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Bacteria sugar utilization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069817/quorum-sensing-regulators-are-required-for-metabolic-fitness-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#1
Sai Siddarth Kalburge, Megan R Carpenter, Sharon Rozovsky, E Fidelma Boyd
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which bacteria alter gene expression in response to cell density changes. In Vibrio species, at low cell density, the sigma 54-dependent response regulator LuxO, is active, and regulates the two QS master regulators AphA, which is induced and OpaR, which is repressed. At high cell density the opposite occurs, LuxO is inactive, therefore OpaR is induced and AphA is repressed. In V. parahaemolyticus, a significant enteric pathogen of humans, the role of these regulators in pathogenesis is less known...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066817/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-oral-pathogen-streptococcus-mutans-in-response-to-competence-signaling-peptide-xip
#2
Iwona B Wenderska, Andrew Latos, Benjamin Pruitt, Sara Palmer, Grace Spatafora, Dilani B Senadheera, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
In the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, competence development is regulated by the ComRS signaling system comprised of the ComR regulator and the ComS prepeptide to the competence signaling peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). Aside from competence development, XIP signaling has been demonstrated to regulate cell lysis, and recently, the expression of bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides used by bacteria to inhibit closely related species. Our study further explores the effect of XIP signaling on the S...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063960/effect-of-trehalose-as-an-additive-to-dimethyl-sulfoxide-solutions-on-ice-formation-cellular-viability-and-metabolism
#3
Jason Solocinski, Quinn Osgood, Mian Wang, Aaron Connolly, Michael A Menze, Nilay Chakraborty
Cryopreservation is the only established method for long-term preservation of cells and cellular material. This technique involves preservation of cells and cellular components in the presence of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 °C). The organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) is one of the most commonly utilized CPAs and has been used with various levels of success depending on the type of cells. In recent years, to improve cryogenic outcomes, the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose has been used as an additive to Me2SO-based freezing solutions...
January 4, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036052/sugar-allocation-to-metabolic-pathways-is-tightly-regulated-and-affects-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-mutans
#4
REVIEW
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Yuichi Oogai, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid...
December 28, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028921/oscillospira-and-related-bacteria-from-metagenomics-species-to-metabolic-features
#5
Uri Gophna, Tom Konikoff, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen
Oscillospira is an under-studied anaerobic bacterial genus from Clostridial cluster IV that has resisted cultivation for over a decade since the first time it was observed. In recent years its 16S rRNA gene was identified in several human gut microbiota studies where it was often associated with interesting traits, especially leanness. However, very little is known about its metabolism or physiology. Here we use nearly complete genomes derived from shot-gun metagenomic data from the human gut to analyze Oscillospira and related bacteria...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984587/identification-of-a-novel-l-rhamnose-uptake-transporter-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-niger
#6
Jasper Sloothaak, Dorett I Odoni, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Peter J Schaap, Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos
The study of plant biomass utilization by fungi is a research field of great interest due to its many implications in ecology, agriculture and biotechnology. Most of the efforts done to increase the understanding of the use of plant cell walls by fungi have been focused on the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and transport and metabolism of their constituent monosaccharides. Pectin is another important constituent of plant cell walls, but has received less attention. In relation to the uptake of pectic building blocks, fungal transporters for the uptake of galacturonic acid recently have been reported in Aspergillus niger and Neurospora crassa...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924829/diverse-specificity-of-cellulosome-attachment-to-the-bacterial-cell-surface
#7
Joana L A Brás, Benedita A Pinheiro, Kate Cameron, Fiona Cuskin, Aldino Viegas, Shabir Najmudin, Pedro Bule, Virginia M R Pires, Maria João Romão, Edward A Bayer, Holly L Spencer, Steven Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Victor D Alves, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Carlos M G A Fontes
During the course of evolution, the cellulosome, one of Nature's most intricate multi-enzyme complexes, has been continuously fine-tuned to efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant carbohydrates. To facilitate the uptake of released sugars, anaerobic bacteria use highly ordered protein-protein interactions to recruit these nanomachines to the cell surface. Dockerin modules located within a non-catalytic macromolecular scaffold, whose primary role is to assemble cellulosomal enzymatic subunits, bind cohesin modules of cell envelope proteins, thereby anchoring the cellulosome onto the bacterial cell...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915410/the-properties-and-potential-metabolic-role-of-glucokinase-in-halotolerant-obligate-methanotroph-methylomicrobium-alcaliphilum-20z
#8
Ildar I Mustakhimov, Olga N Rozova, Natalia P Solntseva, Valentina N Khmelenina, Alexander S Reshetnikov, Yuri A Trotsenko
Aerobic bacteria utilizing methane as the carbon and energy source do not use sugars as growth substrates but possess the gene coding for glucokinase (Glk), an enzyme converting glucose into glucose 6-phosphate. Here we demonstrate the functionality and properties of Glk from an obligate methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. The recombinant Glk obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli was found to be close in biochemical properties to other prokaryotic Glks. The homodimeric enzyme (2 × 35 kDa) catalyzed ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose and glucosamine with nearly equal activity, being inhibited by ADP (K i = 2...
December 3, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902282/defining-the-taxonomic-status-of-described-subdivision-3-acidobacteria-the-proposal-of-bryobacteraceae-fam-nov
#9
Svetlana N Dedysh, Irina S Kulichevskaya, Katharina J Huber, Jörg Overmann
Acidobacteria represent one of the highly diverse but poorly characterized phylogenetic groups of the domain Bacteria. The taxonomically described acidobacteria belong to 27 genera and 49 species, which represent subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 23 of this phylum. However, the corresponding family ranks have been defined only for some of these characterized microorganisms. Here, we suggest the establishment of a novel family, Bryobacteraceae fam. nov., to accommodate taxonomically described members of subdivision 3 Acidobacteria...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872964/toward-sustainable-amino-acid-production
#10
Yoshihiro Usuda, Yoshihiko Hara, Hiroyuki Kojima
Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836849/identification-of-a-new-phosphatase-enzyme-potentially-involved-in-the-sugar-phosphate-stress-response-in-pseudomonas-fluorescens
#11
Susan Maleki, Radka Hrudikova, Sergey B Zotchev, Helga Ertesvåg
: The alginate-producing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens utilizes the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) and pentose phosphate (PP) pathways to metabolize fructose, since the upper part of its Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway is defective. Our previous study indicated that perturbation of the central carbon metabolism by diminishing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity could lead to sugar phosphate stress when P. fluorescens was cultivated on fructose. In the present study, we demonstrate that PFLU2693, annotated as a haloacid dehalogenase-like enzyme, is a new sugar phosphate phosphatase, now designated Spp, which is able to dephosphorylate a range of phosphate substrates, including glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, in vitro The effect of spp overexpression on growth and alginate production was investigated using both the wild type and several mutant strains...
January 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815279/an-inducible-operon-is-involved-in-inulin-utilization-in-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-as-revealed-by-comparative-proteogenomics-and-metabolic-profiling
#12
Nirunya Buntin, Tipparat Hongpattarakere, Jarmo Ritari, François P Douillard, Lars Paulin, Sjef Boeren, Sudarshan A Shetty, Willem M de Vos
: The draft genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Asian fermented foods, infant feces, and shrimp intestines were sequenced and compared to those of well-studied strains. Among 28 strains of L. plantarum, variations in the genomic features involved in ecological adaptation were elucidated. The genome sizes ranged from approximately 3.1 to 3.5 Mb, of which about 2,932 to 3,345 protein-coding sequences (CDS) were predicted. The food-derived isolates contained a higher number of carbohydrate metabolism-associated genes than those from infant feces...
January 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803186/metabolism-of-toxic-sugars-by-strains-of-the-bee-gut-symbiont-gilliamella-apicola
#13
Hao Zheng, Alex Nishida, Waldan K Kwong, Hauke Koch, Philipp Engel, Margaret I Steele, Nancy A Moran
: Social bees collect carbohydrate-rich food to support their colonies, and yet, certain carbohydrates present in their diet or produced through the breakdown of pollen are toxic to bees. The gut microbiota of social bees is dominated by a few core bacterial species, including the Gram-negative species Gilliamella apicola We isolated 42 strains of G. apicola from guts of honey bees and bumble bees and sequenced their genomes. All of the G. apicola strains share high 16S rRNA gene similarity, but they vary extensively in gene repertoires related to carbohydrate metabolism...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800149/the-effects-of-sugars-on-the-biofilm-formation-of-escherichia-coli-185p-on-stainless-steel-and-polyethylene-terephthalate-surfaces-in-a-laboratory-model
#14
Mahdi Khangholi, Ailar Jamalli
BACKGROUND: Bacteria utilize various methods in order to live in protection from adverse environmental conditions. One such method involves biofilm formation; however, this formation is dependent on many factors. The type and concentration of substances such as sugars that are present in an environment can be effective facilitators of biofilm formation. METHODS: First, the physico-chemical properties of the bacteria and the target surface were studied via the MATS and contact angle measurement methods...
September 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766829/development-of-rare-bacterial-monosaccharide-analogs-for-metabolic-glycan-labeling-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#15
Emily L Clark, Madhu Emmadi, Katharine L Krupp, Ananda R Podilapu, Jennifer D Helble, Suvarn S Kulkarni, Danielle H Dube
Bacterial glycans contain rare, exclusively bacterial monosaccharides that are frequently linked to pathogenesis and essentially absent from human cells. Therefore, bacterial glycans are intriguing molecular targets. However, systematic discovery of bacterial glycoproteins is hampered by the presence of rare deoxy amino sugars, which are refractory to traditional glycan-binding reagents. Thus, the development of chemical tools that label bacterial glycans is a crucial step toward discovering and targeting these biomolecules...
December 16, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754312/new-insights-into-various-production-characteristics-of-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains
#16
REVIEW
Yanhua Cui, Tingting Xu, Xiaojun Qu, Tong Hu, Xu Jiang, Chunyu Zhao
Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the most valuable homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, which, for a long time, has been widely used as a starter for the production of fermented dairy products. The key production characteristics of S. thermophilus, for example the production of extracellular polysaccharide, proteolytic enzymes and flavor substances as well as acidifying capacity etc., have an important effect on the quality of dairy products. The acidification capacity of the strains determines the manufacturing time and quality of dairy products...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734757/agrowaste-to-vanillin-conversion-by-a-natural-pediococcus-acidilactici-strain-bd16
#17
Debkumar Chakraborty, Baljinder Kaur, Karthikeyan Obulisamy, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Jonathan W C Wong
Owing to its flavoring, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic nature, vanillin is widely used in foods, beverages, perfumes and pharmaceutical products. Ferulic acid (FA) is an important precursor of vanillin which is abundant in cereals like maize, rice and wheat and sugar beet. A major drawback of microbial vanillin production from FA is the degradation and biotransformation of toxic vanillin to other phenolic derivatives. The present study is undertaken to explore microbial vanillin production from FA precursor rice bran by employing vanillin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16, a natural lactic acid bacteria isolate...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734121/phylogenetic-signal-in-phenotypic-traits-related-to-carbon-source-assimilation-and-chemical-sensitivity-in-acinetobacter-species
#18
Ado Van Assche, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Anna de Breij, Joseph De Brabanter, Kris A Willems, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Bart Lievens
A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664739/organic-acid-mediated-repression-of-sugar-utilization-in-rhizobia
#19
REVIEW
Bhagya Iyer, Mahendrapal Singh Rajput, Rahul Jog, Ekta Joshi, Krishna Bharwad, Shalini Rajkumar
Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590817/glycosulfatase-encoding-gene-cluster-in-bifidobacterium-breve-ucc2003
#20
Muireann Egan, Hao Jiang, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Stefan Oscarson, Douwe van Sinderen
: Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria typically found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve strains are numerically prevalent among the gut microbiota of many healthy breastfed infants. In the present study, we investigated glycosulfatase activity in a bacterial isolate from a nursling stool sample, B. breve UCC2003. Two putative sulfatases were identified on the genome of B. breve UCC2003. The sulfated monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate (GlcNAc-6-S) was shown to support the growth of B...
November 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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