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Metabolism and epigenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221988/modulations-of-keap1-nrf2-signaling-axis-by-tiia-ameliorated-the-oxidative-stress-induced-myocardial-apoptosis
#1
Shi-Hai Yan, Ning-Wei Zhao, Zhi-Rong Geng, Jia-Yin Shen, Fu-Ming Liu, Dong Yan, Jie Zhou, Chao Nie, Cheng-Cai Huang, Zhu-Yuan Fang
Mounting evidence has strongly implicated oxidative stress in the development of cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Quantitative cardiac proteomics data revealed that pressure load by TAC resulted in a significant decline in mitochondrial metabolic activity, where TIIA (Tanshinone IIA sulfonate) treatment reversed it in vivo, which might be mediated by Nrf2. In NRVMs, TIIA treatment ameliorated H2O2-induced caspase-3/9 activations through the suppression of p38 and mTOR signaling pathways, where caspase-mediated cleavage of YY1 and PARP resulted in the defects in mitochondrial biogenesis and DNA repair, and this event finally led to cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
December 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220291/emerging-targeted-and-immune-based-therapies-in-sarcoma
#2
Seth M Pollack, Matthew Ingham, Matthew B Spraker, Gary K Schwartz
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin, and more than 50 subtypes are defined. For most sarcomas, locally advanced or unresectable disease is still treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, our understanding of subtype-specific cancer biology has expanded, and it has revealed distinct molecular alterations responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These findings have motivated the development of targeted therapies that are being evaluated in subtype-specific or biomarker-driven clinical trials...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220106/chemoprevention-by-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-targeting-on-epigenetic-regulation
#3
REVIEW
Pei-Sheng Lee, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating normal cellular functions and play an important role during the disease developmental stages. However, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms may lead to pathological consequences such as cancer, neurological disorders, bone and skeletal diseases, cardiovascular dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. The molecular mechanisms of epigenetic modification include DNA methylation, histone modification (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Unlike genetic modifications, epigenetic states of genes are reversible and can be altered by certain intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
December 8, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218931/-research-progress-in-phytoestrogens-of-traditional-chinese-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Yuan Zhao, Hong-Xia Zheng, Ying Xu, Na Lin
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds, which have a similarity in structure with human endogenous estrogen 17-β-estradiol. Structural likeness enables phytoestrogens to interact with estrogen receptors, not simply mimicking the effects of human steroidal estrogen but also exhibiting similar and divergent actions. The global literature relating to phytoestrogen in recent years was systematically summarized in this paper. Chemical compositions of phytoestrogens were mainly flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, terpenoids, steroids, etc...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212764/aberrant-dna-methylation-of-pregnane-x-receptor-underlies-metabolic-gene-alterations-in-the-diabetic-kidney
#5
Atsushi Watanabe, Takeshi Marumo, Wakako Kawarazaki, Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Nobuhiro Ayuzawa, Kohei Ueda, Daigoro Hirohama, Toshiya Tanaka, Shintaro Yagi, Satoshi Ota, Genta Nagae, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hiroo Kumagai, Toshiro Fujita
Epigenetic abnormalities have been suggested to mediate metabolic memory observed in diabetic complications. We have shown that epigenetic alterations may induce persistent phenotypic changes in the proximal tubules of the diabetic kidneys. In this study, we show that pregnane X receptor (PXR), a xenobiotic nuclear receptor, is epigenetically altered and upregulated, and may have a possible function in the diabetic kidney. PXR has been shown to play a critical role in metabolic changes in obesity and diabetes; however, its distribution and function in the kidney are unknown...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212308/metabolic-signaling-to-epigenetic-alterations-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Jung-Ae Kim, Young Il Yeom
Cancer cells reprogram cellular metabolism to support the malignant features of tumors, such as rapid growth and proliferation. The cancer promoting effects of metabolic reprogramming are found in many aspects: generating additional energy, providing more anabolic molecules for biosynthesis, and rebalancing cellular redox states in cancer cells. Metabolic pathways are considered the pipelines to supply metabolic cofactors of epigenetic modifiers. In this regard, cancer metabolism, whereby cellular metabolite levels are greatly altered compared to normal levels, is closely associated with cancer epigenetics, which is implicated in many stages of tumorigenesis...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212260/bioenergetics-of-acquired-cisplatin-resistant-h1299-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-p31-mesothelioma-cells
#7
Fintan Geoghegan, Robert J Buckland, Eric T Rogers, Karima Khalifa, Emma B O'Connor, Mary F Rooney, Parviz Behnam-Motlagh, Torbjörn K Nilsson, Kjell Grankvist, Richard K Porter
Acquired cisplatin resistance is a common feature of tumours following cancer treatment with cisplatin and also of non-small cell lung cancer (H1299) and mesothelioma (P31) cell lines exposed to cisplatin. To elucidate the cellular basis of acquired cisplatin resistance, a comprehensive bioenergetic analysis was undertaken. We demonstrate that cellular oxygen consumption was significantly decreased in cisplatin resistant cells and that the reduction was primarily due to reduced mitochondrial activity as a result of reduced mitochondrial abundance...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211860/changes-in-the-epigenome-and-transcriptome-of-the-poplar-shoot-apical-meristem-in-response-to-water-availability-affect-preferentially-hormone-pathways
#8
Clément Lafon-Placette, Anne-Laure Le Gac, Didier Chauveau, Vincent Segura, Alain Delaunay, Marie-Claude Lesage-Descauses, Irène Hummel, David Cohen, Béline Jesson, Didier Le Thiec, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Franck Brignolas, Stéphane Maury
The adaptive capacity of long-lived organisms such as trees to the predicted climate changes, including severe and successive drought episodes, will depend on the presence of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity. Here, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in phenotypic plasticity toward soil water availability was examined in Populus×euramericana. This work aimed at characterizing (i) the transcriptome plasticity, (ii) the genome-wide plasticity of DNA methylation, and (iii) the function of genes affected by a drought-rewatering cycle in the shoot apical meristem...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210999/adverse-intrauterine-environment-and-cardiac-mirna-expression
#9
REVIEW
Mitchell C Lock, Kimberley J Botting, Ross L Tellam, Doug Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207533/molecular-and-genetic-determinants-of-glioma-cell-invasion
#10
REVIEW
Kenta Masui, Yoichiro Kato, Tatsuo Sawada, Paul S Mischel, Noriyuki Shibata
A diffusely invasive nature is a major obstacle in treating a malignant brain tumor, "diffuse glioma", which prevents neurooncologists from surgically removing the tumor cells even in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. Recently updated classification of diffuse gliomas based on distinct genetic and epigenetic features has culminated in a multilayered diagnostic approach to combine histologic phenotypes and molecular genotypes in an integrated diagnosis. However, it is still a work in progress to decipher how the genetic aberrations contribute to the aggressive nature of gliomas including their highly invasive capacity...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203518/dna-methylation-in-epigenetic-inheritance-of-metabolic-diseases-through-the-male-germ-line
#11
Louise Rh Illum, Stine T Bak, Sten Lund, Anders Lade Nielsen
The global rise in metabolic diseases can be attributed to a complex interplay between biology, behavior and environmental factors. This article reviews the current literature concerning DNA methylation-based epigenetic inheritance (intergenerational and transgenerational) of metabolic diseases through the male germ line. Included are a presentation of the basic principles for DNA methylation in developmental programming, and a description of windows of susceptibility for the inheritance of environmentally induced aberrations in DNA methylation and their associated metabolic disease phenotypes...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203141/interacting-cancer-machineries-cell-signaling-lipid-metabolism-and-epigenetics
#12
REVIEW
Thomas W Grunt
Cancer-specific perturbations of signaling, metabolism, and epigenetics can be a cause and/or consequence of malignant transformation. Evidence indicates that these regulatory systems interact with each other to form highly flexible and robust cybernetic networks that promote malignant growth and confer treatment resistance. Deciphering these plexuses using holistic approaches known from systems biology can be instructive for the future design of novel anticancer strategies. In this review, I discuss novel findings elucidating the multiple molecular interdependence among cancer-specific signaling, cell metabolism, and epigenetics to provide an insightful understanding of how major cancer machineries interact with each other during cancer development and progression, and how this knowledge may be used for future co-targeting strategies...
December 1, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202474/adhfe1-is-a-breast-cancer-oncogene-and-induces-metabolic-reprogramming
#13
Prachi Mishra, Wei Tang, Vasanta Putluri, Tiffany H Dorsey, Feng Jin, Fang Wang, Donewei Zhu, Lauren Amable, Tao Deng, Shaofei Zhang, J Keith Killian, Yonghong Wang, Tsion Z Minas, Harry G Yfantis, Dong H Lee, Arun Sreekumar, Michael Bustin, Wei Liu, Nagireddy Putluri, Stefan Ambs
Metabolic reprogramming in breast tumors is linked to increases in putative oncogenic metabolites that may contribute to malignant transformation. We previously showed that accumulation of the oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), in breast tumors was associated with MYC signaling, but not with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, suggesting a distinct mechanism for increased 2HG in breast cancer. Here, we determined that D-2HG is the predominant enantiomer in human breast tumors and show that the D-2HG-producing mitochondrial enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, iron-containing protein 1 (ADHFE1), is a breast cancer oncogene that decreases patient survival...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192217/decreased-mirna-expression-in-klinefelter-syndrome
#14
Laura Cimino, Michele Salemi, Rossella Cannarella, Rosita A Condorelli, Giorgio Giurato, Giovanna Marchese, Sandro La Vignera, Aldo E Calogero
The widelyvariable phenotypic spectrum and the different severity of symptoms in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) suggest a role for epigenetic mediators. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the possible involvement of miRNAs in the clinical manifestations of KS. To accomplish this, we performed a transcriptome analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 10 non-mosaic KS patients, 10 aged-matched healthy men and 10 aged-matched healthy female controls with normal karyotype. After RNA extraction from PBMC and the preparation of RNA libraries, the samples were sequenced using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191366/cell-autonomous-metabolic-reprogramming-in-hypoxia
#15
REVIEW
Luana Schito, Sergio Rey
Molecular oxygen (O2) is a universal electron acceptor that enables ATP synthesis through mitochondrial respiration in all metazoans. Consequently, hypoxia (low O2) has arisen as an organizing principle for cellular evolution, metabolism, and (patho)biology, eliciting a remarkable panoply of metabolic adaptations that trigger transcriptional, translational, post-translational, and epigenetic responses to determine cellular fitness. In this review we summarize current and emerging cell-autonomous molecular mechanisms that induce hypoxic metabolic reprogramming in health and disease...
November 27, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189124/overview-on-anticancer-drug-design-and-development
#16
Sureyya Olgen
Many impediments of current anti-cancer therapies have urged scientists to discover new agents. As a result of growing spectrums of new targets and strategies and recent biological and biotechnological progresses, many anti-cancer agents such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and epigenetic drugs have been reached to clinical trials. Addition to the traditional targets (mitosis, DNA synthesis, repairing systems, tumor growth, apoptosis, tumor vasculature and cell signaling mechanisms), other targets such as proteasome, heat shock proteins (HSPs), and epigenetics (HDACs, HATs, DNMT, PAD4, AID, and Tet1) are used to design new anti-cancer agents...
November 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188341/a-review-of-metabolic-potential-of-human-gut-microbiome-in-human-nutrition
#17
REVIEW
Monika Yadav, Manoj Kumar Verma, Nar Singh Chauhan
The human gut contains a plethora of microbes, providing a platform for metabolic interaction between the host and microbiota. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota act as a link between gut microbiota and its host. These metabolites act as messengers having the capacity to alter the gut microbiota. Recent advances in the characterization of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host have provided a platform to decode metabolic interactions. The human gut microbiota, a crucial component for dietary metabolism, is shaped by the genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186975/mammalian-sulfur-amino-acid-metabolism-a-nexus-between-redox-regulation-nutrition-epigenetics-and-detoxification
#18
María Angeles Pajares, Dolores Pérez-Sala
SIGNIFICANCE: Transsulfuration allows conversion of methionine into cysteine using homocysteine as an intermediate. This pathway produces S-adenosylmethionine, a key metabolite for cell function, and provides 50% of the cysteine needed for hepatic glutathione synthesis. The route requires the intake of essential nutrients (e.g. methionine, vitamins) and is regulated by their availability. Transsulfuration presents multiple interconnections with epigenetics, ATP and glutathione synthesis, polyol and pentose phosphate pathways and detoxification that rely mostly in the exchange of substrates or products...
November 30, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186623/developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-current-knowledge-and-potential-mechanisms
#19
Daniel J Hoffman, Rebecca M Reynolds, Daniel B Hardy
Epidemiologic and clinical research has provided a large body of evidence supporting the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), but there has been a relative dearth of mechanistic studies in humans due to the complexity of working with large, longitudinal cohorts. Nonetheless, animal models of undernutrition have provided substantial evidence for the potential epigenetic, metabolic, and endocrine mechanisms behind DOHaD. Furthermore, recent research has explored the interaction between the environment and the gastrointestinal system by investigating how the gut microbial ecology may impact the capacity for nutrient processing and absorption in a manner that may limit growth...
December 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185916/drug-drug-interactions-in-cocaine-users-and-their-clinical-implications
#20
Luca Gallelli, Santo Gratteri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Erika Cione, Sabrina Sirico, Paolo Seminara, Giovambattista De Sarro, Maria Cristina Caroleo
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a common problem in clinical practice during drug treatments. DDIs can induce development of adverse drug reactions or reduce clinical efficacy of the drugs. In this review, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library we searched articles published until January 10, 2017, and described both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in cocaine consumers, focusing the interest on their clinical implications. In this review, the nodal points treated focused on: i) cocaine biochemical metabolism described for both, inactive benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl esters and norcocaine active metabolites...
September 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
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