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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914552/preserved-brains-from-the-spanish-civil-war-mass-grave-1936-at-la-pedraja1-burgos-spain
#1
Fernando Serrulla, Lourdes Herrasti, Carmen Navarro, Jose Luis Cascallana, Ana Maria Bermejo, Nicholas Marquez-Grant, Francisco Etxeberria
During the excavation of the Spanish Civil War mass grave at La Pedraja (Burgos, Spain), 104 individuals were found interred within it, 45 of which displayed brains that were preserved but dehydrated and reduced in size. This exceptional finding has resulted in the formation of a multidisciplinary team, with the aim of obtaining as much information as possible and to primarily understand the taphonomic phenomena that has led to the preservation of these brains. The following types of analyses were undertaken on three of these brains: macroscopy, histology, radiology, chemical-toxicology, genetics, chemical analysis of the soil and 3D modelling for stereolithography...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914549/age-of-fusion-of-the-distal-radial-and-ulnar-epiphyses-from-hand-radiographs-a-study-in-kashmiri-population
#2
Nida Hassan, Farida Noor, Shabir Ahmad, Khalid Majid Fazili
Age estimation is a crucial parameter involved in investigations pertaining to civil and criminal procedures. It also aids in various examinations in forensic medicine, pediatrics, endocrinology and radiology. One of the important methods for skeletal age estimation is the age of fusion of the epiphyses. But there occur variations in the skeletal ages due to environmental, hormonal, ethnic and other factors. Hence, there arises the need for separate standards of ossification for different regions. The present study was conducted to ascertain the age of fusion of the distal radial and ulnar epiphyses in Kashmiri population...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908672/forensic-age-estimation-in-anti-piracy-trials-in-seychelles-experiences-and-challenges-faced
#3
S A Gunawardena, U A Liyanage, J B Weeratna, N D N A Mendis, H J M Perera, R W Jayasekara, R Fernando
Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging...
November 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896540/variations-in-the-anatomy-of-the-vertebral-artery-cervical-loop-segment-a-potential-predisposing-factor-for-traumatic-basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Jonathan E Medcalf, C Paul Johnson, Azzam Taktak, Silke Grabherr
Fatal traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is a characteristic forensic pathological entity, the investigation of which requires special techniques. In Liverpool, post-mortem room angiography is undertaken, followed by complete removal of the vertebral arteries and histological examination. It has been observed that the arterial anatomy can be highly variable, particularly the length and course of the loop segments located between the C2 vertebra and the dura. In a number of cases of TBSAH the loop segments of torn vessels have appeared relatively short...
November 29, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896417/age-assessment-based-on-third-molar-mineralisation-an-epidemiological-radiological-study-on-a-central-european-population
#5
Elisabeth Hofmann, Matthias Robold, Peter Proff, Christian Kirschneck
PURPOSE: The method published in 1973 by Demirjian et al. to assess age based on the mineralisation stage of permanent teeth is standard practice in forensic and orthodontic diagnostics. From age 14 onwards, however, this method is only applicable to third molars. No current epidemiological data on third molar mineralisation are available for Caucasian Central-Europeans. Thus, a method for assessing age in this population based on third molar mineralisation is presented, taking into account possible topographic and gender-specific differences...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885431/forensic-age-assessment-of-asylum-seekers-in-finland
#6
Mari Metsäniitty, Olli Varkkola, Janna Waltimo-Sirén, Helena Ranta
In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859228/testing-a-novel-3d-printed-radiographic-imaging-device-for-use-in-forensic-odontology
#7
Tara L Newcomb, Ann M Bruhn, Bridget Giles, Hector M Garcia, Norou Diawara
There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833335/the-role-of-dentistry-in-disaster-management-and-victim-identification-an-overview-of-challenges-in-indo-nepal-scenario
#8
REVIEW
Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Purnima Singh, Deepak Passi, Don Varghese, Sarang Sharma
BACKGROUND: Recently, natural disasters and terrorist activities have been leading to mass casualty situations unexpectedly around the globe. In addition to the traditional emergency medical services centering around medically trained and paramedic personnel, dental practitioners having vital skills and attributes may be important in responding to a mass casualty situation. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at discussing the role of dentists in disaster management and the role of forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification (DVI), its status in India and some suggestions to develop the plans for same...
December 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824494/forensic-3d-visualization-of-ct-data-using-cinematic-volume-rendering-a-preliminary-study
#9
Lars C Ebert, Wolf Schweitzer, Dominic Gascho, Thomas D Ruder, Patricia M Flach, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi
OBJECTIVE: The 3D volume-rendering technique (VRT) is commonly used in forensic radiology. Its main function is to explain medical findings to state attorneys, judges, or police representatives. New visualization algorithms permit the generation of almost photorealistic volume renderings of CT datasets. The objective of this study is to present and compare a variety of radiologic findings to illustrate the differences between and the advantages and limitations of the current VRT and the physically based cinematic rendering technique (CRT)...
November 8, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815629/pulmonary-artery-perforation-and-coronary-air-embolism-two-fatal-outcomes-in-percutaneous-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion
#10
J Zwirner, R Bayer, C Hädrich, A Bollmann, N Klein, J Dreßler, B Ondruschka
Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is a routinely performed method to reduce the risk of stroke in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, when an oral anticoagulation is no longer indicated due to relevant bleeding complications. Currently, the Amplatzer Amulet and the Watchman system are two equally used systems. While there is an acute success rate of more than 95 per cent for this intervention, several minor and major complications such as pericardial effusions, air embolism, vascular lesions in proximity to the heart or even death can occur...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715016/differential-mobility-spectrometry-for-inorganic-filtration-in-nuclear-forensics
#11
Spiros Manolakos, Francy Sinatra, Leila Nikkhouy Albers, Kevin Hufford, James Alberti, Erkinjon G Nazarov, Theresa Evans-Nguyen
Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is applied to the analysis of inorganic mixtures relevant to nuclear forensics. Three primary components of potential radiological dispersal devices (RDDs): cobalt, cesium, and strontium, were studied by DMS to demonstrate rapid sample clean-up when coupled to mass spectrometry. Nanosprayed salt solutions comprised of stable analogs, as proxies to these radioisotopes, and isobaric interferents were introduced to DMS. The DMS effluent was directly coupled to a mass spectrometer to confirm the elemental identity of the separated clusters...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534562/sex-estimation-based-on-tooth-measurements-using-panoramic-radiographs
#12
Cezar Capitaneanu, Guy Willems, Reinhilde Jacobs, Steffen Fieuws, Patrick Thevissen
BACKGROUND: Sex determination is an important step in establishing the biological profile of unidentified human remains. AIM: The aims of the study were, firstly, to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in permanent teeth, based on digital tooth measurements performed on panoramic radiographs. Secondly, to identify sex-related tooth position-specific measurements or combinations of such measurements, and to assess their applicability for potential sex determination...
August 17, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465122/post-mortem-magnetic-resonance-foetal-imaging-a-study-of-morphological-correlation-with-conventional-autopsy-and-histopathological-findings
#13
Annamaria Vullo, Valeria Panebianco, Giuseppe Cannavale, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Luigi Cipolloni, Paola Frati, Alessandro Santurro, Francesco Vullo, Carlo Catalano, Vittorio Fineschi
The aim of the present study is to offer our experience concerning post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) in foetal death cases and an evaluation of the differences between the findings acquired by PMMR and by forensic autopsy. Fifteen foetuses were recruited from July 2014 to December 2015. These had suffered intrauterine death in women in the 21st to 38th week of gestation who were treated in the emergency department for non-perception of foetal movements. We performed a PMMR on foetuses, 3 ± 1 days on average from the time of death, and then a complete forensic autopsy was performed...
November 2016: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448110/new-bone-post-processing-tools-in-forensic-imaging-a-multi-reader-feasibility-study-to-evaluate-detection-time-and-diagnostic-accuracy-in-rib-fracture-assessment
#14
Philip A Glemser, Michael Pfleiderer, Anna Heger, Jan Tremper, Astrid Krauskopf, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Kathrin Yen, David Simons
PURPOSE: The aim of this multi-reader feasibility study was to evaluate new post-processing CT imaging tools in rib fracture assessment of forensic cases by analyzing detection time and diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty autopsy cases (20 with and 10 without rib fractures in autopsy) were randomly selected and included in this study. All cases received a native whole body CT scan prior to the autopsy procedure, which included dissection and careful evaluation of each rib...
July 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429888/interpretation-of-postmortem-head-computed-tomography-for-non-traumatic-in-hospital-deaths-by-non-radiologists-a-preliminary-study
#15
Asuka Araki, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Saki Takami, Nahoko Ishikawa, Chika Amano, Haruo Takeshita, Riruke Maruyama
PURPOSE: Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) has recently become important to clarify the cause of death in forensic medicine. It has also been proven to be useful for in-hospital deaths to a certain extent when interpreted by radiologists. However, accuracy of the interpretations of PMCT by non-radiologists remains to be elucidated. Nevertheless, they are often required to write death certificates based on the findings of PMCT in the absence of radiologists in Japan. We compared the interpretations of postmortem head CT (PMCT-H) by non-radiologists with the autopsy findings...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412272/espr-postmortem-imaging-task-force-where-we-begin
#16
REVIEW
Owen J Arthurs, Rick R van Rijn, Elspeth H Whitby, Karl Johnson, Elka Miller, Martin Stenzel, Andrew Watt, Ajay Taranath, David H Perry
A new task force on postmortem imaging was established at the annual meeting of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) in Graz, Austria, in 2015. The postmortem task force is separate from the child abuse task force as it covers all aspects of fetal, neonatal and non-forensic postmortem imaging. The main focus of the task force is the guidance and standardization of non-radiographic postmortem imaging, particularly postmortem CT and postmortem MRI. This manuscript outlines the starting point of the task force, with a mission statement, outline of current experience, and short- and long-term goals...
August 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390231/imaging-assessment-of-gunshot-injuries
#17
Kevin R Clark
Gunshot wounds are the third-leading cause of injury-related death nationwide. Most people with gunshot injuries undergo diagnostic imaging to evaluate their injuries in the clinical or forensic setting. Radiologic technologists must be knowledgeable about common injuries associated with gunshot wounds. Digital radiography and computed tomography play essential roles in the assessment of gunshot injuries. When clinically indicated, magnetic resonance imaging also is a valuable imaging modality for evaluating these injuries...
July 2016: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362779/forensic-analysis-reveals-acute-decompensation-of-chronic-heart-failure-in-a-3500-year-old-egyptian-dignitary
#18
Raffaella Bianucci, Robert D Loynes, M Linda Sutherland, Rudy Lallo, Gemma L Kay, Philippe Froesch, Mark J Pallen, Philippe Charlier, Andreas G Nerlich
Naturally preserved and embalmed bodies from archeological contexts represent a powerful source of information for forensic investigators. They allow one to ascertain pathology, cause of death, to enhance diagnostic methodology, and to improve the analysis of altered remains. We investigated the complete head and lung remnants of a 3,500-year-old Egyptian dignitary by radiological, microscopic, and genetic approaches. The individual, a middle-aged male, suffered from severe periodontitis, mild atherosclerosis, and experienced cardiogenic pulmonary insufficiency with recurrent mini-bleeds and pulmonary edema...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344264/applicability-of-greulich-pyle-and-tanner-whitehouse-grading-methods-to-mri-when-assessing-hand-bone-age-in-forensic-age-estimation-a-pilot-study
#19
Martin Urschler, Astrid Krauskopf, Thomas Widek, Erich Sorantin, Thomas Ehammer, Martin Borkenstein, Kathrin Yen, Eva Scheurer
Determination of skeletal development is a key pillar in forensic age estimation of living persons. Radiological assessment of hand bone age is widely used until the age of about 17-18 years, applying visual grading techniques to hand radiographs. This study investigated whether Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) grading can be equally used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which would offer the huge benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. In 18 subjects aged between 7 and 17 years a radiograph and an MRI scan of the hand were performed...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334769/search-and-removal-of-radioactive-seeds-another-application-of-postmortem-computed-tomography-prior-to-autopsy
#20
Yohsuke Makino, Nozomi Itoda, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Naoko Tanaka, Hiroshi Kinoshita, Ayumi Motomura, Takashi Uno, Hirotaro Iwase
We herein introduce 3 cases illustrating a new application for pre-autopsy postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). In all 3 cases, there was insufficient background information about the victims provided to the forensic pathologists' department. PMCT showed metallic particles in the prostate gland, an indication of metallic seeds containing radioactive isotopes. In 2 of 3 cases, migrated seeds were also detected by CT imaging in the lungs and the heart. Also in 2 of 3 cases, authorities reinvestigated the victim's history before autopsy was completed, which resulted in following appropriate procedure for dealing with the seeds...
September 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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