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Gladys E Ibañez, Elaine Whitt, Tenesha Avent, Steve S Martin, Leah M Varga, Miguel A Cano, Daniel J O'Connell
OBJECTIVES: Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV in the US, and account for 30% of all HIV infections in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The main risk for Latina women is heterosexual contact. Little is known about the relational and cultural factors that may impact women's HIV risk perception. This study aims to describe Latina women's perception of their HIV risk within a relational, cultural, and linguistic context. DESIGN: Eight focus groups of Latina women (n = 28), four English speaking groups and four Spanish speaking groups, were conducted between December 2013 and May 2014...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Mauro Castelló González, Reinaldo Pons Vásquez, David Rodriguez Bencomo, Imti Choonara
Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration...
October 18, 2016: Children
Dennis Pérez, Marta Castro, Ángel Manuel Álvarez, Lizet Sánchez, María Eugenia Toledo, Damayanti Matos, Patrick Van der Stuyft, Pierre Lefèvre
Objective To identify facilitators and barriers to the process of translating community empowerment strategies into the practice of the national Aedes aegypti control program in Cuba. Methods A case study of the process was conducted from 2005 to 2009 at national and provincial levels of the control program. Data from participant observation, in-depth interviews, and document analysis were triangulated and analyzed inductively and deductively. Results The main facilitators identified included a proposal for an empowerment strategy effective in reducing Aedes aegypti infestation, which was explained in such a way that it could be implemented by program staff; and a control program with national coverage capable of implementing the proposal...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Martin Perez-Santos, Maricruz Anaya-Ruiz, Cindy Bandala
BACKGROUND: Data mining publications and patent data can provide decision support for scientists, inventors and industry in the field of cancer research. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this article it to identify trends of research and patent generation productivity originating from Latin American countries in the field of cancer. METHOD: Publications were collected from the Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed database; and patents were collected from Latipat Espacenet databases...
October 13, 2016: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Channa Jayasumana, Carlos Orantes, Raul Herrera, Miguel Almaguer, Laura Lopez, Luis Carlos Silva, Pedro Ordunez, Sisira Siribaddana, Sarath Gunatilake, Marc E De Broe
Increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed in Central America, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries. It is named chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC). CINAC is defined as a form of CKD that affects mainly young men, occasionally women. Its aetiology is not linked to diabetes, hypertension, glomerulopathies or other known causes. CINAC patients live and work in poor agricultural communities located in CINAC endemic areas with a hot tropical climate, and are exposed to toxic agrochemicals through work, by ingestion of contaminated food and water, or by inhalation...
October 13, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Boris C Rodríguez-Martín, Marco Innamorati, Claudio Imperatori, Mariantonietta Fabbricatore, Désirée Harnic, Luigi Janiri, Saira R Rivas-Suárez
This study aims to investigate eating behaviors in Cuban adults and compare them with those of a developed Western country, Italy. The study also aimed to determine the overall accuracy of a predictive model intended to define variables which could be used to discriminate between nationalities. Participants were 283 normal weight individuals from Cuba (n = 158) and Italy (n = 125). Italians had higher scores for restrained eating on the questionnaire than Cubans with a considerable effect size. This trend was also found for emotional eating and binge eating, as well as number of current dieters, despite the fact that effect sizes were small...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
L Lera, H Sánchez, B Ángel, C Albala
OBJECTIVES: To validate the short-form of the MNA (MNA-SF) and the cut-off point of 31 cm for calf circumference (CC) in older people in Latin America. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5,722 community-dwelling older subjects (range: 60-102 years) in Latin America´s five main cities: Sao Paulo (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Havana (Cuba), Mexico DF (Mexico) and Montevideo (Uruguay). All participants underwent an interview, which included anthropometric measurements, completing the MNA and obtaining socio-demographic, nutrition and health information...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Lauren Arnesen, Pablo Durán, Juan Silva, Luisa Brumana
Objective To consolidate available information from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region on 1) national incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 2) national-level government inputs on ROP (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in 2014. Methods In March and April 2015, a multi-country online survey was distributed to 56 medical and public health experts working on ROP in LAC countries. Respondents were instructed to provide quantitative and qualitative information representative of the national situation in 2014 for ROP incidence and national-level government inputs (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in their country...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Dulce María Martínez Pereira, Yadira Álvarez Rodríguez, Yamila Cedeño Valdés, Silvia Delgado Ribas
Regulatory control of medical devices in Cuba is conducted through a system based on the Regulatory Program for Medical Devices as a way to ensure the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of these technologies, which are in use by the National Health System. This program was launched in 1992, when the Regulations for State Evaluation and Registration of Medical Devices were approved. Its successive stages and the merging of regulatory activities for drugs and medical equipment have meant progress toward stronger, more transparent strategies and greater control of industry and the National Health System...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Celeste Aurora Sánchez González
Objective To review, organize, and share the experience of the regulatory authorities of countries involved in a project headed by the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Americas (ALBA) for the establishment of a regulatory center (ALBAMED) and a single registry to facilitate access to essential medicines while ensuring quality, safety, and effectiveness, as well as to demonstrate how the construction of this forum for regional cooperation has benefited these authorities and their respective regulatory systems...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Valerie A Gerriets, Rigel J Kishton, Marc O Johnson, Sivan Cohen, Peter J Siska, Amanda G Nichols, Marc O Warmoes, Aguirre A de Cubas, Nancie J MacIver, Jason W Locasale, Laurence A Turka, Andrew D Wells, Jeffrey C Rathmell
CD4(+) effector T cells (Teff cells) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) undergo metabolic reprogramming to support proliferation and immunological function. Although signaling via the lipid kinase PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase), the serine-threonine kinase Akt and the metabolic checkpoint kinase complex mTORC1 induces both expression of the glucose transporter Glut1 and aerobic glycolysis for Teff cell proliferation and inflammatory function, the mechanisms that regulate Treg cell metabolism and function remain unclear...
October 3, 2016: Nature Immunology
Katarzyna Pisanski, Emanuel C Mora, Annette Pisanski, David Reby, Piotr Sorokowski, Tomasz Frackowiak, David R Feinberg
Several mammalian species scale their voice fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies in competitive and mating contexts, reducing vocal tract and laryngeal allometry thereby exaggerating apparent body size. Although humans' rare capacity to volitionally modulate these same frequencies is thought to subserve articulated speech, the potential function of voice frequency modulation in human nonverbal communication remains largely unexplored. Here, the voices of 167 men and women from Canada, Cuba, and Poland were recorded in a baseline condition and while volitionally imitating a physically small and large body size...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marília Daniella Machado Araújo Cavalcante, Liliana Müller Larocca, Maria Marta Nolasco Chaves, Márcia Regina Cubas, Laura Christina Macedo Piosiadlo, Verônica de Azevedo Mazza
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the use of nursing terminology as an instrument of the nursing work process in Collective Health. METHOD: Exploratory case study. For data collection was conducted a group interview with 24 nurses working in health units of a municipality in south central Paraná, Brazil. Data were analyzed in the light of interdependence between the structural, particular and singular dimensions contained in the Theory of Nursing Praxis Intervention in Collective Health...
July 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Brian A Mondeja, Nadia M Rodríguez, Brenda Barroto, Orestes Blanco, Jørgen S Jensen
Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M...
2016: PloS One
Marion Piñeros, Mónica S Sierra, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in the world. In Central and South America lung cancer is now one of most frequent cancers and the leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes. We describe patterns and trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Central and South America and give a brief overview of the current status of tobacco control measures based on the most recent MPOWER report. METHODS: We obtained regional and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Monica S Sierra, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The colorectal cancer (CRC) burden is increasing in Central and South American due to an ongoing transition towards higher levels of human development. We describe the burden of CRC in the region and review the current status of disease control. METHODS: We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries, as well as cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Sandra Perdomo, Guillermo Martin Roa, Paul Brennan, David Forman, Mónica S Sierra
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Central and South America comprise one of the areas characterized by high incidence rates for head and neck cancer. We describe the geographical and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of head and neck cancers in the Central and South American region in order to identify opportunities for intervention on the major identified risk factors: tobacco control, alcohol use and viral infections. METHODS: We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
David Forman, Monica S Sierra
Central and South American countries (including Cuba) are experiencing rapid socio-demographic and epidemiologic changes and the nature of health problems are undergoing transition from infectious to chronic diseases, including cancer. Countries are poorly prepared to respond effectively to the subsequent challenges posed by the new patterns of disease. Existing data delineating the number of cancer cases and the distribution of cancer types from each country in the region are sparse due to limitations on health information systems for recording incidence and mortality despite improvements made in recent years...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Mónica S Sierra, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Sébastien Antoni, Mathieu Laversanne, Marion Piñeros, Esther de Vries, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Cancer burden is increasing in Central and South America (CSA). We describe the current burden of cancer in CSA. METHODS: We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer mortality data from the WHO (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 person-years. RESULTS: The leading cancers diagnosed were prostate, lung, breast, cervix, colorectal, and stomach, which were also the primary causes of cancer mortality...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Gustavo Kusminsky, Graciela Abriata, David Forman, Mónica S Sierra
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is largely curable owing to improvements in treatment since the 1960s; nevertheless, high mortality rates have been reported in Central and South America. We describe the current burden of HL in the Central and South American region. METHODS: We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries, and national-level mortality data from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
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