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Bacteria sugar utilization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370477/inducer-exclusion-in-firmicutes-insights-into-the-regulation-of-a-carbohydrate-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-from-lactobacillus-casei-bl23-by-the-signal-transducing-protein-p-ser46-hpr
#1
Constanze Homburg, Martin Bommer, Steven Wuttge, Carolin Hobe, Sebastian Beck, Holger Dobbek, Josef Deutscher, Anke Licht, Erwin Schneider
Catabolite repression is a mechanism that enables bacteria to control carbon utilization. As part of this global regulatory network, components of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system inhibit the uptake of less favourable sugars when a preferred carbon source such as glucose is available. This process is termed inducer exclusion. In bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, HPr, phosphorylated at serine 46 (P-Ser46-HPr) is the key player but its mode of action is elusive. To address this question at the level of purified protein components, we have chosen a homolog of the E...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344648/cellulosic-ethanol-production-via-consolidated-bioprocessing-by-a-novel-thermophilic-anaerobic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-himalayan-hot-spring
#2
Nisha Singh, Anshu S Mathur, Deepak K Tuli, Ravi P Gupta, Colin J Barrow, Munish Puri
BACKGROUND: Cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium as a suitable host for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) has been proposed as an economically suited platform for the production of second-generation biofuels. To recognize the overall objective of CBP, fermentation using co-culture of different cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting thermophilic anaerobic bacteria has been widely studied as an approach to achieving improved ethanol production. We assessed monoculture and co-culture fermentation of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium for ethanol production from real substrates under controlled conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335448/a-community-multi-omics-approach-towards-the-assessment-of-surface-water-quality-in-an-urban-river-system
#3
David J Beale, Avinash V Karpe, Warish Ahmed, Stephen Cook, Paul D Morrison, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Enzo A Palombo
A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299315/rna-based-stable-isotope-probing-suggests-allobaculum-spp-as-particularly-active-glucose-assimilators-in-a-complex-murine-microbiota-cultured-in-vitro
#4
Elena Herrmann, Wayne Young, Douglas Rosendale, Verena Reichert-Grimm, Christian U Riedel, Ralf Conrad, Markus Egert
RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) and metabolic profiling were used to detect actively glucose-consuming bacteria in a complex microbial community obtained from a murine model system. A faeces-derived microbiota was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 0, 2, and 4 h with 40 mM [U(13)C]glucose. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionation of isolated RNA into labeled and unlabeled fractions followed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed a quick adaptation of the bacterial community in response to the added sugar, which was dominated by unclassified Lachnospiraceae species...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289085/the-small-protein-sgrt-controls-transport-activity-of-the-glucose-specific-phosphotransferase-system
#5
Chelsea R Lloyd, Seongjin Park, Jingyi Fei, Carin K Vanderpool
The bacterial small RNA (sRNA) SgrS has been a fruitful model for discovery of novel RNA-based regulatory mechanisms and new facets of bacterial physiology and metabolism. SgrS is one of only a few characterized dual-function sRNAs. SgrS can control gene expression post-transcriptionally via sRNA-mRNA base pairing interactions. Its second function is coding for the small protein SgrT. Previous work demonstrated that both functions contribute to relief of growth inhibition caused by glucose-phosphate stress, a condition characterized by disrupted glycolytic flux and accumulation of sugar-phosphates...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263875/molecular-architecture-of-an-n-formyltransferase-from-salmonella-enterica-o60
#6
Colin R Woodford, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden
N-formylated sugars are found on the lipopolysaccharides of various pathogenic Gram negative bacteria including Campylobacter jejuni 81116, Francisella tularensis, Providencia alcalifaciens O30, and Providencia alcalifaciens O40. The last step in the biosynthetic pathways for these unusual sugars is catalyzed by N-formyltransferases that utilize N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. The substrates are dTDP-linked amino sugars with the functional groups installed at either the C-3' or C-4' positions of the pyranosyl rings...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261164/impact-of-westernized-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-children-on-leyte-island
#7
Jiro Nakayama, Azusa Yamamoto, Ladie A Palermo-Conde, Kanako Higashi, Kenji Sonomoto, Julie Tan, Yuan-Kun Lee
Urbanization has changed life styles of the children in some towns and cities on Leyte island in the Philippines. To evaluate the impact of modernization in dietary habits on gut microbiota, we compared fecal microbiota of 7 to 9-year-old children from rural Baybay city (n = 24) and urban Ormoc city (n = 19), and assessed the correlation between bacterial composition and diet. A dietary survey indicated that Ormoc children consumed fast food frequently and more meat and confectionary than Baybay children, suggesting modernization/westernization of dietary habits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260346/mass-based-metabolomic-analysis-of-lactobacillus-sakei-and-its-growth-media-at-different-growth-phases
#8
Sang Bong Lee, Young Kyoung Rhee, Eun-Ji Gu, Dong-Wook Kim, Gwang-Ju Jang, Seong-Hwa Song, Jae-In Lee, Bo-Min Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Hee-Do Hong, Chang-Won Cho, Hyun-Jin Kim
Changes in the metabolite profiles of Lactobacillus sakei and its growth media, based on different culture times (0, 6, 12 and 24 h), were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), in order to understand the growth characteristics of this organism. Cell and media samples of L. sakei were significantly separated on PLS-DA score plots. Cell [28] and media [7] metabolites including sugars, amino acids, and organic acids were identified as major metabolites contributing to the difference among samples...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225088/the-general-pts-component-hpr-determines-the-preference-for-glucose-over-mannitol
#9
Mangyu Choe, Young-Ha Park, Chang-Ro Lee, Yeon-Ran Kim, Yeong-Jae Seok
Preferential sugar utilization is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Glucose is usually the most preferred carbon source in various organisms, especially in bacteria where it is taken up via the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The currently proposed model for glucose preference over non-PTS sugars in enteric bacteria including E. coli is strictly dependent on the phosphorylation state of the glucose-specific PTS component, enzyme IIA(Glc) (EIIA(Glc)). However, the mechanism of the preference among PTS sugars is largely unknown in Gram-negative bacteria...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211847/syntrophic-linkage-between-predatory-carpediemonas-and-specific-prokaryotic-populations
#10
Emmo Hamann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Jianwei Chen, Philipp F Hach, Marc Strous
Most anoxic environments are populated by small (<10 μm) heterotrophic eukaryotes that prey on different microbial community members. How predatory eukaryotes engage in beneficial interactions with other microbes has rarely been investigated so far. Here, we studied an example of such an interaction by cultivating the anerobic marine flagellate, Carpediemonas frisia sp. nov. (supergroup Excavata), with parts of its naturally associated microbiome. This microbiome consisted of so far uncultivated members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Nanoarchaeota...
May 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199212/transposon-mediated-directed-mutation-in-bacteria-and-eukaryotes
#11
Milton H Saier, Chika Kukita, Zhongge Zhang
Transposon-mediated "directed" mutations occur at higher frequencies when beneficial than when detrimental and relieve the stress that causes them. The first and best-studied example involves regulation of Insertion Sequence-5 (IS5) insertion into a specific activating site upstream of the glycerol utilization operon in Escherichia coli, glpFK. This event promotes high level expression of the glpFK operon, allowing glycerol utilization in wild type cells under inhibitory conditions. The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent, sugar transporting, phosphotransferase system (PTS) influences this process by regulating cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate and cyclic AMP concentrations...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194879/ethanol-production-by-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pyrococcus-furiosus-by-expression-of-bacterial-bifunctional-alcohol-dehydrogenases
#12
Matthew W Keller, Gina L Lipscomb, Diep M Nguyen, Alexander T Crowley, Gerrit J Schut, Israel Scott, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141504/luteitalea-pratensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-subdivision-6-acidobacteria-isolated-from-temperate-grassland-soil
#13
Selma Vieira, Maja Luckner, Gerhard Wanner, Jorg Overmann
Albeit being widespread and abundant in soils worldwide, bacteria of the phylum Acidobacteria have remained grossly understudied due to difficulties in their cultivation and isolation. To date only 48 species have been validly described, including a single member of the phylogenetically diverse Acidobacteria subdivision 6. Here, we report the polyphasic characterization of strain HEG_-6_39T, a new representative of Acidobacteria subdivision 6 isolated from a grassland soil in Thuringia, Germany. Cells of HEG_-6_39T are Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, non-capsulated short rods that form small dark yellow colonies...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119473/autoinducer-2-signaling-via-the-phosphotransferase-frua-drives-galactose-utilization-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-resulting-in-hypervirulence
#14
Claudia Trappetti, Lauren J McAllister, Austen Chen, Hui Wang, Adrienne W Paton, Marco R Oggioni, Christopher A McDevitt, James C Paton
Communication between bacterial cells is crucial for the coordination of diverse cellular processes that facilitate environmental adaptation and, in the case of pathogenic species, virulence. This is achieved by the secretion and detection of small signaling molecules called autoinducers, a process termed quorum sensing. To date, the only signaling molecule recognized by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is autoinducer 2 (AI-2), synthesized by the metabolic enzyme LuxS (S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase) as a by-product of the activated methyl cycle...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094347/endozoicomonas-genomes-reveal-functional-adaptation-and-plasticity-in-bacterial-strains-symbiotically-associated-with-diverse-marine-hosts
#15
Matthew J Neave, Craig T Michell, Amy Apprill, Christian R Voolstra
Endozoicomonas bacteria are globally distributed and often abundantly associated with diverse marine hosts including reef-building corals, yet their function remains unknown. In this study we generated novel Endozoicomonas genomes from single cells and metagenomes obtained directly from the corals Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora verrucosa, and Acropora humilis. We then compared these culture-independent genomes to existing genomes of bacterial isolates acquired from a sponge, sea slug, and coral to examine the functional landscape of this enigmatic genus...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069817/quorum-sensing-regulators-are-required-for-metabolic-fitness-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#16
Sai Siddarth Kalburge, Megan R Carpenter, Sharon Rozovsky, E Fidelma Boyd
Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which bacteria alter gene expression in response to cell density changes. In Vibrio species, at low cell density, the sigma 54-dependent response regulator LuxO is active and regulates the two QS master regulators AphA, which is induced, and OpaR, which is repressed. At high cell density the opposite occurs: LuxO is inactive, and therefore OpaR is induced while AphA is repressed. In Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a significant enteric pathogen of humans, the roles of these regulators in pathogenesis are less known...
March 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066817/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-oral-pathogen-streptococcus-mutans-in-response-to-competence-signaling-peptide-xip
#17
Iwona B Wenderska, Andrew Latos, Benjamin Pruitt, Sara Palmer, Grace Spatafora, Dilani B Senadheera, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
In the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, competence development is regulated by the ComRS signaling system comprised of the ComR regulator and the ComS prepeptide to the competence signaling peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). Aside from competence development, XIP signaling has been demonstrated to regulate cell lysis, and recently, the expression of bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides used by bacteria to inhibit closely related species. Our study further explores the effect of XIP signaling on the S...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063960/effect-of-trehalose-as-an-additive-to-dimethyl-sulfoxide-solutions-on-ice-formation-cellular-viability-and-metabolism
#18
Jason Solocinski, Quinn Osgood, Mian Wang, Aaron Connolly, Michael A Menze, Nilay Chakraborty
Cryopreservation is the only established method for long-term preservation of cells and cellular material. This technique involves preservation of cells and cellular components in the presence of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 °C). The organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) is one of the most commonly utilized CPAs and has been used with various levels of success depending on the type of cells. In recent years, to improve cryogenic outcomes, the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose has been used as an additive to Me2SO-based freezing solutions...
April 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036052/sugar-allocation-to-metabolic-pathways-is-tightly-regulated-and-affects-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-mutans
#19
REVIEW
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Yuichi Oogai, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid...
December 28, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028921/oscillospira-and-related-bacteria-from-metagenomic-species-to-metabolic-features
#20
Uri Gophna, Tom Konikoff, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen
Oscillospira is an under-studied anaerobic bacterial genus from Clostridial cluster IV that has resisted cultivation for over a century since the first time it was observed. In recent years its 16S rRNA gene was identified in several human gut microbiota studies where it was often associated with interesting traits, especially leanness. However, very little is known about its metabolism or physiology. Here we used nearly complete genomes derived from shot-gun metagenomic data from the human gut to analyze Oscillospira and related bacteria...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
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