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Metabolism and epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457784/hiv-latency-is-reversed-by-acss2-driven-histone-crotonylation
#1
Guochun Jiang, Don Nguyen, Nancie M Archin, Steven A Yukl, Gema Méndez-Lagares, Yuyang Tang, Maher M Elsheikh, George R Thompson, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, David M Margolis, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Eradication of HIV-1 (HIV) is hindered by stable viral reservoirs. Viral latency is epigenetically regulated. While the effects of histone acetylation and methylation at the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) have been described, our knowledge of the proviral epigenetic landscape is incomplete. We report that a previously unrecognized epigenetic modification of the HIV LTR, histone crotonylation, is a regulator of HIV latency. Reactivation of latent HIV was achieved following the induction of histone crotonylation through increased expression of the crotonyl-CoA-producing enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456764/integrative-analysis-of-the-epigenetic-basis-of-muscle-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma
#2
Thomas Sanford, Maxwell V Meng, Reema Railkar, Piyush K Agarwal, Sima P Porten
Background: Elucidation of epigenetic alterations in bladder cancer will lead to further understanding of the biology of the disease and hopefully improved therapies. Our aim was to perform an integrative epigenetic analysis of invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder to identify the epigenetic abnormalities involved in the development and progression of this cancer. Methods: Pre-processed methylation data and RNA-seq data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and processed using the R package TCGA-Assembler...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456180/ras-regulates-the-transition-from-naive-to-primed-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Anna Altshuler, Mila Verbuk, Swarnabh Bhattacharya, Ifat Abramovich, Roni Haklai, Jacob H Hanna, Yoel Kloog, Eyal Gottlieb, Ruby Shalom-Feuerstein
The transition from naive to primed state of pluripotent stem cells is hallmarked by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, and changes in the epigenetic landscape. Since these changes are also seen as putative hallmarks of neoplastic cell transformation, we hypothesized that oncogenic pathways may be involved in this process. We report that the activity of RAS is repressed in the naive state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and that all three RAS isoforms are significantly activated upon early differentiation induced by LIF withdrawal, embryoid body formation, or transition to the primed state...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455645/pyruvate-kinase-m2-fuels-multiple-aspects-of-cancer-cells-from-cellular-metabolism-transcriptional-regulation-to-extracellular-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Ming-Chuan Hsu, Wen-Chun Hung
Originally identified as a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP in the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase M2-type (PKM2) has been shown to exhibit novel biological activities in the nucleus and outside the cells. Although cell-based studies reveal new non-canonical functions of PKM2 in gene transcription, epigenetic modulation and cell cycle progression, the importance of these non-canonical functions in PKM2-mediated tumorigenesis is still under debate because studies in genetically modified mice do not consistently echo the findings observed in cultured cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455143/the-birth-and-death-of-effectors-in-rapidly-evolving-filamentous-pathogen-genomes
#5
REVIEW
Simone Fouché, Clémence Plissonneau, Daniel Croll
Plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes are major risks to food security due to their evolutionary success in overcoming plant defences. Pathogens produce effectors to interfere with host defences and metabolism. These effectors are often encoded in rapidly evolving compartments of the genome. We review how effector genes emerged and were lost in pathogen genomes drawing on the links between effector evolution and chromosomal rearrangements. Some new effectors entered pathogen genomes via horizontal transfer or introgression...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#6
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
February 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448287/-significance-of-homocysteine-in-glaucoma
#7
Anselm Jünemann, Robert Rejdak, Bettina Hohberger
Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma as well as secondary open-angle glaucoma in the pseudoexfoliation syndrome. This paper reviews the literature on the association between homocysteine metabolism and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma...
February 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445380/the-role-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-cancer-development-diagnostics-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Lilla Hornyák, Nikoletta Dobos, Gábor Koncz, Zsolt Karányi, Dénes Páll, Zoltán Szabó, Gábor Halmos, Lóránt Székvölgyi
Tumors are composed of abnormally transformed cell types and tissues that differ from normal tissues in their genetic and epigenetic makeup, metabolism, and immunology. Molecular compounds that modulate the immune response against neoplasms offer promising new strategies to combat cancer. Inhibitors targeting the indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 enzyme (IDO1) represent one of the most potent therapeutic opportunities to inhibit tumor growth. Herein, we assess the biochemical role of IDO1 in tumor metabolism and immune surveillance, and review current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are intended to increase the effectiveness of immunotherapies against highly aggressive and difficult-to-treat IDO-expressing cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445084/the-carnitine-system-and-cancer-metabolic-plasticity
#9
REVIEW
Melone Mariarosa Anna Beatrice, Valentino Anna, Margarucci Sabrina, Galderisi Umberto, Giordano Antonio, Peluso Gianfranco
Metabolic flexibility describes the ability of cells to respond or adapt its metabolism to support and enable rapid proliferation, continuous growth, and survival in hostile conditions. This dynamic character of the cellular metabolic network appears enhanced in cancer cells, in order to increase the adaptive phenotype and to maintain both viability and uncontrolled proliferation. Cancer cells can reprogram their metabolism to satisfy the energy as well as the biosynthetic intermediate request and to preserve their integrity from the harsh and hypoxic environment...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444131/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-improvements-for-the-processing-of-small-frozen-pieces-of-adipose-tissue
#10
Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Francisco Tinahones, Lluis Fajas, María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Fernando Cardona
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has gained importance to identify links between the genome and the proteome. Adipose tissue has emerged as an active tissue, which secretes a wide range of molecules that have been related to metabolic and obesity-related disorders, such as diabetes, cardiovascular failure, metabolic syndrome, or cancer. In turn, epigenetics has raised the importance in discerning the possible relationship between metabolic disorders, lifestyle and environment. However, ChIP application in human adipose tissue is limited by several factors, such as sample size, frozen sample availability, high lipid content and cellular composition of the tissue...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441069/interleukin-6-and-interferon-%C3%AE-signaling-via-jak1-stat-differentially-regulate-oncolytic-versus-cytoprotective-antiviral-states
#11
Oded Danziger, Tal Pupko, Eran Bacharach, Marcelo Ehrlich
Malignancy-induced alterations to cytokine signaling in tumor cells differentially regulate their interactions with the immune system and oncolytic viruses. The abundance of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment suggests that such signaling plays key roles in tumor development and therapy efficacy. The JAK-STAT axis transduces signals of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferons (IFNs), mediates antiviral responses, and is frequently altered in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, how activation of JAK-STAT signaling with different cytokines regulates interactions between oncolytic viruses and PCa cells is not known...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438699/dna-methylation-patterns-separate-senescence-from-transformation-potential-and-indicate-cancer-risk
#12
Wenbing Xie, Ioannis Kagiampakis, Lixia Pan, Yang W Zhang, Lauren Murphy, Yong Tao, Xiangqian Kong, Byunghak Kang, Limin Xia, Filipe L F Carvalho, Subhojit Sen, Ray-Whay Chiu Yen, Cynthia A Zahnow, Nita Ahuja, Stephen B Baylin, Hariharan Easwaran
Overall shared DNA methylation patterns between senescence (Sen) and cancers have led to the model that tumor-promoting epigenetic patterns arise through senescence. We show that transformation-associated methylation changes arise stochastically and independently of programmatic changes during senescence. Promoter hypermethylation events in transformation involve primarily pro-survival and developmental genes, similarly modified in primary tumors. Senescence-associated hypermethylation mainly involves metabolic regulators and appears early in proliferating "near-senescent" cells, which can be immortalized but are refractory to transformation...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438472/klinefelter-syndrome-integrating-genetics-neuropsychology-and-endocrinology
#13
Claus H Gravholt, Simon Chang, Mikkel Wallentin, Jens Fedder, Philip Moore, Anne Skakkebæk
Although first identified over 70 years ago, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) continue to pose significant diagnostic challenges, as many patients are still misdiagnosed, or remain undiagnosed. In fact, as few as 25% of KS patients are accurately diagnosed, and most of these diagnoses are not made until adulthood. Classic characteristics of KS include small testes, infertility, hypergonadothropic hypogonadism, and cognitive impairment. However, the pathophysiology behind KS is not well understood, although genetic effects are also thought to play a role...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429624/macrophages-and-lipid-metabolism
#14
Anneleen Remmerie, Charlotte L Scott
Distinct macrophage populations throughout the body display highly heterogeneous transcriptional and epigenetic programs. Recent research has highlighted that these profiles enable the different macrophage populations to perform distinct functions as required in their tissue of residence, in addition to the prototypical macrophage functions such as in innate immunity. These 'extra' tissue-specific functions have been termed accessory functions. One such putative accessory function is lipid metabolism, with macrophages in the lung and liver in particular being associated with this function...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429127/tissue-and-strain-specific-effects-of-a-genotoxic-carcinogen-1-3-butadiene-on-chromatin-and-transcription
#15
Jennifer W Israel, Grace A Chappell, Jeremy M Simon, Sebastian Pott, Alexias Safi, Lauren Lewis, Paul Cotney, Hala S Boulos, Wanda Bodnar, Jason D Lieb, Gregory E Crawford, Terrence S Furey, Ivan Rusyn
Epigenetic effects of environmental chemicals are under intense investigation to fill existing knowledge gaps between environmental/occupational exposures and adverse health outcomes. Chromatin accessibility is one prominent mechanism of epigenetic control of transcription, and understanding of the chemical effects on both could inform the causal role of epigenetic alterations in disease mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that baseline variability in chromatin organization and transcription profiles among various tissues and mouse strains influence the outcome of exposure to the DNA damaging chemical 1,3-butadiene...
February 10, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427701/statins-differentially-modulate-micrornas-expression-in-peripheral-cells-of-hyperlipidemic-subjects-a-pilot-study
#16
Tomás Zambrano, Rosario D C Hirata, Mario H Hirata, Álvaro Cerda, Luis A Salazar
AIM: Although statins are considered a cornerstone for the treatment of high cholesterol levels due to their powerful cholesterol-lowering effects, response to drug administration is still one of the main pitfalls of statin treatment. So far, the reasons underlying this undesired outcome are still poorly understood, but recently, various studies have suggested that miRNAs may be involved. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the effect of short-term low-dose treatment with 2 statins on miRNAs expression in patients with hypercholesterolemia...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426121/the-impact-of-human-activities-and-lifestyles-on-the-interlinked-microbiota-and-health-of-humans-and-of-ecosystems
#17
REVIEW
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425374/an-epigenome-wide-association-study-of-dna-methylation-and-an-integrated-genetic-and-epigenetic-approach-for-narcolepsy
#18
Mihoko Shimada, Taku Miyagawa, Hiromi Toyoda, Katsushi Tokunaga, Makoto Honda
Narcolepsy with cataplexy, which is a hypersomnia characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Several genetic factors including HLA-DQB1*06:02 have been identified, however the disease etiology is still unclear. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Here we examined DNA methylation profiles of blood samples from narcolepsy and healthy control individuals, and performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to investigate methylation loci associated with narcolepsy...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422017/metabolomic-profiling-identifies-distinct-phenotypes-for-ass1-positive-and-negative-gbm
#19
Lina Mörén, Richard Perryman, Tim Crook, Julia K Langer, Kevin Oneill, Nelofer Syed, Henrik Antti
BACKGROUND: Tumour cells have a high demand for arginine. However, a subset of glioblastomas has a defect in the arginine biosynthetic pathway due to epigenetic silencing of the rate limiting enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1). These tumours are auxotrophic for arginine and susceptible to the arginine degrading enzyme, pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20). Moreover, ASS1 deficient GBM have a worse prognosis compared to ASS1 positive tumours. Since altered tumour metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer we were interested to determine if these two subtypes exhibited different metabolic profiles that could allow for their non-invasive detection as well as unveil additional novel therapeutic opportunities...
February 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416602/the-prognostic-significance-of-nuclear-expression-of-phf2-and-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-consideration-of-adipogenic-metabolic-evolution
#20
Jeong Hwan Park, Minsun Jung, Kyung Chul Moon
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and it has an unfavourable prognosis compared to other RCCs. Plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2) and CCATT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) play a role in the epigenetic regulation of adipogenesis, and their tumour suppressive functions have been elucidated. This study aimed to assess the nuclear expression of PHF2 and C/EBPα in ccRCC and to evaluate their role in pathogenesis and prognosis. The nuclear expression of PHF2 and C/EBPα was evaluated in 344 cases of ccRCC by immunohistochemistry, and adipogenesis was assessed based on cytoplasmic features...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
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