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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967810/scuba-diving-death-always-due-to-drowning-two-forensic-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
I Aquila, F Pepe, M Manno, P Frati, S Gratteri, V Fineschi, P Ricci
Scuba diving is an increasingly common recreational activity. We describe the physiopathology of barotrauma in two cases where death was caused by pulmonary barotrauma while diving. An inspection and autopsy were carried out in both cases. The autopsy data were supported by post-mortem radiological investigation. Histological and toxicological analyses were also carried out, and dive computer and tank manometer analysis performed. In both cases, the cause of death was attributable to arterial gas embolism, resulting from pulmonary barotrauma subsequent to pulmonary over-distension...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886433/sudden-death-in-a-child-caused-by-a-giant-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-anterior-mediastinum
#2
Yui Igari, Shirushi Takahashi, Akihito Usui, Yusuke Kawasumi, Masato Funayama
A 4-year-old girl who had been treated for asthma since the age of 2 years had a severe coughing fit and died suddenly. The patient had a history of occasional severe coughing fits, and these fits had been worsening in severity during the week before her death. Prior to death, she was taken to a clinician, and thymic hypertrophy was suspected based on chest X-ray findings. The clinician recommended that she visit a general hospital at a later date; however, she died that night. Postmortem radiology and autopsy revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum compressing the heart and airway, and no other findings attributable to sudden death were observed...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866283/traumatic-brain-injury-comparison-between-autopsy-and-ante-mortem-ct
#3
Stephanie Panzer, Lidia Covaliov, Peter Augat, Oliver Peschel
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare pathological findings after traumatic brain injury between autopsy and ante-mortem computed tomography (CT). A second aim was to identify changes in these findings between the primary posttraumatic CT and the last follow-up CT before death. METHODS: Through the collaboration between clinical radiology and forensic medicine, 45 patients with traumatic brain injury were investigated. These patients had undergone ante-mortem CT as well as autopsy...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819715/automatic-detection-of-hemorrhagic-pericardial-effusion-on-pmct-using-deep-learning-a-feasibility-study
#4
Lars C Ebert, Jakob Heimer, Wolf Schweitzer, Till Sieberth, Anja Leipner, Michael Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi
Post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) can be used as a triage tool to better identify cases with a possibly non-natural cause of death, especially when high caseloads make it impossible to perform autopsies on all cases. Substantial data can be generated by modern medical scanners, especially in a forensic setting where the entire body is documented at high resolution. A solution for the resulting issues could be the use of deep learning techniques for automatic analysis of radiological images. In this article, we wanted to test the feasibility of such methods for forensic imaging by hypothesizing that deep learning methods can detect and segment a hemopericardium in PMCT...
August 18, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764139/atlantooccipital-fusion-prevalence-and-its-developmental-and-clinical-correlation
#5
D K Sharma, Deepak Sharma, Vandana Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Atlantooccipital fusion or occipitalization of atlas or assimilation of atlas is a rare or uncommon abnormality recorded in anatomical, morphological and radiological studies. It is usually associated with reduction in dimensions of foramen magnum leading to acute or chronic neurovascular compression and clinical manifestations of varying severity. Though, atlantooccipital fusion is rare but it is important and significant for the physicians and surgeons for their diagnostic and therapeutic approach...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756305/age-assessment-in-canine-and-premolar-by-cervical-axial-sections-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#6
Hichem Nemsi, Nidhal Haj Salem, Ines Bouanene, Sami Ben Jomaa, Meriem Belhadj, Mohamed Amin Mosrati, Abir Aissaoui, Faten Ben Amor, Ali Chadly
Age estimation in adults is a challenge in both anthropological and forensic situations compared to sub-adults age estimation. The present study explored, for the first time, the cervical zone of single rooted teeth. The deposition of secondary dentin is responsible for a decrease in the volume of the dental pulp cavity with aging, and therefore is often used as an age indicator. The current study aimed at estimating the chronological age among adults by measuring the pulp/dentin area ratio (physiological ratio) by axial sections at cervical region of maxillary canine and mandibular second premolar...
September 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737525/death-by-snow-a-fatal-forensic-case-of-cocaine-leakage-in-a-drug-mule-on-postmortem-computed-and-magnetic-resonance-tomography-compared-with-autopsy
#7
Patricia Mildred Flach, Dominic Gascho, René Fader, Rosita Martinez, Michael J Thali, Lars C Ebert
This forensic case presents unique postmortem imaging of a "drug mule" with fatal intoxication due to cocaine leakage on postmortem computed and magnetic resonance (MR) tomography compared with autopsy.Imaging by postmortem computed and MR tomography was performed before autopsy, histology, and toxicology were commissioned. Forensic imaging revealed 91 hyperdense, uniformly shaped body packs with signs of leakage, which was confirmed by autopsy. Postmortem MR imaging displayed the rarely described hypointense appearance of the body packs in T1- and T2-weighted sequences...
December 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718258/variations-in-the-age-of-fusion-of-ischial-tuberosity-a-radiological-study
#8
Hina Siddiqi, Sarah Nisar, Nazish Waheed
BACKGROUND: Human skeleton develops from separate ossification centres which continue to ossify till the bone is completely formed. Radiological techniques are very reliable and useful method for estimating the age of individual for forensic and criminal reasons by observing these ossification centres. External inspection for age determination is liable to error. This study is thus aimed to assess the variation in age of fusion of ischial tuberosity in Pakistani population. METHODS: It was a cross sectional study, wherein data was retrospectively collected at Bahawalpur Victoria Hospital, a tertiary referral centre in which consecutively selected 47 females and 121 males between 10-24 years of age, attending the outpatient, referred from National Database and Registration Authority for the confirmation of age were selected...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697737/radiologic-evaluation-of-orbital-index-among-ghanaians-using-ct-scan
#9
Benard Ohene Botwe, Derick Seyram Sule, Abdul Mumin Ismael
BACKGROUND: Orbital index (OI) expresses the proportion of the orbital height to the orbital width and varies with race, regions within the same race and periods in evolution. This index is useful in forensic medicine, anthropology and surgery. However, the average OI among Ghanaian adults was unknown. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the orbital index of adult Ghanaians and classify them under one of the three predetermined groups. METHOD: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685296/methamphetamine-induced-toxic-leukoencephalopathy-clinical-radiological-and-autopsy-findings
#10
Jiao Mu, Meiyu Li, Ying Guo, Bin Lv, Mingjie Qiu, Hongmei Dong
Toxic leukoencephalopathy represents a process of structural alteration of the white matter. It is caused by substance abuse including drugs such as heroin, cocaine, toluene and ethanol. We reported the clinical, radiological and autopsy findings of a rare case of toxic leukoencephalopathy following chronic methamphetamine (MA) usage. A 34-year-old man with a 3-year history of MA abuse experienced progressive sluggish state, limb weakness, inability to stand and eating disorders, followed by rapid progression to coma and death...
July 6, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656955/-mri-diagnostics-of-bone-marrow-oedema-and-its-significance-for-the-forensic-medical-evaluation-of-the-injuries-to-bones-and-articulations
#11
REVIEW
V A Fetisov, K Yu Kulinkovich
The objective of the present study was the analysis of the publications in the literature dealing with radiological methods employed for the diagnostics of injuries to and diseases of the bones and articulations as well as the role of bone marrow oedema in the development of these conditions in the specific context of the problems facing forensic medical expertise. The main results of the domestic and foreign authors concerning MRI-based investigations into the nature of injuries and other pathological changes in bones and articulations during different periods after their development are discussed with the major emphasis placed on diagnostics of bone marrow oedema...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641319/understanding-scuba-diving-fatalities-carbon-dioxide-concentrations-in-intra-cardiac-gas
#12
Vincent Varlet, Alejandro Dominguez, Marc Augsburger, Maisy Lossois, Coraline Egger, Cristian Palmiere, Raquel Vilarino, Silke Grabherr
INTRODUCTION: Important developments in the diagnosis of scuba diving fatalities have been made thanks to forensic imaging tool improvements. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits reliable interpretation of the overall gaseous distribution in the cadaver. However, due to post-mortem delay, the radiological interpretation is often doubtful because the distinction between gas related to the dive and post-mortem decomposition artifactual gases becomes less obvious. METHODS: We present six cases of fatal scuba diving showing gas in the heart and other vasculature...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631433/forensic-radiology-pitfalls-ct-imaging-in-gunshot-wounds-of-the-head
#13
Mark A Giffen, Jason A Powell, Jerri McLemore
Computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasingly used in emergency departments and trauma services and is being offered as a supplemental tool with autopsy in coroner's and medical examiner's offices throughout the United States. The availability of CT images in lieu of traditional X-rays for medicolegal autopsies may lead to misinterpretation of images for forensic pathologists who are not familiar with these types of images. Forensic pathologists must become familiar with CT imaging, the basis of CT image formation and how to interpret CT images appropriately...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584482/age-and-gender-assessment-through-three-dimensional-morphometric-analysis-of-maxillary-sinus-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Sanda Usha Rani, Guttikonda Venkateswara Rao, Dumpala Rakesh Kumar, Taneeru Sravya, Yeluri Sivaranjani, Manchikatla Praveen Kumar
BACKGROUND: Age and sex determinations are important tools in forensic odontology which help in the identification of an individual. Radiographic method of sex and age estimation is a noninvasive simple technique. Measurements of the maxillary sinuses can be used for the estimation of age and gender when other methods are inconclusive. Maxillary sinus dimensions were used as an important tool in the identification of unknown. AIM: This study aims to estimate age and sex using the dimensions and volume of the maxillary sinus in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526949/antemortem-identification-by-fusion-of-mr-and-ct-of-the-paranasal-sinuses
#15
Jakob Heimer, Dominic Gascho, Simon Gentile, Gary M Hatch, Michael J Thali, Thomas D Ruder
Radiologic forensic identification is usually performed by comparing antemortem and postmortem radiographs. While computed tomography (CT) has become a valuable addition to radiologic identification, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has only rarely been used for this purpose. In our case, identification was accomplished using fused MR- and CT images in a survivor of a gunshot injury to the head. This case supports and highlights the possibility to perform intermodality radiologic identification comparing preexisting MR imaging to subsequently aquired CT data in living (or deceased) humans as long as manual modifications of windowing, color and contrast enable differentiation of the two modalities in the fused image...
May 20, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500091/forensic-age-estimation-using-the-medial-clavicular-epiphysis-a-study-review
#16
Mary B Buckley, Kevin R Clark
PURPOSE: To discuss current literature evaluating the medial clavicular epiphysis to assess an individual's age using various imaging modalities. METHODS: Four scholarly research databases were searched to find studies that examined living subjects. Several articles were included that used cadavers, and a textbook was used to detail the anatomy of the clavicle. Thirty-nine articles were analyzed. RESULTS: The literature indicated that several imaging modalities, including conventional radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and sonography, are being used to evaluate the medial clavicular epiphysis to estimate an individual's age in the forensic context...
May 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498136/gunshot-wound-in-an-18-year-old-woman-inflicted-with-a-hunting-weapon-through-an-obstacle-mobile-phone-reconstruction-of-events
#17
Anna Smędra, Przemysław Sidelnik, Wojciech Goryca, Jarosław Berent
The article presents a case of an 18-year-old woman wounded by a shot fired from a distance with a hunting weapon. Because the location of the entrance and exit wounds initially seemed inconsistent with the reports (both wounds were described as "large and irregular in shape") and no photographs documenting the inflicted injuries were taken, the case was referred for an opinion to the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lodz. After a review of the medical records, radiology, the victim's clothing, and performance of an experiment using the gun and ammunition, it was established that the entrance wound was located on the abdomen, and the exit wound was located on the buttock...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444439/back-to-the-future-part-2-post-mortem-assessment-and-evolutionary-role-of-the-bio-medicolegal-sciences
#18
REVIEW
Santo Davide Ferrara, Giovanni Cecchetto, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Thomas Bajanowski
Part 2 of the review "Back to the Future" is dedicated to the evolutionary role of the bio-medicolegal sciences, reporting the historical profiles, the state of the art, and prospects for future development of the main related techniques and methods of the ancillary disciplines that have risen to the role of "autonomous" sciences, namely, Genetics and Genomics, Toxicology, Radiology, and Imaging, involved in historic synergy in the "post-mortem assessment," together with the mother discipline Legal Medicine, by way of its primary fundament, universally denominated as Forensic Pathology...
July 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438096/venous-air-embolism-an-under-recognised-entity-in-blunt-force-trauma-and-the-importance-of-radiology
#19
Marna du Plessis, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Air embolism (AE) is considered a rare event and can be either iatrogenic or traumatic. Various post-mortem methods to detect AE exist, of which radiology is preferred. The presence of air in the heart can be demonstrated using special dissection techniques where the heart is opened under water or by needle puncture from a water-filled syringe. Three cases of blunt-force head injury are presented herein, with AE being diagnosed by conventional radiography using a Lodox Statscan® full-body digital X-ray machine in all cases...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364571/3d-multislice-and-cone-beam-computed-tomography-systems-for-dental-identification
#20
REVIEW
Hana Eliášová, Taťjana Dostálová
3D Multislice and Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in forensic odontology has been shown to be useful not only in terms of one or a few of dead bodies but also in multiple fatality incidents. 3D Multislice and Cone-beam computed tomography and digital radiography were demonstrated in a forensic examination form. 3D images of the skull and teeth were analysed and validated for long ante mortem/post mortem intervals. The image acquisition was instantaneous; the images were able to be optically enlarged, measured, superimposed and compared prima vista or using special software and exported as a file...
2017: Prague Medical Report
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