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Geralyn R Timler
Conversation skills are an important intervention focus for verbally fluent school-aged children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three sets of approaches for supporting conversation skills are reviewed. Pragmatic language approaches focus on teaching the verbal and nonverbal skills needed to initiate and maintain conversations including strategies for recognizing and repairing communication breakdowns. Social skill approaches focus on similar conversation behaviors, but these behaviors are usually taught for use within specific social tasks such as entering peer groups, maintaining interactions, and resolving conflicts...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cédric Annweiler, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Andrea Tortosa-Rodríguez, Anna Guillén-Solà, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Josep M Muniesa, Ester Marco
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a prevalent condition related to adverse outcomes in older people. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic capacity of the malnutrition criteria of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) with other classical diagnostic tools. METHODS: Cohort study of 102 consecutive in-patients ≥70 years admitted for postacute rehabilitation. Patients were considered malnourished if their Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) score was ≤11 and serum albumin <3 mg/dL or MNA-SF ≤ 11, serum albumin <3 mg/dL, and usual clinical signs and symptoms of malnutrition...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Kamila Szymanska, Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Tanya Eadie, Lauren Faust, Susan Bolt, Mara Kapsner-Smith, Rebecca Hunting Pompon, Carolyn Baylor, Neal Futran, Eduardo Méndez
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contribution of psychosocial factors, including perceived social support, depression, and resilience to communicative participation, among adult survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC). Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting University-based laboratory and speech clinic. Subjects and Methods Adult survivors of HNC who were at least 2 years posttreatment for HNC completed patient-reported outcome measures, including those related to communicative participation and psychosocial function...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Ciarán Condon, Jéremie Piton, Frédérique Braun
We recently identified a novel ribonuclease in Bacillus subtilis called Rae1 that cleaves mRNAs in a translation-dependent manner. Rae1 is a member of the NYN/PIN family of ribonucleases and is highly conserved in the Firmicutes, the Cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic algae and plants. We have proposed a model in which Rae1 enters the A-site of ribosomes that are paused following translation of certain sequences that are still ill-defined. In the only case identified thus far, Rae1 cleaves between a conserved glutamate and lysine codon during translation of a short peptide called S1025...
March 20, 2018: RNA Biology
Valentina O Puntmann, Andreas M Zeiher, Eike Nagel
Myocarditis and its sequelae remain an unconquered clinical problem, disproportionately affecting the young. Several hurdles beset myocarditis, including nonspecific symptoms, heterogeneous clinical presentation, dynamic disease stages, underscored by an absence of an easy diagnostic test or a specific treatment. Areas covered: The current diagnostic means are poorly equipped to counter the challenge; the gold standard by invasive endomyocardial biopsy relies on availability of expert procedural and reading skill...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Tamer Sekmenli, Metin Gündüz, Hikmet Akbulut, H Haldun Emiroglu, Mustafa Koplay, Ilhan Ciftci
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is used as an alternative to enteral/nasoenteral feeding in situations where long-term oral feeding is ineffective or not tolerated. It is mostly preferred in patients with neurological conditions and also to support nutrition in patients with congenital heart diseases, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and various oropharyngeal diseases. Although it is easily applicable compared to many invasive procedures, it has complications ranging from wound infection to death...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
C Kaewpila, K Sommart, M Mitsumori
The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Miranda E Spindel, Matthew R Krecic, Margaret R Slater, Nicole Vigil
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Aileigh Kay, Jason B Coe, Ian Young, David Pearl
Millions of companion animals are relinquished to shelters each year. For each dog entering, their characteristics and the characteristics of the shelter holding him/her influence their time to adoption. Using a Cox proportional hazards frailty model, these issues were explored using data from 31 shelters within the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals shelter system. Results indicated that surrender reason, age, original source, coat color, breed, human population density of the shelter location, and year the nonhuman animal entered the shelter significantly influenced time to adoption...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Michael A Überall
BACKGROUND: Transient exacerbation of pain in cancer patients (breakthrough cancer pain, BTCP) despite adequately controlled background pain should be regarded as an independent disease and receive targeted treatment. The opioid of choice is fentanyl, a rapid onset and highly potent WHO category III analgesic. Fentanyl has a strong first pass effect when administered orally and resorbed enterally, however it is well suited for transmucosal administration, e.g. on the oral or nasal mucosa...
October 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
M Ruggeri, M Basile, C Drago, F R Rolli, A Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Until very recently the only therapeutic alternative for the management of patients affected by gout/hyperuricemia that did not respond to a first-line treatment based on allopurinol alone or who cannot tolerate allopurinol was febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase non-purine-selective inhibitor. Lately, however, a new therapeutic alternative has become available for the management of this pathology: lesinurad, a urate transporter inhibitor. OBJECTIVE: To objective of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of lesinurad/allopurinol in comparison with febuxostat as a second-line therapeutic strategy for the management of patients affected by gout and hyperuricemia that did not respond to a first-line therapy based on allopurinol alone...
March 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Patrick Levallois, Prabjit Barn, Mathieu Valcke, Denis Gauvin, Tom Kosatsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lead can enter drinking water from lead service lines and lead-containing plumbing, particularly in the presence of corrosive water. We review the current evidence on the role of drinking water as a source of lead exposure and its potential impacts on health, with an emphasis on children. Drinking water guidelines and mitigation strategies are also presented. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of lead on neurodevelopmental effects in children even at low levels of exposure is well established...
March 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
M Di Giulio, V Di Valerio, D Bosco, E Marsich, A Cataldi, L Cellini, S Sancilio
The molecular mechanisms leading to Streptococcus mitis capability of entering oral cells were investigated in a co-culture of S. mitis and Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) in the presence of saliva. An innovative colloidal solution based on silver nanoparticles (Chitlac-nAg), a promising device for daily oral care, was added to the experimental system in order to study the effects of silver on the bacterial overgrowth and ability to enter non-phagocytic eukaryotic cells. The entry of bacteria into the eukaryotic cells is mediated by a signalling pathway involving FAK, integrin β1, and the two cytoskeleton proteins vinculin and F-actin, and down-regulated by the presence of saliva both at 3 and 48 h of culture, whereas Chitlac-n Ag exposure seems to influence, by incrementing it, the number of bacteria entering the fibroblasts only at 48 h...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Bram Verstockt, Marc Ferrante, Séverine Vermeire, Gert Van Assche
The advent of anti-TNF agents has dramatically changed the treatment algorithms for IBD in the last 15 years, but primarily and more importantly secondary loss of response is often observed. Fortunately , new treatment options have been actively explored and some have already entered our clinical practice. In the class of anti-cytokine agents, the anti-IL12/IL23 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have entered clinical practice with the anti-p40 mAb ustekinumab in Crohn's disease (CD). Also, more selective anti-IL23 agents (anti-p19) have shown efficacy and are being further developed, in contrast to agents inhibiting IL-17 downstream which have failed in clinical trials despite their clear efficacy in psoriasis (Verstockt et al...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
A Wufuer, P Mijiti, R Abudusalamu, H Dengfeng, C Jian, M Jianhua, Z Xiaoning
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different blood pressure (BP) parameters on the collateral circulation in a retrospective cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke and ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. METHODS: The degree of intracranial collaterals was graded according to the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) Collateral Flow Grading System...
March 20, 2018: Herz
Kosmas L Tsakmakidis, Pankaj K Jha, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang
Self-organized criticality emerges in dynamical complex systems driven out of equilibrium and characterizes a wide range of classical phenomena in physics, geology, and biology. We report on a quantum coherence-controlled self-organized critical transition observed in the light localization behavior of a coherence-driven nanophotonic configuration. Our system is composed of a gain-enhanced plasmonic heterostructure controlled by a coherent drive, in which photons close to the stopped-light regime interact in the presence of the active nonlinearities, eventually synchronizing their dynamics...
March 2018: Science Advances
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