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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885794/a-beekeepers-perspective-on-the-neonicotinoid-ban
#1
REVIEW
Norman L Carreck
Bees and agrochemicals have a long history. For example the first volume of IBRA's journal Bee World in 1919 contains mention of poisoning of bees by spraying an orchard with lead arsenate. Being insects, it is self-evident that the use of insecticides to control crop pests poses a risk to bees. Bee poisoning incidents became a very serious problem in the 1960s and 1970s with spraying of, in particular, oilseed rape with organophosphorus compounds. The introduction of carbamates and then especially synthetic pyrethroids reduced these problems...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881750/experimental-evidence-that-honeybees-depress-wild-insect-densities-in-a-flowering-crop
#2
Sandra A M Lindström, Lina Herbertsson, Maj Rundlöf, Riccardo Bommarco, Henrik G Smith
While addition of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) improves pollination of many entomophilous crops, it is unknown if it simultaneously suppresses the densities of wild insects through competition. To investigate this, we added 624 honeybee hives to 23 fields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) over 2 years and made sure that the areas around 21 other fields were free from honeybee hives. We demonstrate that honeybee addition depresses the densities of wild insects (bumblebees, solitary bees, hoverflies, marchflies, other flies, and other flying and flower-visiting insects) even in a massive flower resource such as oilseed rape...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880837/rice-yield-and-the-fate-of-fertilizer-nitrogen-as-affected-by-addition-of-earthworm-casts-collected-from-oilseed-rape-fields-a-pot-experiment
#3
Min Huang, Xuefeng Zhou, Xiaobing Xie, Chunrong Zhao, Jiana Chen, Fangbo Cao, Yingbin Zou
The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870884/non-specific-root-transport-of-nutrient-gives-access-to-an-early-nutritional-indicator-the-case-of-sulfate-and-molybdate
#4
Anne Maillard, Elise Sorin, Philippe Etienne, Sylvain Diquélou, Anna Koprivova, Stanislav Kopriva, Mustapha Arkoun, Karine Gallardo, Marie Turner, Florence Cruz, Jean-Claude Yvin, Alain Ourry
Under sulfur (S) deficiency, crosstalk between nutrients induced accumulation of other nutrients, particularly molybdenum (Mo). This disturbed balanced between S and Mo could provide a way to detect S deficiency and therefore avoid losses in yield and seed quality in cultivated species. Under hydroponic conditions, S deprivation was applied to Brassica napus to determine the precise kinetics of S and Mo uptake and whether sulfate transporters were involved in Mo uptake. Leaf contents of S and Mo were also quantified in a field-grown S deficient oilseed rape crop with different S and N fertilization applications to evaluate the [Mo]:[S] ratio, as an indicator of S nutrition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869209/mitigating-effects-of-ex-situ-application-of-rice-straw-on-ch4-and-n2o-emissions-from-paddy-upland-coexisting-system
#5
Wei Wang, Xiaohong Wu, Anlei Chen, Xiaoli Xie, Yunqiu Wang, Chunmei Yin
The in situ application of rice straw enhances CH4 emissions by a large margin. The ex situ application of rice straw in uplands, however, may mitigate total global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy-upland coexisting systems. To evaluate the efficiency of this practice, two field trials were conducted in rice-rice-fallow and maize-rape cropping systems, respectively. Year-round measurements of CH4 and N2O emissions were conducted to evaluate the system-scaled GWP. The results showed that CH4 accounted for more than 98% of GWP in paddy...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866500/coping-and-mental-health-outcomes-among-sierra-leonean-war-affected-youth-results-from-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Manasi Sharma, Shoshanna L Fine, Robert T Brennan, Theresa S Betancourt
This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859588/influence-of-sleep-disturbance-on-global-functioning-after-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-treatment
#7
Janeese A Brownlow, Carmen P McLean, Philip R Gehrman, Gerlinde C Harb, Richard J Ross, Edna B Foa
Chronic insomnia and recurrent nightmares are prominent features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evidence from adult research indicates that these sleep disturbances do not respond as well to cognitive-behavioral therapies for PTSD and are associated with poorer functional outcomes. This study examined the effect of prolonged exposure therapy for adolescents versus client-centered therapy on posttraumatic sleep disturbance, and the extent to which sleep symptoms impacted global functioning among adolescents with sexual abuse-related PTSD...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859348/rising-co2-from-historical-concentrations-enhances-the-physiological-performance-of-brassica-napus-seedlings-under-optimal-water-supply-but-not-under-reduced-water-availability
#8
Michele Faralli, Ivan G Grove, Martin C Hare, Peter S Kettlewell, Fabio Fiorani
The productivity of many important crops is significantly threatened by water shortage and the elevated atmospheric CO2 can significantly interact with physiological processes and crop responses to drought. We examined the effects of three different CO2 concentrations (historical ~300 ppm, ambient ~400 ppm and elevated ~700 ppm) on physiological traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings subjected to well-watered and reduced water availability. Our data show i) that, as expected, increasing CO2 level positively modulates leaf photosynthetic traits, leaf water-use efficiency and growth under non-stressed conditions although a pronounced acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 occurred; ii) that the predicted elevated CO2 concentration does not reduce total evapotranspiration under drought when compared to the present (400 ppm) and historical (300 ppm) concentrations because of a larger leaf area that does not buffer transpiration; iii) that accordingly the physiological traits analysed decreased similarly under stress for all CO2 concentrations...
November 18, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855738/sexsomnia-a-specialized-non-rem-parasomnia
#9
Anne-Laure Dubessy, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Valérie Attali, Jean-Baptiste Maranci, Isabelle Arnulf
OBJECTIVE: To describe patients with sexsomnia and to contrast their clinical and sleep measures with those of healthy controls and sleepwalkers. METHODS: Subjects referred for sexsomnia and for sleepwalking/night terror were interviewed, completed the Paris Arousal Disorder Severity Scale (PADSS) and were monitored one to two nights with video-polysomnography. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (70.6% male, aged 17 to 76 years) had sexsomnia, with amnestic fondling of the bed partner (n=11), complete sexual intercourse (n=8), masturbation (n=8) and spontaneous orgasm (n=1)...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845499/distribution-of-virulence-genes-involved-in-biofilm-formation-in-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates
#10
Rapee Thummeepak, Phattaraporn Kongthai, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Sutthirat Sitthisak
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is the major cause of hospital-acquired infections. It has been shown that A. baumannii with high biofilm formation increases the risk of acquiring infection. In this study, the prevalence of virulence genes involved in biofilm formation was determined in 225 A. baumannii clinical isolates from three hospitals in Thailand. Most of the isolates were multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains (86.2%). Among all isolates, 76.9% (173/225) showed biofilm formation ability...
June 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837183/correlates-of-disclosure-cessation-after-sexual-assault
#11
Emily R Dworkin, Nicole Allen
Contacts with responders after sexual assault may influence further disclosure, but this possibility has not been explored empirically. Thus, this study investigates associations between survivors' contacts with responders and their decisions to discontinue disclosure. Fifty-four college students with a history of unwanted sexual experiences described 94 ordered contacts with responders. Results indicate that survivors' perceptions of responsiveness were not associated with continued disclosure, but survivors were more likely to continue disclosing when they perceived more rape myth acceptance from responders and when the assault was more recent...
November 10, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821044/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-two-brassica-napus-cultivars-under-chromium-toxicity-and-its-alleviation-by-reduced-glutathione
#12
Rafaqat A Gill, Basharat Ali, Peng Cui, Enhui Shen, Muhammad A Farooq, Faisal Islam, Shafaqat Ali, Bizeng Mao, Weijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Chromium (Cr) being multifarious industrial used element, is considered a potential environmental threat. Cr found to be a prospective water and soil pollutant, and thus it is a current area of concern. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is well known as a major source of edible oil around the globe. Due to its higher growth, larger biomass and capability to uptake toxic materials B. napus is considered a potential candidate plant against unfavorable conditions. To date, no study has been done that described the Cr and GSH mechanism at RNA-Seq level...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815726/agricultural-exposure-and-risk-of-bladder-cancer-in-the-agriculture-and-cancer-cohort
#13
Mathilde Boulanger, Séverine Tual, Clémentine Lemarchand, Anne-Valérie Guizard, Michel Velten, Elisabeth Marcotullio, Isabelle Baldi, Bénédicte Clin, Pierre Lebailly
PURPOSE: Literature on agricultural activities and bladder cancer risk is scarce. However, farmers can be subjected to carcinogenic exposure (e.g. arsenic, previously used as a pesticide in France). This study aimed at assessing the role of a large range of agricultural activities and tasks on bladder cancer risk. METHODS: The study population was the AGRIculture and CANcer cohort, a large prospective cohort of individuals affiliated to the agricultural health insurance scheme (MSA) in France...
November 4, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815006/the-effects-of-straw-or-straw-derived-gasification-biochar-applications-on-soil-quality-and-crop-productivity-a-farm-case-study
#14
Veronika Hansen, Dorette Müller-Stöver, Valentina Imparato, Paul Henning Krogh, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Anders Dolmer, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen
Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808473/extensive-homoeologous-genome-exchanges-in-allopolyploid-crops-revealed-by-mrnaseq-based-visualization
#15
Z He, L Wang, A L Harper, L Havlickova, A K Pradhan, I A P Parkin, I Bancroft
Polyploidy, the possession of multiple sets of chromosomes, has been a predominant factor in the evolution and success of the angiosperms. Although artificially formed allopolyploids show a high rate of genome rearrangement, the genomes of cultivars and germplasm used for crop breeding were assumed stable and genome structural variation under the artificial selection process of commercial breeding has remained little studied. Here we show, using a repurposed visualization method based on transcriptome sequence data, that genome structural rearrangement occurs frequently in varieties of three polyploid crops (oilseed rape, mustard rape and bread wheat), meaning that the extent of genome structural variation present in commercial crops is much higher than expected...
November 3, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802846/declining-trend-in-transmitted-drug-resistance-detected-in-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-acute-hiv-infection-in-bangkok-thailand
#16
Donn J Colby, Trevor A Crowell, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Eugene Kroon, Khunthalee Benjapornpong, Jintana Intasan, Rapee Trichavaroj, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Merlin Robb, Praphan Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nittaya Phanuphak
INTRODUCTION: As availability of antiretroviral therapy expands in developing countries, the risk for transmission of drug-resistant HIV also increases. Patients with acute HIV infection (AHI) provide an opportunity for real-time monitoring of transmitted drug resistance (TDR). SEARCH 010/RV 254 study is a prospective, longitudinal study of AHI. This analysis was performed to characterize changes in TDR over time in persons enrolled in the AHI cohort. METHODS: Genotype testing for TDR mutations was performed on 229 subjects enrolled from 2009 to 2014...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801831/antioxidant-enzyme-activities-and-lipid-oxidation-in-rape-brassica-campestris-l-bee-pollen-added-to-salami-during-processing
#17
Yawei Zhang, Fengtian Yang, Muneer Ahmed Jamali, Zengqi Peng
The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L.) bee pollen (RBP) on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox) at the same concentration. The salami with 0...
October 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798839/exploratory-factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-sexual-coercion-inventory
#18
Bryana H French, Han Na Suh, Brooke Arterberry
The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Sexual Coercion Inventory (SCI; Waldner, Vaden-Goad, & Sikka, 1999), revised by the authors (SCI-R). Overall, 514 high school and college students from a Midwestern state completed the SCI-R. To complete the SCI-R, high school participants completed paper-pencil surveys with those younger than 18 obtaining parental consent; college students older than 18 completed computer-based and paper-pencil surveys. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were conducted to examine the validity of score interpretation and reliability of scores for the measure...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795676/development-of-new-restorer-lines-for-cms-ogura-system-with-the-use-of-resynthesized-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#19
Laurencja Szała, Katarzyna Sosnowska, Wiesława Popławska, Alina Liersch, Anna Olejnik, Katarzyna Kozłowska, Jan Bocianowski, Teresa Cegielska-Taras
Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var...
September 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792929/cellulose-accessibility-and-microbial-community-in-solid-state-anaerobic-digestion-of-rape-straw
#20
Jiang-Hao Tian, Anne-Marie Pourcher, Chrystelle Bureau, Pascal Peu
Solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) with leachate recirculation is an appropriate method for the valorization of agriculture residues. Rape straw is a massively produced residue with considerable biochemical methane potential, but its degradation in SSAD remains poorly understood. A thorough study was conducted to understand the performance of rape straw as feedstock for laboratory solid state anaerobic digesters. We investigated the methane production kinetics of rape straw in relation to cellulose accessibility to cellulase and the microbial community...
October 13, 2016: Bioresource Technology
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