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Trauma responses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922235/perioperative-inflammation-and-its-modulation-by-anesthetics
#1
Jan Rossaint, Alexander Zarbock
Surgery and other invasive procedures, which are routinely performed during general anesthesia, may induce an inflammatory response in the patient. This inflammatory response is an inherent answer of the body to the intervention and can be both beneficial and potentially harmful. The immune system represents a unique evolutionary achievement equipping higher organisms with an effective defense mechanism against exogenous pathogens. However, not only bacteria might evoke an immune response but also other noninfectious stimuli like the surgical trauma or mechanical ventilation may induce an inflammatory response of varying degree...
September 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920894/electro-thermal-equivalent-3d-finite-element-model-of-a-single-neuron
#2
I Cinelli, M Destrade, M Duffy, P McHugh
OBJECTIVE: We propose a novel approach for modelling the inter-dependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in nervous cells, by using electro-thermal equivalences in finite element (FE) analysis so that existing thermo-mechanical tools can be applied. METHODS: First, the equivalence between electrical and thermal properties of the nerve materials is established, and results of a pure heat conduction analysis performed in Abaqus CAE Software 6.13-3 are validated with analytical solutions for a range of steady and transient conditions...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920792/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-rostral-maxilla-in-an-adult-captive-whitespotted-bamboo-shark-chiloscyllium-plagiosum
#3
Betsy E Culp, Martin Haulena, Kelly Britt, Hannah Evans, Stephen Raverty
An approximately 10-yr-old adult female whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) presented with a smooth, white, irregular, ulcerated, and expansile lesion on the left lateral aspect of the maxillary rostrum. The lesion had short periods of abrupt and rapid proliferation and then remained static for several months. Cytology and culture were nonspecific and did not reveal any discernible etiologic agents or cellular atypia. The lesion was nonresponsive to parenteral antibiotics. One year after the initial onset of the lesion, the ulcer was 10 cm in diameter, a percentage increase in size of 455%...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920065/the-influence-of-sex-steroid-hormones-on-the-response-to-trauma-and-burn-injury
#4
REVIEW
K Al-Tarrah, N Moiemen, J M Lord
Trauma and related sequelae result in disturbance of homeostatic mechanisms frequently leading to cellular dysfunction and ultimately organ and system failure. Regardless of the type and severity of injury, gender dimorphism in outcomes following trauma have been reported, with females having lower mortality than males, suggesting that sex steroid hormones (SSH) play an important role in the response of body systems to trauma. In addition, several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the effects of SSH on the clinical course and outcomes following injury...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919237/inflammatory-responses-in-multiple-sclerosis-normal-appearing-white-matter-and-in-non-immune-mediated-neurological-conditions-with-wallerian-axonal-degeneration-a-comparative-study
#5
M Vercellino, C Trebini, E Capello, G L Mancardi, M T Giordana, P Cavalla
Inflammatory-like changes in the white matter (WM) are commonly observed in conditions of axonal degeneration by different etiologies. This study is a systematic comparison of the principal features of the inflammatory-like changes in the WM in different pathological conditions characterized by axonal damage/degeneration, focusing in particular on Multiple Sclerosis (MS) normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) compared to non immune-mediated disorders. The study was performed on sections of NAWM from 15 MS cases, 11 cases of non immune-mediated disorders with wallerian axonal degeneration (stroke, trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), 3 cases of viral encephalitis, 6 control cases...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919152/erector-spinae-plane-esp-block-in-the-management-of-post-thoracotomy-pain-syndrome-a-case-series
#6
Mauricio Forero, Manikandan Rajarathinam, Sanjib Adhikary, Ki Jinn Chin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) remains a common complication of thoracic surgery with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Management usually involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes oral and topical analgesics, performing appropriate interventional techniques, and coordinating additional care such as physiotherapy, psychotherapy and rehabilitation. A variety of interventional procedures have been described to treat PTPS that is inadequately managed with systemic or topical analgesics...
September 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918934/reconstructive-microsurgical-approach-for-the-treatment-of-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#7
Karl Schwaiger, Elisabeth Russe, Hassan Kholosy, Michaela Hladik, Klemens Heinrich, Laurenz Weitgasser, Thomas Schoeller, Gottfried Wechselberger
INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare type of autoimmune disease that results in progressive ulcers with or without previous trauma. However, PG is not well understood to date, and its treatment therefore remains a challenge. Because of the disease's systemic characteristic and the unpredictability of the clinical course, no gold standard treatment is available, especially concerning the surgical procedures to treat pyodermic lesions. Often, PG is not recognized during routine clinical practice, and standard ulcer treatment (conservative wound care, debridement, skin grafting, and local flap coverage) is initiated; this induces an autoinflammatory response, resulting in disastrous ulcers, thereby making free flap coverage necessary...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918648/anticipatory-traumatic-reaction-outcomes-arising-from-secondary-exposure-to-disasters-and-large-scale-threats
#8
Tanya L Hopwood, Nicola S Schutte, Natasha M Loi
Two studies, with a total of 707 participants, developed and examined the reliability and validity of a measure for anticipatory traumatic reaction (ATR), a novel construct describing a form of distress that may occur in response to threat-related media reports and discussions. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a scale comprising three subscales: feelings related to future threat; preparatory thoughts and actions; and disruption to daily activities. Internal consistency was .93 for the overall ATR scale...
September 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918227/bone-remodeling-of-the-distal-femur-after-uncemented-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-2-year-prospective-dxa-study
#9
Mikkel Rathsach Andersen, Nikolaj S Winther, Thomas Lind, Henrik M Schrøder, Michael Mørk Petersen
Loss of bone stock as a response to the bone trauma, immobilization, and stress shielding related to joint replacement surgery increases the risk of fracture of the distal femur after total knee arthroplasty. Previous studies of uncemented femoral components have reported very high levels of bone loss in the distal femur. This study investigates the adaptive bone remodeling of the distal femur after uncemented total knee arthroplasty. We performed a 2-year follow-up of 53 patients (mean age 61.5 [38-70] years, F/M = 27/26, body mass index 29...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915305/trauma-epidemiology-of-women-in-puerto-rico-2002-2011
#10
Sofía Muns-Aponte, Omar García-Rodríguez, Ediel O Ramos-Meléndez, Pablo Rodríguez-Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: Recent literature has suggested that trauma is heterogenic and that physiological response to it differs between sexes. The study represented in this manuscript aimed to describe gender differences in the mortality rates of trauma patients at the Puerto Rico Trauma Hospital (PRTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed at PRTH. A total of 14,874 injured patients admitted to the hospital from 2002 to 2011 were included in the sample and divided into 2 groups, based on sex...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915217/estradiol-modulates-local-gut-injury-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-male-rats
#11
Fernanda Yamamoto Ricardo-da-Silva, Evelyn Thaís Fantozzi, Sara Rodrigues-Garbin, Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho, Bernardo Boris Vargaftig, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Wothan Tavares de Lima
Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) triggers a systemic inflammatory response characterized by leukocyte mobilization from the bone marrow, release of cytokines to the circulation, and increased microvascular permeability, leading to high mortality. Females have shown attenuated inflammatory response to trauma when compared with males, indicating a role for female sex hormones in this process. Here, we have evaluated the effect of estradiol on the local gut injury induced by I/R in male rats. I/R was induced by the clamping of the superior mesenteric artery for 45 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906016/cxcl10-is-upregulated-in-synovium-and-cartilage-following-articular-fracture
#12
Bridgette D Furman, Collin L Kent, Janet L Huebner, Virginia B Kraus, Amy L McNulty, Farshid Guilak, Steven A Olson
The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of the chemokine CXCL10 and its role in joint tissues following articular fracture. We hypothesized that CXCL10 is upregulated following articular fracture and contributes to cartilage degradation associated with post-traumatic arthritis (PTA). To evaluate CXCL10 expression following articular fracture, gene expression was quantified in synovial tissue from knee joints of C57BL/6 mice that develop PTA following articular fracture, and MRL/MpJ mice that are protected from PTA...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905812/carbon-fiber-on-polyimide-ultra-microelectrodes
#13
Wintrop F Gillis, Charles A Lissandrello, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Alket Mertiri, Felix Deku, Stuart Cogan, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy M Otchy, Timothy Gardner
OBJECTIVE: Most preparations for making neural recordings degrade over time and eventually fail due to insertion trauma and reactive tissue response. The magnitudes of these responses are thought to be related to the electrode size (specifically, the cross-sectional area), the relative stiffness of the electrode, and the degree of tissue tolerance for the material. Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905728/what-are-physicians-responsibilities-to-patients-whose-health-conditions-can-influence-their-legal-proceedings
#14
David Beckmann
Correctional populations are disproportionately affected by conditions that affect cognition, such as psychiatric illness and head trauma. Honoring bioethical principles in the care of such patients can be particularly difficult in the correctional setting. However, the approach should not change markedly because a patient is incarcerated. That is, the same standards of respecting patient autonomy and confidentiality should be maintained, and the fact that correctional populations are already marginalized makes it all the more important for clinicians to honor these principles...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904675/von-willebrand-s-disease-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
Hanae Echahdi, Brahim El Hasbaoui, Mohamed El Khorassani, Aomar Agadr, Mohamed Khattab
Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is the most common human inherited bleeding disorder due to a defect of Von Willebrand Factor (VWF), which a glycoprotein crucial for platelet adhesion to the subendothelium after vascular injury. VWD include quantitative defects of VWF, either partial (type 1 with VWF levels < 50 IU/dL) or virtually total (type 3 with undetectable VWF levels) and also qualitative defects of VWF (type 2 variants with discrepant antigenic and functional VWF levels). The most bleeding forms of VWD usually do not concern type 1 patients with the mildest VWF defects (VWF levels between 30 and 50IU/dL)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903969/healing-journey-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-healing-experiences-of-americans-suffering-from-trauma-and-illness
#16
John Glenn Scott, Sara L Warber, Paul Dieppe, David Jones, Kurt C Stange
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate pathways to healing for people having suffered injury to the integrity of their function as a human being. METHODS: A team of physician-analysts conducted thematic analyses of in-depth interviews of 23 patients who experienced healing, as identified by six primary care physicians purposefully selected as exemplary healers. RESULTS: People in the sample experienced healing journeys that spanned a spectrum from overcoming unspeakable trauma and then becoming healers themselves to everyday heroes functioning well despite ongoing serious health challenges...
September 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903663/the-shadows-of-the-past-effects-of-historical-group-trauma-on-current-intergroup-conflicts
#17
Noa Schori-Eyal, Yechiel Klar, Sonia Roccas, Andrew McNeill
We examined associations between two orientations based on historical group trauma, a form of enduring group victimhood (Perpetual Ingroup Victimhood Orientation [PIVO]) and the belief that one's group might itself become a victimizer (Fear of Victimizing [FOV]), and attitudes, cognitions, and emotions related to intergroup conflicts. PIVO was positively and FOV was negatively related to aggressive attitudes and emotions toward the outgroup (Studies 1a-1c, Israeli-Palestinian conflict), and to the attribution of responsibility for a series of hostilities to the outgroup (Study 3, Israeli-Palestinian conflict)...
April 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900824/external-nasal-neuralgia-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Hida Nierenburg, Morgane Swift Morris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: External nasal neuralgia is a rare syndrome of atypical facial pain for which there is limited reports in the scientific literature. We aim to review diagnosis and provide an update on treatments for this rare condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Etiology has been documented as post-traumatic due to direct trauma to the nose area and in few case reports, idiopathic. Sensory innervation of the nose arises from the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve...
September 13, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899559/emergency-general-surgery-and-trauma-outcomes-from-the-first-consultant-led-service-in-singapore
#19
Sachin Mathur, Woan Wui Lim, Tiong Thye Goo
INTRODUCTION: There is a significant burden on public health systems from emergency surgical and trauma (ESAT) patients. In Western countries, the response has been to separate acute and elective surgery with the creation of a new sub-specialty: acute care surgery. Dedicated acute units have shown improvements in efficiency and clinical outcomes for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the results of the first such unit in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of a 12-month period of acute admissions between May 2014 and April 2015, with comparison of 6-months before and after the creation of the ESAT service...
September 5, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899435/optimizing-visits-to-the-site-of-death-for-bereaved-families-after-disasters-and-terrorist-events
#20
Pål Kristensen, Atle Dyregrov, Lars Weisæth, Marianne Straume, Kari Dyregrov, Trond Heir, Renate Grønvold Bugge
In recent years it has been common after disasters and terrorist events to offer bereaved families the opportunity to visit the place where their loved ones died. Many report that such visits are beneficial in processing their loss. Various factors, both cognitive (eg, counteracting disbelief) and existential or emotional (eg, achieving a sense of closeness to the deceased), are associated with the experienced benefit. Nonetheless, exacerbations of trauma and grief reactions (eg, re-enactment fantasies) are common, with some of the bereaved also reporting adverse reactions after the visit...
September 13, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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