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Aleksander Siger, Michał Michalak, Justyna Lembicz, Małgorzata Nogala-Kałucka, Teresa Cegielska-Taras, Laurencja Szała
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the genotype-environment interaction on the levels of α-, β-, γ- and δ-T and PC-8 in seeds of 17 doubled haploids obtained from the F1 hybrid derived from crossing black (DH H2 -26) × yellow (DH Z-114) seeds of winter oilseed rape. RESULTS: The content of tocopherols in the tested DH lines ranged from 415.6 to 540.1 mg kg-1 seeds, while PC-8 content ranged from 56.3 to 89.0 mg kg-1 seeds. The α-T/γ-T ratio reached the level of 0...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marcos Amaku, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini, Eleazar Chaib, Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho, David Greenhalgh, Luis Fernandez Lopez, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: National or local laws, norms or regulations (sometimes and in some countries) require medical providers to report notifiable diseases to public health authorities. Reporting, however, is almost always incomplete. This is due to a variety of reasons, ranging from not recognizing the diseased to failures in the technical or administrative steps leading to the final official register in the disease notification system. The reported fraction varies from 9 to 99% and is strongly associated with the disease being reported...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Trevor A Crowell, Donn J Colby, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, James L K Fletcher, Eugène Kroon, Alexandra Schuetz, Shelly J Krebs, Bonnie M Slike, Louise Leyre, Nicolas Chomont, Linda L Jagodzinski, Irini Sereti, Netanya S Utay, Robin Dewar, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Nitiya Chomchey, Rapee Trichavaroj, Victor G Valcour, Serena Spudich, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich
Background: Many individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) experience acute retroviral syndrome (ARS), which is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes. We characterized clinical, virologic, and immunologic features of ARS and described the impact of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods: Participants presenting for voluntary HIV testing were enrolled during AHI in Bangkok, Thailand. ARS was defined by ≥3 qualifying signs/symptoms...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
P Charlier, F Bou Abdallah, L Brun, V Hoang-Oppermann, S Deo, Y Mostefai-Dulac, M-F Mamzer, C Hervé
BACKGROUND: In the medical anthropology section of the Nanterre Hospital (France) for migrants and refugees, three cases were recorded of "virgin cleansing" in sub-Saharan African countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: These consisted of sexual assaults (2 instances of rape and 1 of sexual interference) on sexually immature females (young girls) by patients with sexually transmitted infections (mainly HIV, syphilis) hoping they might thereby be cured. DISCUSSION: These particularly atrocious hetero-aggressive sexual practices based on magical arguments are unfortunately universal and are not limited to a specific culture...
December 5, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Jocelyn Kelly, Katherine Albutt, Justin Kabanga, Kimberley Anderson, Michael VanRooyen
BACKGROUND: Female survivors of sexual violence in conflict experience not only physical and psychological sequelae from the event itself, but often many negative social outcomes, such as rejection and ostracisation from their families and community. Male relatives - whether husbands, fathers, brothers - play a key role in determining how the family and community respond to a survivor of sexual violence. Understanding these perspectives could help improve services for survivors of sexual violence, as well as their families and communities...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
Amy L Brown, Jada Horton, Ariel Guillory
Research suggests that victims of incapacitated rape (when someone has sex with a person who is unable to consent to orresist sexual activity, usually because of intoxication) face higher levels of victim blame than do victims of forcible rape (Krahé, Temkin, & Bieneck, 2007). However, it is not clear whether blame is the result of victim alcohol consumption or the lack of force and resistance present during incapacitated rape; both of these factors have been shown to increase victim blame. The current vignette study crossed victim alcohol consumption and perpetrator use of force...
December 7, 2017: Violence and Victims
J Coetzee, G E Gray, R Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by violence from multiple partner categories. This increases their vulnerability to HIV. OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of violence and polyvictimization among female SWs in Soweto. METHODS: A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methodology was used to enrol 508 Soweto-based FSWs using a survey instrument. Raw and RDS adjusted data were descriptively analysed, Spearman's correlation and chi2 test of association were used to show associations...
2017: Global Health Action
Hao Tan, Renyun Miao, Tianhai Liu, Lufang Yang, Yumin Yang, Chunxiu Chen, Jianrong Lei, Yuhui Li, Jiabei He, Qun Sun, Weihong Peng, Bingcheng Gan, Zhongqian Huang
A new cellulolytic strain of Chryseobacterium genus was screened from the dung of a cattle fed with cereal straw. A putative cellulase gene (cbGH5) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 46 (GH5_46) was identified and cloned by degenerate PCR plus genome walking. The CbGH5 protein was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. It is the first bifunctional cellulase-xylanase reported in GH5_46 as well as in Chryseobacterium genus. The enzyme showed an endoglucanase activity on carboxymethylcellulose of 3237 μmol min-1  mg-1 at pH 9, 90 °C and a xylanase activity on birchwood xylan of 1793 μmol min-1  mg-1 at pH 8, 90 °C...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Rachel M Venema
This study examines police officers' perceptions of sexual assault and those who report sexual assault to the police, using a revised version of the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale along with a measure of social desirability bias. The study includes survey responses from 174 officers from 1 mid-sized police department in the Great Lakes region. Results show low to moderate levels of rape myth acceptance scores on the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, with highest scores related to victim lying. Officers report very high estimates of false reporting, indicating some rape myth acceptance...
December 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Marta Heroldová, Radek Michalko, Josef Suchomel, Jan Zejda
BACKGROUND: While the 'no-tillage' management system generally improves soil properties and helps to control arthropod pests, it may also intensify crop infestation by the common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas). In this study, we evaluated the impact of soil management (no-tillage, tillage), crop and previous crop (winter wheat, winter rape), and season (spring, autumn) on common vole density using data from the Common Vole Monitoring Programme undertaken by the Plant Protection Service of the Czech Republic between 2000 and 2009...
November 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
David Munch, Vikas Gupta, Terry Mun, Asger Bachmann, Wolfgang Busch, Simon Kelly, Stig U Andersen
Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance genes (NLRs) allow plants to detect microbial effectors. We hypothesized that NLR expression patterns could reflect organ-specific differences in effector challenge and tested this by carrying out a meta-analysis of expression data for 1,235 NLRs from 9 plant species. We found stable NLR root/shoot expression ratios within species, suggesting organ-specific hardwiring of NLR expression patterns in anticipation of distinct challenges. Most monocot and dicot plant species preferentially expressed NLRs in roots...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jingli Yan, Tiantian Tong, Xin Li, Qinqin Chen, Moyu Dai, Fangfang Niu, Mingfeng Yang, Michael K Deyholos, Bo Yang, Yuan-Qing Jiang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a dual role in plants by functioning as signaling molecules and toxic byproducts of aerobic metabolism. The hypersensitive response (HR) is a typical feature of immune responses in plants and also a type of programmed cell death (PCD). How these two processes are regulated in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) at the transcriptional level remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that an oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) NAM-ATAF-CUC (NAC)-type transcription factor NAC87 modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death accompanied by typical changes at the morphological and cellular levels...
November 24, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ji Eun Kim, Young Ran Cho, Bo Eun Choi, Sang Han Lee, Taek Hoo Lee
Children who have been raped some years back may have hymenal scars. However, medical professionals are not accustomed in assessing these scars because of the lack of experience in performing physical examinations of the external genitalia of children who suffered from rape some years back. Moreover, the importance of physical examination of the victim's external genitalia is sometimes overlooked. Two cases of rape victims with hymenal scars who visited Daegu Child Sexual Abuse Response Center several years after their first sexual abuse along with a literature review are presented here...
November 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Brian B Boutwell, Erik J Nelson, Zhengmin Qian, Michael G Vaughn, John P Wright, Kevin M Beaver, J C Barnes, Melissa Petkovsek, Roger Lewis, Mario Schootman, Richard Rosenfeld
CONTEXT: An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. OBJECTIVE: The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. DESIGN: Ecological study. SETTING: St. Louis, Missouri...
2017: PloS One
Da-Song Chen, Jian-Qing Dai, Shi-Chou Han
The diamondback moth was estimated to increase costs to the global agricultural economy as the global area increase of Brassica vegetable crops and oilseed rape. Sex pheromones traps are outstanding tools available in Integrated Pest Management for many years and provides an effective approach for DBM population monitoring and control. The ratio of two major sex pheromone compounds shows geographical variations. However, the limitation of our information in the DBM pheromone biosynthesis dampens our understanding of the ratio diversity of pheromone compounds...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Huiying He, Rui Yang, Yajun Li, Aisheng Ma, Lanqin Cao, Xiaoming Wu, Biyun Chen, Hui Tian, Yajun Gao
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) characteristically has high N uptake efficiency and low N utilization efficiency (NUtE, seed yield/shoot N accumulation). Determining the NUtE phenotype of various genotypes in different growth conditions is a way of finding target traits to improve oilseed rape NUtE. The aim of this study was to compare oilseed rape genotypes grown on contrasting N supply rates in pot and field experiments to investigate the genotypic variations of NUtE and to identify indicators of N efficient genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Thomas R Sewell, Nichola J Hawkins, Henrik U Stotz, YongJu Huang, Steven L Kelly, Diane E Kelly, Bart Fraaije, Bruce D L Fitt
Lanosterol 14-α demethylase is a key enzyme intermediating the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi, and the target of azole fungicides. Studies have suggested that Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa, the causal agents of phoma stem canker on oilseed rape, differ in their sensitivity to some azoles, which could be driving pathogen frequency change in crops. Here we used CYP51 protein modelling and heterologous expression to determine whether there are interspecific differences at the target-site level...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rapee Khlibsuwan, Thaned Pogjanyakul
Exfoliated nanocomposites of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) particles are characterized by good compressibility but poor flowability. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate agglomerates of CS-MAS nanocomposites prepared using the agglomerating agents water, ethanol, or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for flowability enhancement and to evaluate the agglomerates obtained as direct compression fillers for tablets. The results showed that the addition of agglomerating agents did not affect crystallinity, but slightly influenced thermal behavior of the CS-MAS nanocomposites...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Christin Zachow, Henry Müller, Christina M Laireiter, Ralf Tilcher, Gabriele Berg
10.1601/nm.2592 strain RM1-1-4 is a rhizosphere colonizer of oilseed rape. A previous study has shown that this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective stress protecting and biocontrol agent, which protects their hosts against abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of P. corrugata RM1-1-4 consisting of a single 6.1 Mb circular chromosome that encodes 5189 protein coding genes and 85 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting functions such as detoxifying mechanisms, stress inhibitors, exoproteases, lipoproteins or volatile components as well as rhizobactin siderophores and spermidine...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Sanjeet Bagcchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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