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Bacteria sugar utilization

Hafsa Naseem, Muhammad Ahsan, Muhammad A Shahid, Naeem Khan
Drought stress not only effect the population and activities of microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere but also various physiological and biochemical process in plants that is, photosynthesis, respiration, translocation, uptake of ions, carbohydrates, and nutrient metabolism. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their exopolysaccharides (EPS) showed profound effects on plant growth and drought tolerance. Reactions of bacteria to drought stress at various organizational levels are different which depends on intensity of stress, duration, species, and growth stage...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Junqiu Wu, Haishi Qi, Xinning Huang, Dan Wei, Yue Zhao, Zimin Wei, Qian Lu, Ruju Zhang, Tianjiao Tong
The aim of this study is to reveal the roles of MnO2 in Maillard reaction of biotic composting, and to identify its effectiveness in promoting humus formation. Corn straw (CS) and chicken manure (CM) have been chosen to be composted. During CS composting, addition of MnO2 rapidly reduced reducing sugars concentration (decreased by 84.0%) in 5 days and significantly improved humus production by 38.7% compared with treatment without MnO2 . Whereas in CM composting, the promoting effect of MnO2 on humus formation was relatively weak by comparing with the treatment group of CS...
August 20, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ayumi Shikata, Junjarus Sermsathanaswadi, Phakhinee Thianheng, Sirilak Baramee, Chakrit Tachaapaikoon, Rattiya Waeonukul, Patthra Pason, Khanok Ratanakhanokchai, Akihiko Kosugi
The generation of a complex microbial consortium is a promising approach for efficient biomass decomposition. An anaerobic thermophilic alkaliphilic microbial consortium with efficient degradation ability was screened from bovine manure compost using non-pretreated milling corn stover (CS) and rice straw (RS). A stable microbial consortium ISHI-3 with high degradation ability for CS and RS was isolated by the roll tube technique. ISHI-3 comprised Herbivorax saccincola and bacteria belonging to the classes Pelotomaculum, Tepidanaerobacter, and Tepidimicrobium, as determined by DGGE of the PCR-generated 16S rRNA genes...
November 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Madalitso Tsakama, Xiaochi Ma, Yonghuan He, Weihua Chen, Xiaofeng Dai
A mannose-functionalized poly ( p -phenylene ethynylene) was rationally designed to achieve selective detection of bacteria. The polymer was constructed as a signaling unit and was modified by attaching aminoethyl mannose using the carboxylic acid group at the end of the linker. Incubation of E scherichia coli with the polymer yielded fluorescent bacteria aggregates through polyvalent interactions. The utility of the mannose functionalized polymer to detect E. coli expressing functional FimH mannose-specific lectin on their surface was also demonstrated...
August 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rina Fong, Kimberly Kajihara, Matthew Chen, Isidro Hotzel, Sanjeev Mariathasan, Wouter L W Hazenbos, Patrick J Lupardus
Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a growing health threat worldwide. Efforts to identify novel antibodies that target S. aureus cell surface antigens are a promising direction in the development of antibiotics that can halt MRSA infection. We biochemically and structurally characterized three patient-derived MRSA-targeting antibodies that bind to wall teichoic acid (WTA), which is a polyanionic surface glycopolymer. In S. aureus, WTA exists in both α- and β-forms, based on the stereochemistry of attachment of a N-acetylglucosamine residue to the repeating phosphoribitol sugar unit...
August 13, 2018: MAbs
Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Katarzyna Szatraj, Katarzyna Kosiorek
Bacteria can utilize diverse sugars as carbon and energy source, but the regulatory mechanisms directing the choice of the preferred substrate are often poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the role of the YugA protein (now designated GlaR-Galactose-lactose operon Regulatory protein) of the RpiR family as a transcriptional activator of galactose (gal genes) and lactose (lac genes) utilization genes in Lactococcus lactis IL1403. In this bacterium, gal genes forming the Leloir operon are combined with lac genes in a single so-called gal-lac operon...
August 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Anne Galinier
Carbon catabolite repression is an important regulatory mechanism allowing bacteria, but also yeast and fungi, to preferentially use easily metabolizable carbon sources (like glucose) over relatively less favorable carbon sources (for example, organic acids and alcohols). This phenomenon is illustrated by diauxic growth during which bacteria assimilate firstly energy-efficient and rapidly metabolizable sugars then less-favored carbohydrates. A variety of molecular mechanisms are involved in carbon catabolite repression in order to control not only the expression of genes involved in the utilization of alternative carbon sources but also the expression of genes involved in several processes like virulence, competence etc...
June 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Michael A Apicella, Jeremy Coffin, Margaret Ketterer, Deborah M B Post, Christopher J Day, Freda E-C Jen, Michael P Jennings
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important pathogen in individuals of all ages. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of NTHi has evolved a complex structure that can be attributed to a multiplicity of glycosyltransferases, the random switching of glycosyltransferase gene expression via phase variation, and the complex structure of its core region with multiple glycoform branch points. This article adds to that complexity by describing a multifunctional enzyme (LsgB) which optimally functions when the species is grown on a solid surface and which can add either a ketodeoxyoctanoate (KDO) or an N -acetylneuramic acid (Neu5Ac) moiety to a terminal N- acetyllactosamine structure of LOS...
July 31, 2018: MBio
Rachel A North, Weixiao Y Wahlgren, Daniela M Remus, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Sarah A Kessans, Elin Dunevall, Elin Claesson, Tatiana P Soares da Costa, Matthew A Perugini, S Ramaswamy, Jane R Allison, Cesare Indiveri, Rosmarie Friemann, Renwick C J Dobson
Mammalian cell surfaces are decorated with complex glycoconjugates that terminate with negatively charged sialic acids. Commensal and pathogenic bacteria can use host-derived sialic acids for a competitive advantage, but require a functional sialic acid transporter to import the sugar into the cell. This work investigates the sodium sialic acid symporter (SiaT) from Staphylococcus aureus ( Sa SiaT). We demonstrate that Sa SiaT rescues an Escherichia coli strain lacking its endogenous sialic acid transporter when grown on the sialic acids N -acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) or N -glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
James A Budnick, Lauren M Sheehan, Lin Kang, Pawel Michalak, Clayton C Caswell
Elucidating the function of proteins <50 amino acids in length is no small task. Nevertheless, small proteins can play vital roles in the lifestyle of bacteria and influence the virulence of pathogens; thus, the investigation of the small proteome is warranted. Recently, our group identified the Brucella abortus protein VtlR as a transcriptional activator of four genes, one of which is the well-studied small regulatory RNA AbcR2, while the other three genes encode hypothetical small proteins, two of which are highly conserved among the order Rhizobiales This study provides evidence that all three genes encode authentic small proteins and that all three are highly expressed under oxidative stress, low-pH, and stationary-phase growth conditions...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yixing Zhang, Makoto Yoshida, Praveen V Vadlani
D-lactic acid is a versatile and important industrial chemical that can be applied in the synthesis of thermal-resistant poly-lactic acid. Biosynthesis of D-lactic acid can be achieved by a variety of microorganisms, including lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and fungi; however, the final product yield, optical purity, and the utilization of both glucose and xylose are restricted. Consequently, engineered microbial systems are essential to attain high titer, productivity, and complete utilization of sugars. Herein, we critically evaluate the promising wild-type microorganisms, as well as genetically modified microorganisms to produce enantiomerically pure D-lactic acid, particularly from renewable lignocellulosic biomass...
August 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Tory A Hendry, Lindsay L Freed, Dana Fader, Danté Fenolio, Tracey T Sutton, Jose V Lopez
Diverse marine fish and squid form symbiotic associations with extracellular bioluminescent bacteria. These symbionts are typically free-living bacteria with large genomes, but one known lineage of symbionts has undergone genomic reduction and evolution of host dependence. It is not known why distinct evolutionary trajectories have occurred among different luminous symbionts, and not all known lineages previously had genome sequences available. In order to better understand patterns of evolution across diverse bioluminescent symbionts, we de novo sequenced the genomes of bacteria from a poorly studied interaction, the extracellular symbionts from the "lures" of deep-sea ceratioid anglerfishes...
June 26, 2018: MBio
Xuan Qin, Xin Wang
Nucleotides and their sugar conjugates are fundamental molecules in life, participating in processes of DNA/RNA composition, cell wall build-up, glycosylation reactions, and signal conduction. Therefore, the quantification of these compounds in biological samples significantly benefits the understanding of their functions. However, nucleotides and nucleotide sugars are extremely hydrophilic, causing bad retention and peak symmetry on regular C18 chromatographic columns. To solve this problem, ion-pair (IP) chromatography, ion-exchange (IE) chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were applied, of which differentiated mechanisms were utilized to increase the retention of the analytes on the stationary phases...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Xin Fang, Jonathan M Monk, Nathan Mih, Bin Du, Anand V Sastry, Erol Kavvas, Yara Seif, Larry Smarr, Bernhard O Palsson
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is considered a leading bacterial trigger of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). E. coli isolates from IBD patients primarily belong to phylogroup B2. Previous studies have focused on broad comparative genomic analysis of E. coli B2 isolates, and identified virulence factors that allow B2 strains to reside within human intestinal mucosa. Metabolic capabilities of E. coli strains have been shown to be related to their colonization site, but remain unexplored in IBD-associated strains...
June 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Rimi Biswas, Angana Sarkar
High arsenic groundwater contamination causes serious health risks in many developing countries, particularly in India and Bangladesh. The arsenic fluxes in aquifers are primarily controlled by bacterial populations through biogeochemical cycle. In this present study, two gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from shallow aquifers of Bhojpur district in Bihar during the early winter season, able to withstand arsenite (As3+ ) concentration upto 70 mM and 1000 mM of arsenate (As5+ ) concentration...
June 11, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
John Justo Ambuchi, Zhaohan Zhang, Yue Dong, Linlin Huang, Yujie Feng
The quest to understand and subsequently improve the role played by bacteria and archaea in the degradation of organic matter both in natural and engineered anaerobic ecosystems has intensified the utilization of nanoparticles. Microbial communities are known to syntrophically cooperate during the anaerobic conversion of substrates into methane gas via the direct exchange of electrons. In this study, the role of hematite (Fe2 O3 -750 mg/L) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-1500 mg/L) during the degradation of beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) in a batch experiment was investigated...
August 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Elavarasan Tamilmani, Rohit Radhakrishnan, K Sankaran
Our investigations on extracellular biochemical events to find readily and sensitively detectable/measurable molecular targets for developing easier, simpler, and quicker diagnostic methods and tools for bacterial pathogens led to the observation that bacteria grown in the presence of glucose produced a compound capable of quenching fluorescein. Under the experimental conditions, among various sugars, glucose was found to induce maximum amount of the quencher when Escherichia coli was grown in presence of 50 mM glucose in rarified LB...
August 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini
Ethanol bio-production in Brazil has some unique characteristics that inevitably lead to bacterial contamination, which results in the production of organic acids and biofilms and flocculation that impair the fermentation yield by affecting yeast viability and diverting sugars to metabolites other than ethanol. The ethanol-producing units commonly give an acid treatment to the cells after each fermentative cycle to decrease the bacterial number, which is not always effective. An alternative strategy must be employed to avoid bacterial multiplication but must be compatible with economic, health and environmental aspects...
May 25, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
André S Santos, Rommel T Ramos, Artur Silva, Raphael Hirata, Ana L Mattos-Guaraldi, Roberto Meyer, Vasco Azevedo, Liza Felicori, Luis G C Pacheco
Biochemical tests are traditionally used for bacterial identification at the species level in clinical microbiology laboratories. While biochemical profiles are generally efficient for the identification of the most important corynebacterial pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae, their ability to differentiate between biovars of this bacterium is still controversial. Besides, the unambiguous identification of emerging human pathogenic species of the genus Corynebacterium may be hampered by highly variable biochemical profiles commonly reported for these species, including Corynebacterium striatum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Corynebacterium xerosis...
May 11, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Lin Zeng, Lulu Chen, Robert A Burne
Bacteria prioritize sugar metabolism via carbohydrate catabolite repression, which regulates global gene expression to optimize the catabolism of preferred substrates. Here, we report an unusual long-term memory effect in certain Streptococcus mutans strains that alters adaptation to growth on lactose after prior exposure to glucose or fructose. In strain GS-5, cells that were first cultured on fructose and then transferred to lactose displayed an exceptionally long lag (>11 h) and slower growth compared to cells first cultured on glucose or cellobiose, which displayed a reduction in lag phase by as much as 10 h...
July 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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