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forensic radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744586/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-fully-formed-wisdom-tooth-as-a-radiological-marker-of-adulthood
#1
Mattias Haglund, Håkan Mörnstad
Assessment of third molar development on dental radiograms is one of the most commonly used methods of forensic age estimation. Despite widespread use and numerous studies, there is a paucity of aggregated data on how well a fully mature third molar identifies adulthood (> 18 years), the most important threshold in a medicolegal context. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 1229 studies were screened, and 82 studies were assessed for inclusion. Twenty-four studies, with a pooled cohort of 19,690 individuals, presented true positive (TP), true negative (TN), false positive (FP), and false negative (FN) outcomes, enabling meta-analysis...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732941/measurement-of-cerebral-biomarkers-proving-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-post-mortem-body-fluids
#2
Benjamin Ondruschka, Monique Sieber, Holger Kirsten, Heike Franke, Jan Dressler
Until now, it is impossible to identify a fatal traumatic brain injury (TBI) before post-mortem radiological investigations or an autopsy take place. It would be preferable to have an additional diagnostic tool like post-mortem biochemistry to get greater insight into the pathological pathways and survival times after sustaining TBI. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of 84 autopsy cases were collected from forensic autopsies with post-mortem intervals (PMI) of up to 148 h. The cases were categorized into a fatal TBI case group (n=42) and non-TBI controls (n=42)...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657489/a-radiographic-survey-of-agenesis-of-the-third-molar-a-panoramic-study
#3
Nisha Singh, Shrinivas Chaudhari, Rohan Chaudhari, Sagar Nagare, Abhay Kulkarni, Pratik Parkarwar
Purpose: It is a well-known fact that nature tries to eliminate what is not in use. Because of this, the number of certain teeth which are no longer necessary for function are either getting increasingly impacted or are not developing at all. This is especially the case where third molars are concerned. Furthermore, the presence or absence of the third molar is significant to all branches of dentistry and in particular, forensic dentistry. Objectives: The objectives of this study is to assess (1) The prevalence of third molar agenesis in population of age group 18-25 years...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649020/autologous-bone-flap-resorption-years-after-subtemporal-craniotomy
#4
John Oladapo Obafunwa, Emily Hammerl, David Jaskierny, Livia Taylor, Lynette Russell, Karl Reinhard
In Spring of 2012, the partially undressed and skeletonized remains of a homeless adult Hispanic male was found in a fairly open wooded area in Nebraska. The remains showed evidence of extensive pathologies, which included healed traumas and surgeries. Examination of the decedent's medical records revealed that he had a history of kidney and liver problems, alcohol abuse, several traumas including a major head injury that necessitated a craniotomy, and radiological features of neurocysticercosis. The autologous bone flap, which was replaced after the craniotomy, had resorbed significantly away from the edges of the injury...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626838/integrated-computer-aided-forensic-case-analysis-presentation-and-documentation-based-on-multimodal-3d-data
#5
Alexander Bornik, Martin Urschler, Dieter Schmalstieg, Horst Bischof, Astrid Krauskopf, Thorsten Schwark, Eva Scheurer, Kathrin Yen
Three-dimensional (3D) crime scene documentation using 3D scanners and medical imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly applied in forensic casework. Together with digital photography, these modalities enable comprehensive and non-invasive recording of forensically relevant information regarding injuries/pathologies inside the body and on its surface. Furthermore, it is possible to capture traces and items at crime scenes. Such digitally secured evidence has the potential to similarly increase case understanding by forensic experts and non-experts in court...
March 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602150/identification-of-deceased-based-on-sternal-bone-computed-tomography-features
#6
Geraldine Weiss, Holger Wittig, Eva Scheurer, Rahel Ruprecht, Claudia Lenz
Identification of deceased with unclear identity is a common problem in forensic science, whereby radiologic comparison can be applied as method for identification. As this comparison is mostly made on a visual basis, it is highly dependent on the examiner and often lacks standardized procedures and statistical support. The aim of this study therefore was to develop a reproducible and examiner independent method for radiologic identification (RADid) based on morphometric and morphological features of sternal bone computed tomography (CT)...
March 17, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533475/british-neuropathological-society-and-international-society-of-forensic-radiology-and-imaging-expert-consensus-statement-for-post-mortem-neurological-imaging
#7
S C Shelmerdine, J C Hutchinson, S Al-Sarraj, N Cary, T Dawson, D Du Plessis, P G Ince, S McLaughlin, L Palm, C Smith, N Stoodley, R van Rijn, O J Arthurs, T S Jacques
AIMS: To develop an expert consensus statement regarding appropriate clinical and forensic post mortem neurological imaging. METHODS: An expert panel of clinicians were recruited from registered members of the British Neuropathological Society (BNS) and the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging (ISFRI) with post mortem expertise. Following a focus group meeting, 16 core statements were incorporated into an online modified Delphi survey and each panellist was asked to score their level of agreement...
March 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532818/age-assessment-in-orthodontics-and-general-dentistry
#8
Christian Kirschneck, Peter Proff
In dentistry, methods for determining age and the degree of dental and skeletal development play an important role, in particular in the assessment of developmental disorders of the dentition as well as in the planning of orthodontic interventions. Dentistry is also important in the field of forensics due to the possibility of age determination based on the dentition. In addition to anthropometric and morphologic methods, numerous biochemical, histologic, radiologic, and radiation-free imaging methods exist to determine the chronologic, but also dental and skeletal age of a person or a patient...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516251/carpals-and-epiphyses-of-radius-and-ulna-as-age-indicators-using-longitudinal-data-a-bayesian-approach
#9
Roberto Cameriere, Fiorella Bestetti, Luz Andrea Velandia Palacio, Giulia Riccomi, Edlira Skrami, Valentina Parente, Luigi Ferrante
The aim of this study is to develop a new formula for age estimation in a longitudinal study of a sample from the radiological collection of wrist bones of growing infants, children, and adolescents recorded at the Burlington Growth Centre. A sample of 82 individuals (43 boys and 39 girls), aged between 3 and 16 years, were analyzed with a total of 623 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones by measuring the area of carpal bones and epiphyses of the ulna and radius (Bo) and carpal area (Ca). The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and its 95% confidence interval were used to evaluate intra-observer agreement...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428451/comparison-of-the-applicability-of-demirjian-and-willems-methods-for-dental-age-estimation-in-children-from-the-thrace-region-turkey
#10
N Ozveren, G Serindere
OBJECTIVES: Dental age (DA) estimation is frequently used in the fields of orthodontics, paediatric dentistry and forensic science. DA estimation methods use radiology, and are reliable and non-destructive according to the literature. The Demirjian method is currently the most frequently used method, but recently, the Willems method was reported to have given results that were more accurate for some regions. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the accuracy of DA estimation methods for children and adolescents from the Thrace region, Turkey...
April 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426766/sequential-analyses-of-actinides-in-large-size-soil-and-sediment-samples-with-total-sample-dissolution
#11
Maoyi Luo, Shan Xing, Yonggang Yang, Lijuan Song, Yan Ma, Yadong Wang, Xiongxin Dai, Steffen Happel
There is a growing demand for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples for environmental monitoring and tracing, radiological protection, and nuclear forensic reasons. A total sample dissolution method based on lithium metaborate fusion, followed by sequential column chromatography separation, was developed for simultaneous determination of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in large-size environmental samples by alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometric techniques. The overall recoveries of both Pu and Am for the entire procedure were higher than 70% for large-size soil samples...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413991/gas-embolism-as-a-potential-cause-of-death-by-helium-poisoning-postmortem-computed-tomography-changes-in-two-cases-of-suicidal-helium-inhalation
#12
Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko, Agnieszka Dąbkowska
Evaluation of two suicidal helium inhalation cases is presented, comprising both conventional autopsy methods and postmortem computed tomography. Conventional postmortem examinations reveal no characteristic changes. Modern diagnostic techniques enabled to disclosethe presence of a very large amount of accumulated gas in all examined areas, including veins and arteries of the head, torso, lower extremities, heart chambers, and between muscle fibers in both cases. The changes due to possible putrefaction were taken into consideration - radiological alteration index was calculated...
March 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399730/postmortem-radiological-case-series-of-acetabular-fractures-after-fatal-aviation-accidents
#13
Henri M de Bakker, Melanie Tijsterman, Bela Kubat, Vidija Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Rick R van Rijn, Bernadette S de Bakker
The purpose of this study was to describe radiological fracture patterns of the acetabulum sustained after fatal small aircraft aviation accidents, aiming at facilitating a better understanding of trauma mechanisms in a forensic setting. Postmortem conventional radiographs or CT scans of 29 victims of 20 small aircraft aviation accidents were analyzed for skeletal acetabular trauma. Among the 29 fatalities (27 males and 2 females, median age 55 years (range: 21-76 years)), 20 victims had pelvic fractures (69%), of which 19 victims (66%) had one or more acetabular fractures...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391552/reducing-acquisition-time-for-mri-based-forensic-age-estimation
#14
Bernhard Neumayer, Matthias Schloegl, Christian Payer, Thomas Widek, Sebastian Tschauner, Thomas Ehammer, Rudolf Stollberger, Martin Urschler
Radiology-based estimation of a living person's unknown age has recently attracted increasing attention due to large numbers of undocumented immigrants entering Europe. To avoid the application of X-ray-based imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been suggested as an alternative imaging modality. Unfortunately, MRI requires prolonged acquisition times, which potentially represents an additional stressor for young refugees. To eliminate this shortcoming, we investigated the degree of reduction in acquisition time that still led to reliable age estimates...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357039/evolution-of-post-mortem-coronary-imaging-from-selective-coronary-arteriography-to-post-mortem-ct-angiography-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Emidio De Marco, Giuseppe Vacchiano, Paola Frati, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Santurro, Matteo Scopetti, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Vittorio Fineschi
Since the 1970s, remarkable efforts have been made in the post-mortem coronary study, especially by angiography, as an added tool to diagnose heart-related deaths. In more recent times, post-mortem CT (PMCT) and post-mortem CT-angiography (PMCTA) have become an established practice in numerous forensic units, because of the undeniable advantages these diagnostic instruments can offer: data acquisition times are increasingly fast, costs have become lower and, once acquired, data can be re-utilized and re-evaluated at any given time...
May 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348074/standardized-medical-image-registration-for-radiological-identification-of-decedents-based-on-paranasal-sinuses
#16
Dominic Gascho, Hinderberger Philipp, Patricia M Flach, Michael J Thali, Sören Kottner
Image registration software is frequently used in clinical radiology, e.g., for follow-up diagnosis. To a certain extent, the radiological identification of decedents (RadID) is comparable to a clinical follow-up diagnosis, in that two datasets from different dates are compared in terms of their anatomical characteristics (e.g., paranasal sinuses) or surgical implants. Due to the increasing use of computed tomography (CT) for head examinations in clinical radiology and the increased use of postmortem CT (PMCT) in forensic imaging, the comparison of three-dimensional (3D) clinical CT (termed as antemortem CT (AMCT) in this article) and PMCT datasets for RadID is becoming increasingly practical...
February 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310502/post-mortem-computed-tomography-technical-principles-and-recommended-parameter-settings-for-high-resolution-imaging
#17
Dominic Gascho, Michael J Thali, Tilo Niemann
Post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become a standard procedure in many forensic institutes worldwide. However, the standard scan protocols offered by vendors are optimised for clinical radiology and its main considerations regarding computed tomography (CT), namely, radiation exposure and motion artefacts. Thus, these protocols aim at low-dose imaging and fast imaging techniques. However, these considerations are negligible in post-mortem imaging, which allows for significantly increased image quality...
January 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225363/forensic-identification-of-decomposed-human-body-through-comparison-between-ante-mortem-and-post-mortem-ct-images-of-frontal-sinuses-case-report
#18
Rhonan Ferreira Silva, Fernando Fortes Picoli, Tessa de Lucena Botelho, Roberta Gomes Resende, Ademir Franco
Objective: The aim of this paper is to report on a case of positive human identification of a decomposed body after the comparison of ante-mortem (AM) and port-mortem (PM) computed tomography images of frontal sinus. Case report: An unknown, highly decomposed human body, aged between 30 and 40 years, was found in a forest region in Brazil. The dental autopsy revealed several teeth missing AM and the presence of removable partial prostheses. The search for AM data resulted in a sequence of 20 axial images of the paranasal sinuses obtained by Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT)...
September 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223918/postmortem-computed-tomography-findings-in-cases-of-bath-related-death-applicability-and-limitation-in-forensic-practice
#19
Satoko Mishima, Hideto Suzuki, Tatsushige Fukunaga, Yoko Nishitani
PURPOSE: Bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, and many of these deaths are diagnosed as death from disease without autopsy in the current Japanese death-investigation system. Therefore, we aimed to examine the postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of bath-related deaths to determine if PMCT can differentiate between real cases of drowning and sudden deaths not related to drowning. METHODS: Bath-related deaths were sampled from all autopsies conducted at the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from September 2015 to August 2016...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967810/scuba-diving-death-always-due-to-drowning-two-forensic-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
I Aquila, F Pepe, M Manno, P Frati, S Gratteri, V Fineschi, P Ricci
Scuba diving is an increasingly common recreational activity. We describe the physiopathology of barotrauma in two cases where death was caused by pulmonary barotrauma while diving. An inspection and autopsy were carried out in both cases. The autopsy data were supported by post-mortem radiological investigation. Histological and toxicological analyses were also carried out, and dive computer and tank manometer analysis performed. In both cases, the cause of death was attributable to arterial gas embolism, resulting from pulmonary barotrauma subsequent to pulmonary over-distension...
March 2018: Medico-legal Journal
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