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Bacteria sugar utilization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465339/edaphobacter-lichenicola-sp-nov-a-member-of-the-family-acidobacteriaceae-from-lichen-dominated-forested-tundra
#1
Svetlana E Belova, Natalia E Suzina, W Irene C Rijpstra, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Svetlana N Dedysh
An isolate of aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and light-pink pigmented bacteria, designated SBC68T , was obtained from slightly decomposed thalli of the lichen Cladonia sp. collected from the forested tundra of north-western Siberia. Cells of this isolate occurred singly, in pairs or in rosettes. These bacteria were acidophilic (optimum growth at pH 4.3-5.6) and mesophilic (optimum growth at 20-30 °C) but were also capable of growth at low temperatures, down to 7 °C. The preferred growth substrates were sugars, some organic acids and lichenan...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423563/new-insights-into-the-metabolic-potential-of-the-phototrophic-purple-bacterium-rhodopila-globiformis-dsm-161t-from-its-draft-genome-sequence-and-evidence-for-a-vanadium-dependent-nitrogenase
#2
Johannes F Imhoff, Tanja Rahn, Sven Künzel, Sven C Neulinger
Rhodopila globiformis: is the most acidophilic anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium and was isolated from a warm acidic sulfur spring in Yellowstone Park. Its genome is larger than genomes of other phototrophic purple bacteria, containing 7248 Mb with a G + C content of 67.1% and 6749 protein coding and 53 RNA genes. The genome revealed some previously unknown properties such as the presence of two sets of structural genes pufLMC for the photosynthetic reaction center genes and two types of nitrogenases (Mo-Fe and V-Fe nitrogenase), capabilities of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation and denitrification using nitrite...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370690/a-structural-view-of-xenophagy-a-battle-between-host-and-microbes
#3
REVIEW
Do Hoon Kwon, Hyun Kyu Song
The cytoplasm in mammalian cells is a battlefield between the host and invading microbes. Both the living organisms have evolved unique strategies for their survival. The host utilizes a specialized autophagy system, xenophagy, for the clearance of invading pathogens, whereas bacteria secrete proteins to defend and escape from the host xenophagy. Several molecules have been identified and their structural investigation has enabled the comprehension of these mechanisms at the molecular level. In this review, we focus on one example of host autophagy and the other of bacterial defense: the autophagy receptor, NDP52, in conjunction with the sugar receptor, galectin-8, plays a critical role in targeting the autophagy machinery against Salmonella; and the cysteine protease, RavZ secreted by Legionella pneumophila cleaves the LC3-PE on the phagophore membrane...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354364/phylogeny-novel-bacterial-lineage-and-enzymatic-potential-of-haloalkaliphilic-bacteria-from-the-saline-coastal-desert-of-little-rann-of-kutch-gujarat-india
#4
Hitarth B Bhatt, Sangeeta D Gohel, Satya P Singh
This report describes cultivation-dependent diversity, phylogeny and enzymatic potential of the haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the unvegetated desert soil of yet unexplored, saline desert of Little Rann of Kutch (LRK), India. The LRK is a unique ecosystem displaying a combination of Dry Rann and Wet Rann. A total of 25 bacteria were isolated and characterized on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical profile, sugar utilization, secretion of the extracellular enzymes and antibiotic sensitivity...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338214/a-tool-for-the-import-of-natural-and-unnatural-nucleoside-triphosphates-into-bacteria
#5
Aaron W Feldman, Emil C Fischer, Michael P Ledbetter, Jen-Yu Liao, John C Chaput, Floyd E Romesberg
Nucleoside triphosphates play a central role in biology, but efforts to study these roles have proven difficult because the levels of triphosphates are tightly regulated in a cell and because individual triphosphates can be difficult to label or modify. In addition, many synthetic biology efforts are focused on the development of unnatural nucleoside triphosphates that perform specific functions in the cellular environment. In general, both of these efforts would be facilitated by a general means to directly introduce desired triphosphates into cells...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317507/identification-of-euglena-gracilis-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-phosphorylase-and-establishment-of-a-new-glycoside-hydrolase-gh-family-gh149
#6
Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Nicola J Patron, Bernard Henrissat, Martin Rejzek, Gerhard Saalbach, Robert A Field
Glycoside phosphorylases (EC 2.4.x.x) carry out the reversible phosphorolysis of glucan polymers, producing the corresponding sugar 1-phosphate and a shortened glycan chain. β-1,3-Glucan phosphorylase activities have been reported in the photosynthetic Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis, but the cognate protein sequences have not been identified to date. Continuing our efforts to understand the glycobiology of E. gracilis, we identified a candidate phosphorylase sequence, designated EgP1, by proteomic analysis of an enriched cellular protein lysate...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310850/utilization-of-distillery-wastewater-for-hydrogen-production-in-one-stage-and-two-stage-processes-involving-photofermentation
#7
Tatyana Laurinavichene, Darya Tekucheva, Kestutis Laurinavichius, Anatoly Tsygankov
In this study, distillery wastewater was treated by dark fermentation or photofermentation alone, and by sequential dark and photofermentation processes using anaerobic saccharolytic consortium and purple nonsulfur bacteria. Combination of dark and photofermentation resulted in the maximal H2 yield of 17.6L/L of distillery waste with chemical oxygen demand 40g/L. It is equivalent to 205kJ/L distillery wastewater and corresponds to recovery of approximately 4-8% of energy consumed during ethanol production. Optimal performance of photofermentation was observed at 20% concentration of pre-fermented distillery waste...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266550/molecular-architectures-of-pen-and-pal-key-enzymes-required-for-cmp-pseudaminic-acid-biosynthesis-in-bacillus-thuringiensis
#8
Nathan A Delvaux, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden
Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil-dwelling Gram positive bacterium that has been utilized as a biopesticide for well over 60 years. It is known to contain flagella that are important for motility. One of the proteins found in flagella is flagellin, which is post-translationally modified by O-glycosylation with derivatives of pseudaminic acid. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of CMP-pseudaminic acid in B. thuringiensis, starting with UDP-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), requires seven enzymes. Here we report the three-dimensional structures of Pen and Pal, which catalyze the first and second steps, respectively...
December 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247483/peptidoglycan-synthesis-in-tannerella-forsythia-scavenging-is-the-modus-operandi
#9
REVIEW
Angela Ruscitto, Ashu Sharma
Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative oral pathogen strongly associated with periodontitis. This bacterium has an absolute requirement for exogenous N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), an amino sugar which forms the repeating disaccharide unit with amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) of the peptidoglycan backbone. In silico genome analysis indicates that T. forsythia lacks the key biosynthetic enzymes needed for the de novo synthesis of MurNAc, and thus relies on alternative ways to meet its requirement for peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229699/the-nitrogen-regulatory-pii-protein-glnb-and-n-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate-epimerase-nane-allosterically-activate-glucosamine-6-phosphate-deaminase-nagb-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Irina A Rodionova, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
Amino sugars are good sources of both ammonia and fructose-6-phosphate, produced by glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase, NagB. NagB is known to be allosterically regulated by N-acetyl-glucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) and the phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, HPr, in Escherichia coli We provide evidence that NanE, GlcNAc-6P epimerase, and the uridylylated PII protein also allosterically activate NagB by direct protein-protein interactions. NanE is essential for neuraminic acid (NANA) and N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) utilization, and PII is known to be a central metabolic nitrogen regulator...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193551/the-microbial-community-of-a-biofilm-contact-reactor-for-the-treatment-of-winery-wastewater
#11
Danielle Marguerite de Beer, Marelize Botes, Thomas Eugene Cloete
AIMS: To utilize a three-tiered approach to provide insight into the microbial community structure, the spatial distribution and the metabolic capabilities of organisms of a biofilm in the two towers of a high rate biological contact reactor treating winery wastewater. METHODS AND RESULTS: Next generation sequencing indicated that bacteria primarily responsible for removal of carbohydrates, sugars and alcohol were more abundant in tower 1 than tower 2 while nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria were more abundant in tower 2...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165235/synthesis-of-n-acetyl-d-quinovosamine-in-rhizobium-etli-ce3-is-completed-after-its-4-keto-precursor-is-linked-to-a-carrier-lipid
#12
Tiezheng Li, K Dale Noel
Bacterial O-antigens are synthesized on lipid carriers before being transferred to lipopolysaccharide core structures. Rhizobium etli CE3 lipopolysaccharide is a model for understanding O-antigen biological function. CE3 O-antigen structure and genetics are known. However, proposed enzymology for CE3 O-antigen synthesis has been examined very little in vitro, and even the sugar added to begin the synthesis is uncertain. A model based on mutagenesis studies predicts that 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (QuiNAc) is the first O-antigen sugar and that genes wreV, wreQ and wreU direct QuiNAc synthesis and O-antigen initiation...
November 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145079/microbial-transcript-and-metabolome-analysis-uncover-discrepant-metabolic-pathways-in-autotrophic-and-mixotrophic-anammox-consortia
#13
Ying Feng, Yunpeng Zhao, Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu
The ability of anammox bacteria to utilize organic matter has drawn extensive attention. However, the metabolic discrepancies between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia need to be further explored. Here, microbial transcript and metabolomic analysis were conducted for the samples harvested in the reactors and batch assays to investigate the phenotype discrepancies and intrinsic causes in autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia. Results showed that metabolically active community structures did not show significant difference between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia (C/N = 0...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140539/cross-regulation-among-arabinose-xylose-and-rhamnose-utilization-systems-in-e-coli
#14
Debika Choudhury, Supreet Saini
Bacteria frequently encounter multiple sugars in their natural surroundings. While the dynamics of utilization of glucose containing sugar mixtures have been well investigated, there are few reports addressing regulation of utilization of glucose-free mixtures particularly pentoses. These sugars comprise a considerable fraction in hemicellulose which can be converted by suitable biocatalysts to biofuels and other value-added products. Hence understanding of transcriptional cross-regulation among different pentose sugar utilization systems is essential for successful development of industrial strains...
November 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093754/a-seven-gene-cluster-in-ruminiclostridium-cellulolyticum-is-essential-for-signalization-uptake-and-catabolism-of-the-degradation-products-of-cellulose-hydrolysis
#15
Aurélie Fosses, Maria Maté, Nathalie Franche, Nian Liu, Yann Denis, Romain Borne, Pascale de Philip, Henri-Pierre Fierobe, Stéphanie Perret
Background: Like a number of anaerobic and cellulolytic Gram-positive bacteria, the model microorganism Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum produces extracellular multi-enzymatic complexes called cellulosomes, which efficiently degrade the crystalline cellulose. Action of the complexes on cellulose releases cellobiose and longer cellodextrins but to date, little is known about the transport and utilization of the produced cellodextrins in the bacterium. A better understanding of the uptake systems and fermentation of sugars derived from cellulose could have a major impact in the field of biofuels production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076803/mtlr-negatively-regulates-mannitol-utilization-by-vibrio-cholerae
#16
Tanner Byer, Jessica Wang, Mark G Zhang, Naomi Vather, Anna Blachman, Bryan Visser, Jane M Liu
The phosphoenopyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) enables Vibrio cholerae - and other bacteria - to recognize and transport exogenous carbon sources for energy, including the six-carbon sugar alcohol, mannitol. The mannitol-specific PTS transporter is encoded by mtlA and its expression is expected to be regulated by the putative repressor encoded by the mtlR gene. Here, we show that mtlR overexpression inhibits V. cholerae growth in medium supplied with mannitol as the sole carbon source and represses MtlA-mediated biofilm formation...
October 27, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029078/prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-and-pectic-oligosaccharides-to-promote-anti-inflammatory-commensal-bacteria-in-the-human-colon
#17
Wing Sun Faith Chung, Marjolein Meijerink, Birgitte Zeuner, Jesper Holck, Petra Louis, Anne S Meyer, Jerry M Wells, Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilise pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. Eubacterium eligens DSM3376 utilises apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024084/characterization-of-and-lipopolysaccharide-binding-to-the-e-coli-lptc-protein-dimer
#18
Kathryn M Schultz, Candice S Klug
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. LPS is a large lipid containing several acyl chains as its hydrophobic base and numerous sugars as its hydrophilic core and O-antigen domains, and is an essential element of the organisms' natural defenses in adverse environmental conditions. LptC is one of seven members of the lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) protein family that functions to transport LPS from the inner membrane (IM) to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of the bacterium...
October 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986379/functional-analysis-of-the-glucan-degradation-locus-gdl-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii-reveals-essential-roles-of-component-glycoside-hydrolases-in-plant-biomass-deconstruction
#19
Jonathan M Conway, Bennett S McKinley, Nathaniel L Seals, Diana Hernandez, Piyum A Khatibi, Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gina L Lipscomb, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The ability to hydrolyze microcrystalline cellulose is an uncommon feature in the microbial world, but one that can be exploited for conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-based fuels and chemicals. Understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which microorganisms deconstruct cellulosic material is key to achieving this objective. The Glucan Degradation Locus (GDL) in the genomes of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species encodes polysaccharide lyases (PLs), unique cellulose binding proteins (tāpirins), and putative post-translational modifying enzymes, in addition to multi-domain, multi-functional glycoside hydrolases (GHs), thereby representing an alternative paradigm for plant biomass degradation, as compared to fungal or cellulosomal systems...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972167/functional-analysis-of-an-unusual-porin-like-channel-that-imports-chitin-for-alternative-carbon-metabolism-in-escherichia-coli
#20
H Sasimali M Soysa, Albert Schulte, Wipa Suginta
Escherichia coli have the genetic potential to use chitin as a carbon source in the absence of glucose, importing it via the chitin-uptake channel EcChiP for processing by the glucosamine catabolic pathway. The chip gene is usually not expressed when E. coli are grown on glucose-enriched nutrients, providing a general regulatory mechanism for the pathway. EcChiP is unusual in that it is homologous to porins and monomeric instead of trimeric, the typical form of sugar-specific channels, making it unclear how this channel operates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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