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Bacteria sugar utilization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029078/prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-and-pectic-oligosaccharides-to-promote-anti-inflammatory-commensal-bacteria-in-the-human-colon
#1
Wing Sun Faith Chung, Marjolein Meijerink, Birgitte Zeuner, Jesper Holck, Petra Louis, Anne Meyer, Jerry M Wells, Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilize pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. E. eligens DSM3376 utilizes apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024084/characterization-of-and-lipopolysaccharide-binding-to-the-e-coli-lptc-protein-dimer
#2
Kathryn M Schultz, Candice S Klug
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. LPS is a large lipid containing several acyl chains as its hydrophobic base and numerous sugars as its hydrophilic core and O-antigen domains, and is an essential element of the organisms' natural defenses in adverse environmental conditions. LptC is one of seven members of the lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) protein family that functions to transport LPS from the inner membrane (IM) to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of the bacterium...
October 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986379/functional-analysis-of-the-glucan-degradation-locus-gdl-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii-reveals-essential-roles-of-component-glycoside-hydrolases-in-plant-biomass-deconstruction
#3
Jonathan M Conway, Bennett S McKinley, Nathaniel L Seals, Diana Hernandez, Piyum A Khatibi, Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gina L Lipscomb, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The ability to hydrolyze microcrystalline cellulose is an uncommon feature in the microbial world, but one that can be exploited for conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-based fuels and chemicals. Understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which microorganisms deconstruct cellulosic material is key to achieving this objective. The Glucan Degradation Locus (GDL) in the genomes of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species encodes polysaccharide lyases (PLs), unique cellulose binding proteins (tāpirins), and putative post-translational modifying enzymes, in addition to multi-domain, multi-functional glycoside hydrolases (GHs), thereby representing an alternative paradigm for plant biomass degradation, as compared to fungal or cellulosomal systems...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972167/functional-analysis-of-an-unusual-porin-like-channel-that-imports-chitin-for-alternative-carbon-metabolism-in-escherichia-coli
#4
H Sasimali M Soysa, Albert Schulte, Wipa Suginta
Escherichia coli have the genetic potential to use chitin as a carbon source in the absence of glucose, importing it via the chitin-uptake channel EcChiP for processing by the glucosamine catabolic pathway. The chip gene is usually not expressed when E. coli are grown on glucose-enriched nutrients, providing a general regulatory mechanism for the pathway. EcChiP is unusual in that it is homologous to porins and monomeric instead of trimeric, the typical form of sugar-specific channels, making it unclear how this channel operates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970222/disruption-of-a-transcriptional-repressor-by-an-is-element-integration-leads-to-the-activation-of-a-novel-silent-cellobiose-transporter-in-lactococcus-lactis-mg1363
#5
Ana Solopova, Jan Kok, Oscar P Kuipers
L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains typically carry many dairy niche-specific adaptations. During adaptation to the milk environment these former plant strains have acquired various pseudogenes and insertion sequence elements indicative of ongoing genome decay and frequent transposition events in their genomes. Here, we describe the re-activation of a silenced plant sugar utilization cluster in an L. lactis MG1363 derivative lacking the two main cellobiose transporters PtcBACelB and PtcBAC upon applying selection pressure to utilize cellobiose...
September 29, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963627/ferric-iron-and-extracellular-electron-shuttling-increase-xylose-utilization-and-butanol-production-during-fermentation-with-multiple-solventogenic-bacteria
#6
Jovan Popovic, Xiaofeng Ye, Anne Haluska, Kevin T Finneran
Xylose is the second most abundant sugar derived from lignocellulose; it is considered less desirable than glucose for fermentation, and strategies that specifically increase xylose utilization in wild-type cells are goals for biofuel production. Xylose consumption, butanol production, and hydrogen production increased in both Clostridium beijerinckii and a novel solventogenic bacterium (strain DC-1) when anthraquinone-2,6,-disulfonate (AQDS) or riboflavin were used as redox mediators to transfer electrons to poorly crystalline Fe(OH)3 as an extracellular electron sink...
September 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939442/association-of-cytolethal-distending-toxin-ii-gene-positive-escherichia-coli-with-escherichia-albertii-an-emerging-enteropathogen
#7
Atsushi Hinenoya, Noritomo Yasuda, Natsuko Mukaizawa, Sikander Sheikh, Yuko Niwa, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Masahiro Asakura, Teizo Tsukamoto, Akira Nagita, M John Albert, Shinji Yamasaki
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli have been isolated from patients with diarrhea, sepsis and urinary tract infection. CDT of E. coli is divided into five types (CDT-I through CDT-V) based on differences in amino acid sequences and its genomic location. However, in our recent studies, a few strains of cdt-II gene-positive bacteria, initially identified as atypical E. coli, were re-identified as Escherichia albertii, an emerging enteropathogen, by extensive characterization including multilocus sequence (MLS) analysis and sugar utilization tests...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928206/microbial-metabolic-networks-at-the-mucus-layer-lead-to-diet-independent-butyrate-and-vitamin-b12-production-by-intestinal-symbionts
#8
Clara Belzer, Loo Wee Chia, Steven Aalvink, Bhawani Chamlagain, Vieno Piironen, Jan Knol, Willem M de Vos
Akkermansia muciniphila has evolved to specialize in the degradation and utilization of host mucus, which it may use as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Mucus degradation and fermentation by A. muciniphila are known to result in the liberation of oligosaccharides and subsequent production of acetate, which becomes directly available to microorganisms in the vicinity of the intestinal mucosa. Coculturing experiments of Amuciniphila with non-mucus-degrading butyrate-producing bacteria Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii resulted in syntrophic growth and production of butyrate...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902173/concept-for-recycling-waste-biomass-from-the-sugar-industry-for-chemical-and-biotechnological-purposes
#9
Magdalena Modelska, Joanna Berlowska, Dorota Kregiel, Weronika Cieciura, Hubert Antolak, Jolanta Tomaszewska, Michał Binczarski, Elzbieta Szubiakiewicz, Izabela A Witonska
The objective of this study was to develop a method for the thermally-assisted acidic hydrolysis of waste biomass from the sugar industry (sugar beet pulp and leaves) for chemical and biotechnological purposes. The distillates, containing furfural, can be catalytically reduced directly into furfurayl alcohol or tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The sugars present in the hydrolysates can be converted by lactic bacteria into lactic acid, which, by catalytic reduction, leads to propylene glycol. The sugars may also be utilized by microorganisms in the process of cell proliferation, and the biomass obtained used as a protein supplement in animal feed...
September 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901274/revalorizing-lignocellulose-for-the-production-of-natural-pharmaceuticals-and-other-high-value-bioproducts
#10
Heng-Phon Too, Congqiang Zhang
Lignocellulose is the most plentiful, renewable natural resource on earth and has been successfully used for the production of biofuels. A significant challenge is to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendly and efficient processes for the conversion of lignocellulose material into suitable substrates for biotransformation. A number of approaches have been explored to convert lignocellulose into sugars, e.g. combining chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In nature, there are organisms that can biotransform the complex lignocellulose efficiently, such as wood-degrading fungi (brown rot and white rot fungi), bacteria (e...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867763/utilization-of-fishery-processing-by-product-squid-pens-for-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-production-by-paenibacillus-sp
#11
Van Bon Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, San-Lang Wang
The supernatants (the solution part received after centrifugation) of squid pens fermented by four species of Paenibacillus showed potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidases derived from yeast (79-98%) and rats (76-83%). The inhibition of acarbose-a commercial antidiabetic drug, used against yeast and rat α-glucosidases-was tested for comparison; it showed inhibitory activity of 64% and 88%, respectively. Other chitinolytic or proteolytic enzyme-producing bacterial strains were also used to ferment squid pens, but no inhibition activity was detected from the supernatants...
August 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856785/lifestyle-determining-extrachromosomal-replicon-pamv1-and-its-contribution-to-the-carbon-metabolism-of-the-methylotrophic-bacterium-paracoccus-aminovorans-jcm-7685
#12
Jakub Czarnecki, Lukasz Dziewit, Maria Puzyna, Emilia Prochwicz, Agnieszka Tudek, Daniel Wibberg, Andreas Schlüter, Alfred Pühler, Dariusz Bartosik
Plasmids play an important role in the adaptation of bacteria to changeable environmental conditions. As the main vectors of horizontal gene transfer, they can spread genetic information among bacteria, sometimes even across taxonomic boundaries. Some plasmids carry genes involved in the utilization of particular carbon compounds, which can provide a competitive advantage to their hosts in particular ecological niches. Analysis of the multireplicon genome of the soil bacterium P. aminovorans JCM 7685 revealed the presence of an extrachromosomal replicon pAMV1 (185 kb) with a unique structure and properties...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849247/the-unusual-cellulose-utilization-system-of-the-aerobic-soil-bacterium-cytophaga-hutchinsonii
#13
REVIEW
Yongtao Zhu, Mark J McBride
Cellulolytic microorganisms play important roles in global carbon cycling and have evolved diverse strategies to digest cellulose. Some are 'generous,' releasing soluble sugars from cellulose extracellularly to feed both themselves and their neighbors. The gliding soil bacterium Cytophaga hutchinsonii exhibits a more 'selfish' strategy. It digests crystalline cellulose using cell-associated cellulases and releases little soluble sugar outside of the cell. The mechanism of C. hutchinsonii cellulose utilization is still poorly understood...
August 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833462/the-impact-of-pollen-consumption-on-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-digestive-physiology-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#14
Vincent A Ricigliano, William Fitz, Duan C Copeland, Brendon M Mott, Patrick Maes, Amy S Floyd, Arnold Dockstader, Kirk E Anderson
Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) due to its dietary specialization on plant-based nutrition. Secretory glycoside hydrolases (GHs) produced in worker head glands aid in the processing of floral nectar into honey and are expressed in accordance with age-based division of labor. Pollen utilization by the honey bee has been investigated in considerable detail, but little is known about the metabolic fate of indigestible carbohydrates and glycosides in pollen biomass...
October 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829024/tundrisphaera-lichenicola-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-psychrotolerant-representative-of-the-family-isosphaeraceae-from-lichen-dominated-tundra-soils
#15
Irina S Kulichevskaya, Anastasia A Ivanova, Ekaterina N Detkova, W Irene C Rijpstra, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Svetlana N Dedysh
Two strains of aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented bacteria, P12T and P515, were isolated from a lichen-dominated peatland and a forested tundra soil of north-western Siberia, respectively. Cells of these isolates were represented by non-motile spheres that occurred singly or were arranged in short chains and aggregates. While growing on solid media, cells of strains P12T and P515 attached to the surface by means of holdfast-like appendages. These isolates were mildly acidophilic (optimum growth at pH 5.5-6.0), psychrotolerant bacteria, which displayed tolerance of low temperatures (4-15 °C), grew optimally at 15-22 °C and did not grow at temperatures above 28 °C...
September 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814130/identification-and-characterization-of-a-sulfoglycosidase-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-implicated-in-mucin-glycan-utilization
#16
Toshihiko Katoh, Takako Maeshibu, Kei-Ichi Kikkawa, Aina Gotoh, Yusuke Tomabechi, Motoharu Nakamura, Wei-Hsiang Liao, Masanori Yamaguchi, Hisashi Ashida, Kenji Yamamoto, Takane Katayama
Human gut symbiont bifidobacteria possess carbohydrate-degrading enzymes that act on the O-linked glycans of intestinal mucins to utilize those carbohydrates as carbon sources. However, our knowledge about mucin type O-glycan degradation by bifidobacteria remains fragmentary, especially regarding how they decompose sulfated glycans, which are abundantly found in mucin sugar-chains. Here, we examined the abilities of several Bifidobacterium strains to degrade a sulfated glycan substrate and identified a 6-sulfo-β-d-N-acetylglucosaminidase, also termed sulfoglycosidase, encoded by bbhII from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 7004...
October 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790984/acidotolerant-bacteria-and-fungi-as-a-sink-of-methanol-derived-carbon-in-a-deciduous-forest-soil
#17
Mareen Morawe, Henrike Hoeke, Dirk K Wissenbach, Guillaume Lentendu, Tesfaye Wubet, Eileen Kröber, Steffen Kolb
Methanol is an abundant atmospheric volatile organic compound that is released from both living and decaying plant material. In forest and other aerated soils, methanol can be consumed by methanol-utilizing microorganisms that constitute a known terrestrial sink. However, the environmental factors that drive the biodiversity of such methanol-utilizers have been hardly resolved. Soil-derived isolates of methanol-utilizers can also often assimilate multicarbon compounds as alternative substrates. Here, we conducted a comparative DNA stable isotope probing experiment under methylotrophic (only [(13)C1]-methanol was supplemented) and combined substrate conditions ([(12)C1]-methanol and alternative multi-carbon [(13)Cu]-substrates were simultaneously supplemented) to (i) identify methanol-utilizing microorganisms of a deciduous forest soil (European beech dominated temperate forest in Germany), (ii) assess their substrate range in the soil environment, and (iii) evaluate their trophic links to other soil microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771501/obliteration-of-bacterial-growth-and-biofilm-through-ros-generation-by-facilely-synthesized-green-silver-nanoparticles
#18
Shariq Qayyum, Mohammad Oves, Asad U Khan
Mangifera indica inflorescence aqueous extract was utilized for production of green AgNPs. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, TEM, FESEM and particles size analyzer. AgNPs showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8 μg ml-1 and 16 μg ml-1 for Gram negative (K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and Gram positive (S. mutans and S. aureus) strains, respectively which was relatively quite low compared to chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. AgNPs inhibited 80% and 75% biofilms of E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751880/genomic-reconstruction-of-carbohydrate-utilization-capacities-in-microbial-mat-derived-consortia
#19
Semen A Leyn, Yukari Maezato, Margaret F Romine, Dmitry A Rodionov
Two nearly identical unicyanobacterial consortia (UCC) were previously isolated from benthic microbial mats that occur in a heliothermal saline lake in northern Washington State. Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for most heterotrophic bacteria. Since CO2 is the only carbon source provided, the cyanobacterium must provide a source of carbon to the heterotrophs. Available genomic sequences for all members of the UCC provide opportunity to investigate the metabolic routes of carbon transfer between autotroph and heterotrophs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716923/molecular-mechanism-of-environmental-d-xylose-perception-by-a-xylfii-lyts-complex-in-bacteria
#20
Jianxu Li, Chengyuan Wang, Gaohua Yang, Zhe Sun, Hui Guo, Kai Shao, Yang Gu, Weihong Jiang, Peng Zhang
d-xylose, the main building block of plant biomass, is a pentose sugar that can be used by bacteria as a carbon source for bio-based fuel and chemical production through fermentation. In bacteria, the first step for d-xylose metabolism is signal perception at the membrane. We previously identified a three-component system in Firmicutes bacteria comprising a membrane-associated sensor protein (XylFII), a transmembrane histidine kinase (LytS) for periplasmic d-xylose sensing, and a cytoplasmic response regulator (YesN) that activates the transcription of the target ABC transporter xylFGH genes to promote the uptake of d-xylose...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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