meta-analysis indicated no reduction in pH in corn, sorghum, and sugarcane silages relative to untreated silages...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
George Liechti, Raghuveer Singh, Patricia L Rossi, Miranda D Gray, Nancy E Adams, Anthony T Maurelli
Peptidoglycan is a sugar/amino acid polymer unique to bacteria and essential for division and cell shape maintenance. The d-amino acids that make up its cross-linked stem peptides are not abundant in nature and must be synthesized by bacteria de novo d-Glutamate is present at the second position of the pentapeptide stem and is strictly conserved in all bacterial species. In Gram-negative bacteria, d-glutamate is generated via the racemization of l-glutamate by glutamate racemase (MurI). Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infectious blindness and sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide...
April 3, 2018: MBio
Zulema Udaondo, Juan-Luis Ramos, Ana Segura, Tino Krell, Abdelali Daddaoua
Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are widespread in nature. In the last decades, members of this genus, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida, have acquired great interest because of their interactions with higher organisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the lung of cystic fibrosis patients, while P. putida is a soil bacterium able to establish a positive interaction with the plant rhizosphere. Members of Pseudomonas genus have a robust metabolism for amino acids and organic acids as well as aromatic compounds; however, these microbes metabolize a very limited number of sugars...
May 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Donatella Cimini, Rosita Russo, Sergio D'Ambrosio, Ileana Dello Iacono, Camilla Rega, Elisabetta Carlino, Ottavia Argenzio, Luigi Russo, Brigida D'Abrosca, Angela Chambery, Chiara Schiraldi
Among capsulated bacteria, some produce polysaccharides with unique properties that have been shown to possess relevant industrial applications and commercial value. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) produced by Escherichia coli K4 is similar to chondroitin sulphate, and recent efforts focused on the development of genetic and fermentation strategies to increase its production titers up to technologically attractive levels. However, the control of the metabolic pathways leading to CPS synthesis together with the effect of varying the concentration of pathway intermediates on CPS final titers, is still quite unexplored, and not fully understood...
March 26, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Svetlana Durica-Mitic, Yvonne Göpel, Boris Görke
Survival of bacteria in ever-changing habitats with fluctuating nutrient supplies requires rapid adaptation of their metabolic capabilities. To this end, carbohydrate metabolism is governed by complex regulatory networks including posttranscriptional mechanisms that involve small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins. sRNAs limit the response to substrate availability and set the threshold or time required for induction and repression of carbohydrate utilization systems. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) also involves sRNAs...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Alessia Battigelli, Jae Hong Kim, Dilani C Dehigaspitiya, Caroline Proulx, Ellen J Robertson, Daniel J Murray, Behzad Rad, Kent Kirshenbaum, Ronald N Zuckermann
Glycoproteins adhered on the cellular membrane play a pivotal role in a wide range of cellular functions. Their importance is particularly relevant in the recognition process between infectious pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, toxins) and their host cells. Multivalent interactions at the pathogen-cell interfaces govern binding events and can result in a strong and specific interaction. Here we report an approach to mimic the cell surface presentation of carbohydrate ligands by the multivalent display of sugars on the surface of peptoid nanosheets...
March 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Svetlana E Belova, Natalia E Suzina, W Irene C Rijpstra, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Svetlana N Dedysh
An isolate of aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and light-pink pigmented bacteria, designated SBC68T , was obtained from slightly decomposed thalli of the lichen Cladonia sp. collected from the forested tundra of north-western Siberia. Cells of this isolate occurred singly, in pairs or in rosettes. These bacteria were acidophilic (optimum growth at pH 4.3-5.6) and mesophilic (optimum growth at 20-30 °C) but were also capable of growth at low temperatures, down to 7 °C. The preferred growth substrates were sugars, some organic acids and lichenan...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Johannes F Imhoff, Tanja Rahn, Sven Künzel, Sven C Neulinger
Rhodopila globiformis: is the most acidophilic anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium and was isolated from a warm acidic sulfur spring in Yellowstone Park. Its genome is larger than genomes of other phototrophic purple bacteria, containing 7248 Mb with a G + C content of 67.1% and 6749 protein coding and 53 RNA genes. The genome revealed some previously unknown properties such as the presence of two sets of structural genes pufLMC for the photosynthetic reaction center genes and two types of nitrogenases (Mo-Fe and V-Fe nitrogenase), capabilities of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation and denitrification using nitrite...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Do Hoon Kwon, Hyun Kyu Song
The cytoplasm in mammalian cells is a battlefield between the host and invading microbes. Both the living organisms have evolved unique strategies for their survival. The host utilizes a specialized autophagy system, xenophagy, for the clearance of invading pathogens, whereas bacteria secrete proteins to defend and escape from the host xenophagy. Several molecules have been identified and their structural investigation has enabled the comprehension of these mechanisms at the molecular level. In this review, we focus on one example of host autophagy and the other of bacterial defense: the autophagy receptor, NDP52, in conjunction with the sugar receptor, galectin-8, plays a critical role in targeting the autophagy machinery against Salmonella ; and the cysteine protease, RavZ secreted by Legionella pneumophila cleaves the LC3-PE on the phagophore membrane...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
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