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Epigenetic and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922727/the-relevance-of-gastric-cancer-biomarkers-in-prognosis-and-pre-and-post-chemotherapy-in-clinical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Muhammad Abbas, Murad Habib, Muhammad Naveed, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Kuldeep Dhama, Meiqi Shi, Chen Dingding
Gastric cancer (GC) is one among the major cancer types, causing human deaths and present noticeable heterogeneity. The incidences and mortality rates are higher in males in comparison to females with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. A lot of studies have revealed out the molecular basis, pathogenesis, invasion and metastasis related findings of gastric stomach cancer. Present review encompasses the salient information on various biomarkers for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer elaborate the clinical importance of serum tumor markers in patients with this cancer as well as checking the growths, together with epigenetic changes and genetic polymorphisms...
September 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921466/roles-of-hdacs-in-the-responses-of-innate-immune-cells-and-as-targets-in-inflammatory-diseases
#2
Yiqun Hu, Bandar Ali Suliman
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an emerging class of molecules involved in the epigenetic regulation of innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. HDACs are also key drivers of inflammatory diseases via epigenetic regulation through chromatin DNA and histone modification by methylation and acetylation, among other mechanisms, which control innate immune cell gene expression. Importantly, these epigenetic changes are reversible, and HDACs may also be targeted by small-molecule HDAC inhibitors, which have been used in clinical settings for cancer therapy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920955/mir-25-93-mediates-hypoxia-induced-immunosuppression-by-repressing-cgas
#3
Min-Zu Wu, Wei-Chung Cheng, Su-Feng Chen, Shin Nieh, Carolyn O'Connor, Chia-Lin Liu, Wen-Wei Tsai, Cheng-Jang Wu, Lorena Martin, Yaoh-Shiang Lin, Kou-Juey Wu, Li-Fan Lu, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
The mechanisms by which hypoxic tumours evade immunological pressure and anti-tumour immunity remain elusive. Here, we report that two hypoxia-responsive microRNAs, miR-25 and miR-93, are important for establishing an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by downregulating expression of the DNA sensor cGAS. Mechanistically, miR-25/93 targets NCOA3, an epigenetic factor that maintains basal levels of cGAS expression, leading to repression of cGAS during hypoxia. This allows hypoxic tumour cells to escape immunological responses induced by damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, specifically the release of mitochondrial DNA...
September 18, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919484/lung-cancer-epigenetics-from-knowledge-to-applications
#4
REVIEW
Michaël Duruisseaux, Manel Esteller
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Advances in our understanding of the genomics of lung cancer have led to substantial progress in the treatment of specific molecular subsets. Immunotherapy also emerges as a major breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. However, challenges remain as a consensual approach for early lung cancer detection remains elusive while primary or secondary drug resistance eventually leads to treatment failure in all patients with advanced disease. Furthermore, a large portion of patients are still treated with conventional chemotherapy that is only modestly effective...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919019/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-epigenetic-reprogramming-driving-cellular-plasticity
#5
REVIEW
Nicolas Skrypek, Steven Goossens, Eva De Smedt, Niels Vandamme, Geert Berx
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose their junctions and polarity to gain a motile mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is essential during embryogenesis and adult physiological processes like wound healing, but is aberrantly activated in pathological conditions like fibrosis and cancer. A series of transcription factors (EMT-inducing transcription factor; EMT-TF) regulate the induction of EMT by repressing the transcription of epithelial genes while activating mesenchymal genes through mechanisms still debated...
September 14, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918030/lncrna-trerna1-function-as-an-enhancer-of-snai1-promotes-gastric-cancer-metastasis-by-regulating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#6
Huazhang Wu, Ying Hu, Xiufang Liu, Wei Song, Pihai Gong, Kun Zhang, Zhenxing Chen, Menghan Zhou, Xiaohui Shen, Yanyan Qian, Hong Fan
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been implicated in cancer, but little is known about the role of lncRNAs as regulators of tumor metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrate that lncRNA TRERNA1 acts like an enhancer of SNAI1 to promote cell invasion and migration and to contribute to metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). TRERNA1 is significantly unregulated in GCs and GC cell lines. Increased TRERNA1 is positively correlated with lymph node metastasis of GCs. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that TRERNA1 functions as a scaffold to recruit EZH2 to epigenetically silence epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker CDH1 by H3K27me3 of its promoter region...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916652/lsd1-mediated-epigenetic-reprogramming-drives-cenpe-expression-and-prostate-cancer-progression
#7
Yi Liang, Musaddeque Ahmed, Haiyang Guo, Fraser Soares, Junjie T Hua, Shuai Gao, Catherine Lu, Christine Poon, Wanting Han, Jens Langstein, Muhammad B Ekram, Brian Li, Elai Davicioni, Mandeep Takhar, Nicholas Erho, R Jeffrey Karnes, Dianne Chadwick, Theodorus van der Kwast, Paul C Boutros, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Felix Y Feng, Anthony Michael Joshua, Amina Zoubeidi, Changmeng Cai, Housheng H He
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a key driver of prostate cancer (PCa), and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard treatment for patients with advanced and metastatic disease. However, patients receiving ADT eventually develop incurable castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Here we report that the chromatin modifier LSD1, an important regulator of AR transcriptional activity, undergoes epigenetic reprogramming in CRPC. LSD1 reprogramming in this setting activated a subset of cell cycle genes including CENPE, a centromere binding protein and mitotic kinesin...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915902/development-and-clinical-application-of-radiomics-in-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19(th) century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915699/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#9
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915670/prostate-cancer-diagnosis-using-epigenetic-biomarkers-3d-high-content-imaging-and-probabilistic-cell-by-cell-classifiers
#10
Darko Stefanovski, George Tang, Kolja Wawrowsky, Raymond C Boston, Nils Lambrecht, Jian Tajbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) management can benefit from novel concepts/biomarkers for reducing the current 20-30% chance of false-negative diagnosis with standard histopathology of biopsied tissue. METHOD: We explored the potential of selected epigenetic markers in combination with validated histopathological markers, 3D high-content imaging, cell-by-cell analysis, and probabilistic classification in generating novel detailed maps of biomarker heterogeneity in patient tissues, and PCa diagnosis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915585/time-dependent-modulation-of-tumor-radiosensitivity-by-a-pan-hdac-inhibitor-abexinostat
#11
Sofia Rivera, Céline Leteur, Frédérique Mégnin, Frédéric Law, Isabelle Martins, Ioana Kloos, Stéphane Depil, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Jean Luc Perfettini, Christophe Hennequin, Eric Deutsch
Despite prominent role of radiotherapy in lung cancer management, there is an urgent need for strategies increasing therapeutic efficacy. Reversible epigenetic changes are promising targets for combination strategies using HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). Here we evaluated on two NSCLC cell lines, the antitumor effect of abexinostat, a novel pan HDACi combined with irradiation in vitro in normoxia and hypoxia, by clonogenic assays, demonstrating that abexinostat enhances radiosensitivity in a time dependent way with mean SER10 between 1...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915537/mta1-expression-in-human-cancers-clinical-and-pharmacological-significance
#12
REVIEW
Vijaya Lakshmi Malisetty, Vasudevarao Penugurti, Prashanth Panta, Suresh Kumar Chitta, Bramanandam Manavathi
Remarkably, majority of the cancer deaths are due to metastasis, not because of primary tumors. Metastasis is one of the important hallmarks of cancer. During metastasis invasion of primary tumor cells from the site of origin to a new organ occurs. Metastasis associated proteins (MTAs) are a small family of transcriptional coregulators that are closely associated with tumor metastasis. These proteins are integral components of nuclear remodeling and deacetylation complex (NuRD). By virtue of being integral components of NuRD, these proteins regulate the gene expression by altering the epigenetic changes such as acetylation and methylation on the target gene chromatin...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915241/the-relative-contribution-of-dna-methylation-and-genetic-variants-on-protein-biomarkers-for-human-diseases
#13
Muhammad Ahsan, Weronica E Ek, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Torgny Karlsson, Allan Lind-Thomsen, Stefan Enroth, Ulf Gyllensten, Åsa Johansson
Associations between epigenetic alterations and disease status have been identified for many diseases. However, there is no strong evidence that epigenetic alterations are directly causal for disease pathogenesis. In this study, we combined SNP and DNA methylation data with measurements of protein biomarkers for cancer, inflammation or cardiovascular disease, to investigate the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic variation on biomarker levels. A total of 121 protein biomarkers were measured and analyzed in relation to DNA methylation at 470,000 genomic positions and to over 10 million SNPs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914394/bioinformatics-based-identification-of-methylated-differentially-expressed-genes-and-related-pathways-in-gastric-cancer
#14
Hao Li, Jing-Wei Liu, Shuang Liu, Yuan Yuan, Li-Ping Sun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the study was to identify methylated-differentially expressed genes (MDEGs) in gastric cancer and investigate their potential pathways. METHODS: Expression profiling (GSE13911 and GSE29272) and methylation profiling (GSE25869 and GSE30601) data were obtained from GEO DataSets. Differentially expressed genes and differentially methylated genes were identified using GEO2R. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for the MDEGs...
September 15, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913935/induction-of-cancer-cell-stemness-by-depletion-of-macrohistone-h2a1-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Oriana Lo Re, Caterina Fusilli, Francesca Rappa, Matthias Van Haele, Julien Douet, Jana Pindjakova, Sura Wanessa Rocha, Illar Pata, Barbora Valčíková, Stjepan Uldrijan, Raymond S Yeung, Christina Alves Peixoto, Tania Roskams, Marcus Buschbeck, Tommaso Mazza, Manlio Vinciguerra
Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) contain a sub-population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which exhibit stem-cell like features and are responsible for tumor relapse, metastasis, and chemoresistance. The development of effective treatments for HCC will depend on a molecular-level understanding of the specific pathways driving CSC emergence and stemness. MacroH2A1 is a variant of the histone H2A and an epigenetic regulator of stem cell function, where it promotes differentiation and, conversely, acts as a barrier to somatic cell reprogramming...
September 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912888/sulforaphane-induced-cell-cycle-arrest-and-senescence-are-accompanied-by-dna-hypomethylation-and-changes-in-microrna-profile-in-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Anna Deregowska, Maciej Wnuk
Cancer cells are characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations and phytochemicals, epigenetic modulators, are considered as promising candidates for epigenetic therapy of cancer. In the present study, we have investigated cancer cell fates upon stimulation of breast cancer cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3) with low doses of sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate. SFN (5-10 µM) promoted cell cycle arrest, elevation in the levels of p21 and p27 and cellular senescence, whereas at the concentration of 20 µM, apoptosis was induced...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912577/classifying-the-evolutionary-and-ecological-features-of-neoplasms
#17
REVIEW
Carlo C Maley, Athena Aktipis, Trevor A Graham, Andrea Sottoriva, Amy M Boddy, Michalina Janiszewska, Ariosto S Silva, Marco Gerlinger, Yinyin Yuan, Kenneth J Pienta, Karen S Anderson, Robert Gatenby, Charles Swanton, David Posada, Chung-I Wu, Joshua D Schiffman, E Shelley Hwang, Kornelia Polyak, Alexander R A Anderson, Joel S Brown, Mel Greaves, Darryl Shibata
Neoplasms change over time through a process of cell-level evolution, driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the ecology of the microenvironment of a neoplastic cell determines which changes provide adaptive benefits. There is widespread recognition of the importance of these evolutionary and ecological processes in cancer, but to date, no system has been proposed for drawing clinically relevant distinctions between how different tumours are evolving. On the basis of a consensus conference of experts in the fields of cancer evolution and cancer ecology, we propose a framework for classifying tumours that is based on four relevant components...
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912501/transcription-regulation-of-cdkn1a-p21-cip1-waf1-by-trf2-is-epigenetically-controlled-through-the-rest-repressor-complex
#18
Tabish Hussain, Dhurjhoti Saha, Gunjan Purohit, Anirban Kar, Anand Kishore Mukherjee, Shalu Sharma, Suman Sengupta, Parashar Dhapola, Basudeb Maji, Sreekanth Vedagopuram, Nobuko T Horikoshi, Nobuo Horikoshi, Raj K Pandita, Santanu Bhattacharya, Avinash Bajaj, Jean-François Riou, Tej K Pandita, Shantanu Chowdhury
We observed extra-telomeric binding of the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2 within the promoter of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDKNIA (p21/CIP1/WAF1). This result in TRF2 induced transcription repression of p21. Interestingly, p21 repression was through engagement of the REST-coREST-LSD1-repressor complex and altered histone marks at the p21 promoter in a TRF2-dependent fashion. Furthermore, mutational analysis shows p21 repression requires interaction of TRF2 with a p21 promoter G-quadruplex. Physiologically, TRF2-mediated p21 repression attenuated drug-induced activation of cellular DNA damage response by evading G2/M arrest in cancer cells...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912427/dna-methylation-profiling-reveals-common-signatures-of-tumorigenesis-and-defines-epigenetic-prognostic-subtypes-of-canine-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#19
Serena Ferraresso, Arianna Aricò, Tiziana Sanavia, Silvia Da Ros, Massimo Milan, Luciano Cascione, Stefano Comazzi, Valeria Martini, Mery Giantin, Barbara Di Camillo, Sandro Mazzariol, Diana Giannuzzi, Laura Marconato, Luca Aresu
Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer characterized by frequent acquisition of new DNA methylation in CpG islands. To gain insight into the methylation changes of canine DLBCL, we investigated the DNA methylome in primary DLBCLs in comparison with control lymph nodes by genome-wide CpG microarray. We identified 1,194 target loci showing different methylation levels in tumors compared with controls. The hypermethylated CpG loci included promoter, 5'-UTRs, upstream and exonic regions. Interestingly, targets of polycomb repressive complex in stem cells were mostly affected suggesting that DLBCL shares a stem cell-like epigenetic pattern...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912274/structure-mechanism-and-regulation-of-polycomb-repressive-complex-2
#20
Lindsay E Moritz, Raymond C Trievel
Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) methylates lysine 27 in histone H3, a modification associated with epigenetic gene silencing. This complex plays a fundamental role in regulating cellular differentiation and development, and PRC2 overexpression and mutations have been implicated in numerous cancers. In this review, we examine recent studies elucidating the first crystal structures of the PRC2 core complex, yielding seminal insights into its catalytic mechanism, substrate specificity, allosteric regulation, and inhibition by a class of small molecules that are currently undergoing cancer clinical trials...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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