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Metabolism and epigenetic

Liam J Hawkins, Rasha Al-Attar, Kenneth B Storey
Every cell in an individual has largely the same genomic sequence and yet cells in different tissues can present widely different phenotypes. This variation arises because each cell expresses a specific subset of genomic instructions. Control over which instructions, or genes, are expressed is largely controlled by transcriptional regulatory pathways. Each cell must assimilate a huge amount of environmental input, and thus it is of no surprise that transcription is regulated by many intertwining mechanisms...
2018: PeerJ
A He, Y Ning, Y Wen, Y Cai, K Xu, Y Cai, J Han, L Liu, Y Du, X Liang, P Li, Q Fan, J Hao, X Wang, X Guo, T Ma, F Zhang
Aim: Osteoarthritis (OA) is caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of genes and are likely to regulate the OA transcriptome. We performed integrative genomic analyses to define methylation-gene expression relationships in osteoarthritic cartilage. Patients and Methods: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of articular cartilage from five patients with OA of the knee and five healthy controls was conducted using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, California)...
May 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Lionel B Ivashkiv
IFNγ is a cytokine with important roles in tissue homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses and tumour immunosurveillance. Signalling by the IFNγ receptor activates the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway to induce the expression of classical interferon-stimulated genes that have key immune effector functions. This Review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional, chromatin-based and metabolic mechanisms that underlie IFNγ-mediated polarization of macrophages to an 'M1-like' state, which is characterized by increased pro-inflammatory activity and macrophage resistance to tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory factors...
June 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Maor Matzrafi
Pesticide efficacy is strongly associated with environmental conditions. Conditional resistance defined as a reduction in pesticide sensitivity under changed environmental conditions has been widely detected under climatic changes such as elevated temperatures and CO2 enrichment. Given the effects of environmental conditions on pesticide sensitivity, many of the putative resistance reports made by farmers may be due to pesticide application followed by non-optimal environmental conditions rather than the evolution of resistance...
June 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
Zeyang Ma, Claudia Castillo-González, Zhiye Wang, Di Sun, Xiaomei Hu, Xuefeng Shen, Magdalena E Potok, Xiuren Zhang
Serrate (SE) is a key component in RNA metabolism. Little is known about whether and how it can regulate epigenetic silencing. Here, we report histone methyltransferases ATXR5 and ATXR6 (ATXR5/6) as novel partners of SE. ATXR5/6 deposit histone 3 lysine 27 monomethylation (H3K27me1) to promote heterochromatin formation, repress transposable elements (TEs), and control genome stability in Arabidopsis. SE binds to ATXR5/6-regulated TE loci and promotes H3K27me1 accumulation in these regions. Furthermore, SE directly enhances ATXR5 enzymatic activity in vitro...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Cell
Xu Peng, Qiongyi Zhang, Cheng Liao, Weiping Han, Feng Xu
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are spreading at a fast pace throughout the world; thus, effective therapeutic approaches are necessary to combat this epidemic. Obesity develops when there is a greater caloric intake than energy expenditure. Promoting energy expenditure has recently attracted much attention as a promising approach for the management of body weight. Thermogenic adipocytes are capable of burning fat to dissipate chemical energy into heat, thereby enhancing energy expenditure. After the recent re-discovery of thermogenic adipocytes in adult humans, much effort has focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms, especially the epigenetic mechanisms, which regulate thermogenic adipocyte development and function...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A Silva-Palacios, M Ostolga-Chavarría, C Zazueta, M Königsberg
Increase in life-span is commonly related with age-related diseases and with gradual loss of genomic, proteomic and metabolic integrity. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-p45 derived factor 2) controls the expression of genes whose products include antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters and numerous cytoprotective proteins. Several experimental approaches have evaluated the potential regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 to enhance the expression of genes that contend against accumulative oxidative stress and promote healthy aging...
June 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Sunmi Seok, Young-Chae Kim, Sangwon Byun, Sunge Choi, Zhen Xiao, Naoki Iwamori, Yang Zhang, Chaochen Wang, Jian Ma, Kai Ge, Byron Kemper, Jongsook Kim Kemper
Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) histone demethylase epigenetically regulates development and differentiation, immunity, and tumorigenesis by demethylating a gene repression histone mark, H3K27-me3, but a role for JMJD3 in metabolic regulation has not been described. SIRT1 deacetylase maintains energy balance during fasting by directly activating both hepatic gluconeogenic and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation genes, but the underlying epigenetic and gene-specific mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, JMJD3 was identified unexpectedly as a gene-specific transcriptional partner of SIRT1 and epigenetically activated mitochondrial β-oxidation, but not gluconeogenic, genes during fasting...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ilaria Panzeri, John Andrew Pospisilik
BACKGROUND: The alarming rise of obesity and its associated comorbidities represents a medical burden and a major global health and economic issue. Understanding etiological mechanisms underpinning susceptibility and therapeutic response is of primary importance. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic diseases are complex trait disorders with only partial genetic heritability, indicating important roles for environmental programing and epigenetic effects. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: We will highlight some of the reasons for the scarce predictability of metabolic diseases...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Jyotirmaya Behera, Akash K George, Michael J Voor, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a novel gasotransmitter produced endogenously in mammalian cells, which works by mediating diverse physiological functions. An imbalance in H2 S metabolism is associated with defective bone homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether H2 S plays any epigenetic role in bone loss induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). We demonstrate that diet-induced HHcy, a mouse model of metabolite induced osteoporosis, alters homocysteine metabolism by decreasing plasma levels of H2 S. Treatment with NaHS (H2 S donor), normalizes the plasma level of H2 S and further alleviates HHcy induced trabecular bone loss and mechanical strength...
June 13, 2018: Bone
Nisha Govender, Siju Senan, Zeti-Azura Mohamed-Hussein, Ratnam Wickneswari
The plant shoot system consists of reproductive organs such as inflorescences, buds and fruits, and the vegetative leaves and stems. In this study, the reproductive part of the Jatropha curcas shoot system, which includes the aerial shoots, shoots bearing the inflorescence and inflorescence were investigated in regard to gene-to-gene interactions underpinning yield-related biological processes. An RNA-seq based sequencing of shoot tissues performed on an Illumina HiSeq. 2500 platform generated 18 transcriptomes...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu-Chan Chang, Yi-Chieh Yang, Chia-Ping Tien, Chih-Jen Yang, Michael Hsiao
The aldolase family members involved in metabolism and glycolysis are present in three isoforms: ALDOA, ALDOB, and ALDOC. Aldolases are differentially expressed in human tissues, and aberrant expression has been observed in several human diseases and cancer types. However, non-enzymatic functions through protein-protein interactions or epigenetic modifications have been reported in recent years. Using high-throughput screening and -omics database integration, aldolase has been validated as an independent clinical prognostic marker of human cancers...
June 12, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Erin L Macartney, Angela J Crean, Russell Bonduriansky
It is now recognized that post-copulatory traits, such as sperm and ejaculate production can impose metabolic costs, and such traits are therefore expected to exhibit condition-dependent expression, whereby, low condition individuals experience a greater marginal cost of investment compared to high condition individuals. Ejaculates are especially costly in species where males invest in offspring quality through nutrient-rich spermatophores or other seminal nuptial gifts. However, recent evidence shows that, in species where males do not provision females or offspring, males can still influence offspring development through paternal effects mediated by epigenetic factors, such as non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and chromatin structure...
June 14, 2018: Heredity
Chao-Qiang Lai, Caren E Smith, Laurence D Parnell, Yu-Chi Lee, Dolores Corella, Paul Hopkins, Bertha A Hidalgo, Stella Aslibekyan, Michael A Province, Devin Absher, Donna K Arnett, Katherine L Tucker, Jose M Ordovas
Background: The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to implement an integrative approach to characterize the molecular basis of this interaction. Design: We conducted an epigenome-wide scan on 80 participants carrying either the rs5082 CC or TT genotypes and consuming either a low-SFA (<22 g/d) or high-SFA diet (≥22 g/d), matched for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes status in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS)...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kathryn Miranda, Xiaoming Yang, Marpe Bam, E Angela Murphy, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a pandemic disorder that is characterized by accumulation of adipose tissue and chronic low-grade inflammation that is driven primarily by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). While ATM polarization from pro-(M1) to anti-(M2) inflammatory phenotype influences insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure, the mechanisms of such a switch are unclear. In the current study, we identified epigenetic pathways including microRNAs (miR) in ATMs that regulate obesity-induced inflammation...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Fidele Tugizimana, Msizi I Mhlongo, Lizelle A Piater, Ian A Dubery
A new era of plant biochemistry at the systems level is emerging, providing detailed descriptions of biochemical phenomena at the cellular and organismal level. This new era is marked by the advent of metabolomics&mdash;the qualitative and quantitative investigation of the entire metabolome (in a dynamic equilibrium) of a biological system. This field has developed as an indispensable methodological approach to study cellular biochemistry at a global level. For protection and survival in a constantly-changing environment, plants rely on a complex and multi-layered innate immune system...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amel Dudakovic, Emily Camilleri, Christopher R Paradise, Rebekah M Samsonraj, Martina Gluscevic, Carlo Alberto Paggi, Dana L Begun, Farzaneh Khani, Oksana Pichurin, Farah S Ahmed, Ranya Elsayed, Mohammed Elsalanty, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Marcel Karperien, Scott M Riester, Roman Thaler, Jennifer J Westendorf, Andre J van Wijnen
Epigenetic mechanisms control skeletal development and osteoblast differentiation. Pharmacological inhibition of the histone 3 Lys-27 (H3K27) methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) in wildtype mice enhances osteogenesis and stimulates bone formation. However, conditional genetic loss of Ezh2 early in the mesenchymal lineage (i.e. through excision via Prrx1 promoter-driven Cre) causes skeletal abnormalities due to patterning defects. Here, we addressed the key question whether Ezh2 controls osteoblastogenesis at later developmental stages beyond patterning...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Edyta Reszka
Circadian rhythm alterations resulting in disturbed sleep and disturbed melatonin secretion are flagship features of depression. Melatonin, known as a hormone of darkness, is secreted by the pineal gland located near to the center of the brain between the two hemispheres. Melatonin has an antidepressant effect by maintaining the body's circadian rhythm, by regulating the pattern of expression of the clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and modifying the key genes of serotoninergic neurotransmission that are linked with a depressive mood...
June 13, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Gabriele G Schiattarella, Joseph A Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Paulina López, Andrea Castro, Martha Flórez, Karen Miranda, Pilar Aranda, Cristina Sánchez-González, Juan Llopis, Miguel Arredondo
Obesity is characterized by mild chronic inflammation that is linked with impaired iron homeostasis. Studies in human and murine show that there is a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes in obesity; however, there is little information on changes in the expression of microRNAs related to inflammation and iron homeostasis in spermatozoa from obese subjects. The present study investigated the expression of microRNAs related to inflammation (miR-21 y miR-155) and iron nutrition (miR-122 and miR-200b) in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and spermatozoa from normozoospermic controls (Cn; n = 17; BMI: 24...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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