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forensic radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220303/estimation-of-stature-from-femur-length-measured-using-computed-tomography-after-the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-characteristics-of-femur-bone-in-korean-cadavers
#1
Sookyoung Lee, Ho-Hyeon Gong, Jin-Young Hyun, Hyung-Nam Koo, Han-Young Lee, Nak-Eun Chung, Young-Shik Choi, Kyung-Moo Yang, Byung Ha Choi
Estimation of stature is a basic and important forensic procedure in identifying decomposed or skeletonized bodies. Due to advances in radiologic equipment, forensic science frequently uses computed tomography (CT) and software to apply these findings to investigations. Technical developments have increased the accuracy of the measurement of various bones. However, there are still some inaccuracies, such as defining correct landmarks in three-dimensional (3D) images. Femur length is frequently used for calculation of stature, but because it is a 3D structure, the digital image may not always correlate with the femur length measured with an osteometric board...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215933/gender-determination-from-diagnostic-factors-on-anteroposterior-pelvic-radiographs
#2
Azadeh Memarian, Kamran Aghakhani, Shahrokh Mehrpisheh, Foroozan Fares
BACKGROUND: Gender determination from skeletal remains is one of the primary factors in forensic medicine. This study aimed to identify the gender of patients referred to the radiology ward of the Rasoul Akram Hospital of Tehran using anteroposterior pelvic radiography. METHODS: A total of 200 patients (100 male and 100 female) referred to the radiology ward of the Rasoul Akram Hospital for anteroposterior pelvic radiography during 2013-2014 were included in this study...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215550/evaluation-of-unenhanced-post-mortem-computed-tomography-to-detect-chest-injuries-in-violent-death
#3
I Sifaoui, C Nedelcu, G Beltran, V Dupont, J Lebigot, A Gaudin, C Ridereau Zins, C Rouge Maillard, C Aubé
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the performances of unenhanced post-mortem computed tomography (CT) to detect thoracic injuries in violent death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, we conducted a review of unenhanced CT scans of 67 victims of violent deaths with thoracic injuries and compared CT findings with the results of clinical autopsy. Our gold standard was a comparison of CT scans with autopsy discussed in a monthly forensic radiology multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM)...
February 16, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197028/gross-morphological-study-of-the-renal-pelvicalyceal-patterns-in-human-cadaveric-kidneys
#4
T S R Anjana, Elangovan Muthian, Sivakami Thiagarajan, Sumathi Shanmugam
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge of detailed calyceal anatomy is essential for performing urologic procedures such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, percutaneous nephrostomy, flexible ureterorenoscopy, endopyelotomy, and retrograde renal surgery. This study was performed to analyze the various patterns of pelvicalyceal system in the South Indian population, and compare these with previously published studies in different populations. METHODS: The study was conducted in 100 kidney specimens...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150272/morphological-approach-of-the-sternal-foramen-an-anatomic-study-and-a-short-review-of-the-literature
#5
Nikolaos Gkantsinikoudis, Constantinos Chaniotakis, Grigorios Gkasdaris, Nikiforos Georgiou, Stylianos Kapetanakis
BACKGROUND: The sternal foramen constitutes a specific anatomic defect in sternum, indicating an impaired fusion of ossificated segments, which occurs either in an anatomical part of the sternum or in sternal joints. The aim of this article is to provide baseline statistical data about the variations of the sternal foramen, to present a short review of the relevant literature and to compare results with other studies and populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We review relevant literature, and we present data obtained from skeletal samples of known population and sex...
February 2, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056376/technical-note-a-preliminary-comparative-study-between-classical-and-interventional-radiological-approaches-for-multi-phase-post-mortem-ct-angiography
#6
Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Frederic Savall, Laurent Dercle, Eric Crubezy, Norbert Telmon, Hervé Rousseau, Fabrice Dedouit
PURPOSE: Multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography (MPMCTA) is a new diagnostic tool, used in forensic pathology. On the one hand, this technique allows a better and direct visualization of vascular and solid organ lesions. On the other hand, the invasiveness of the procedure-which requires surgical denudation (inguinal and/or cervical) and the insertion of surgical cannulas-leads to many relatives refusing scientific autopsies. Our hypothesis states that a minimally-invasive procedure combining interventional radiological techniques with MPMCTA (replacement of surgical cannulas by radiological catheters) will improve the approval rate of scientific autopsies by families...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042629/the-effects-of-gender-and-age-on-forensic-personal-identification-from-frontal-sinus-in-a-turkish-population
#7
Ertugrul Tatlisumak, Mahmut Asirdizer, Aydin Bora, Yavuz Hekimoglu, Yasin Etli, Orhan Gumus, Siddik Keskin
To define the dimensions of the frontal sinus in groups standardized for age and gender and to discuss the reasons and the effects of the variations. Methods: Frontal sinus measurements were obtained from paranasal CTscans of 180 males and 180 females in the Radiology Department of Dursun Odabas Medical Center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, which is located in Eastern Turkey, between February and March 2016. The width and height of sinuses were measured on a coronal plane, and the anteroposterior length was measured on an axial plane...
January 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040666/post-mortem-ct-evaluation-of-atlanto-occipital-dissociation
#8
Mohammed Madadin, Ravindra Priyalal Samaranayake, Chris O'Donnell, Stephen Cordner
Atlanto-occipital dissociation injury is an important injury in forensic pathology practice. Radiological diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation clinically is assessed by direct measurement of occipito-vertebral skeletal relationships. Different measurements may be used to diagnose atlanto-occipital dissociation, including the basion-dens interval (BDI) and basion-axial interval (BAI). It is not known whether the normal ante-mortem measurements of BDI and BAI described in the literature are applicable to post-mortem CT images of the occipito-cervical junction (OCJ) or whether these measurements could be affected by early post-mortem changes...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940073/novel-application-of-three-dimensional-technologies-in-a-case-of-dismemberment
#9
Waltraud Baier, Daniel G Norman, Jason M Warnett, Mark Payne, Nigel P Harrison, Nicholas C A Hunt, Brian A Burnett, Mark A Williams
This case study reports the novel application of three-dimensional technologies such as micro-CT and 3D printing to the forensic investigation of a complex case of dismemberment. Micro-CT was successfully employed to virtually align severed skeletal elements found in different locations, analyse tool marks created during the dismemberment process, and virtually dissect a charred piece of evidence. High resolution 3D prints of the burnt human bone contained within were created for physical visualisation to assist the investigation team...
December 2, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914552/preserved-brains-from-the-spanish-civil-war-mass-grave-1936-at-la-pedraja1-burgos-spain
#10
Fernando Serrulla, Lourdes Herrasti, Carmen Navarro, Jose Luis Cascallana, Ana Maria Bermejo, Nicholas Marquez-Grant, Francisco Etxeberria
During the excavation of the Spanish Civil War mass grave at La Pedraja (Burgos, Spain), 104 individuals were found interred within it, 45 of which displayed brains that were preserved but dehydrated and reduced in size. This exceptional finding has resulted in the formation of a multidisciplinary team, with the aim of obtaining as much information as possible and to primarily understand the taphonomic phenomena that has led to the preservation of these brains. The following types of analyses were undertaken on three of these brains: macroscopy, histology, radiology, chemical-toxicology, genetics, chemical analysis of the soil and 3D modelling for stereolithography...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914549/age-of-fusion-of-the-distal-radial-and-ulnar-epiphyses-from-hand-radiographs-a-study-in-kashmiri-population
#11
Nida Hassan, Farida Noor, Shabir Ahmad, Khalid Majid Fazili
Age estimation is a crucial parameter involved in investigations pertaining to civil and criminal procedures. It also aids in various examinations in forensic medicine, pediatrics, endocrinology and radiology. One of the important methods for skeletal age estimation is the age of fusion of the epiphyses. But there occur variations in the skeletal ages due to environmental, hormonal, ethnic and other factors. Hence, there arises the need for separate standards of ossification for different regions. The present study was conducted to ascertain the age of fusion of the distal radial and ulnar epiphyses in Kashmiri population...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908672/forensic-age-estimation-in-anti-piracy-trials-in-seychelles-experiences-and-challenges-faced
#12
S A Gunawardena, U A Liyanage, J B Weeratna, N D N A Mendis, H J M Perera, R W Jayasekara, R Fernando
Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging...
November 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896540/variations-in-the-anatomy-of-the-vertebral-artery-cervical-loop-segment-a-potential-predisposing-factor-for-traumatic-basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#13
Jonathan E Medcalf, C Paul Johnson, Azzam Taktak, Silke Grabherr
Fatal traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is a characteristic forensic pathological entity, the investigation of which requires special techniques. In Liverpool, post-mortem room angiography is undertaken, followed by complete removal of the vertebral arteries and histological examination. It has been observed that the arterial anatomy can be highly variable, particularly the length and course of the loop segments located between the C2 vertebra and the dura. In a number of cases of TBSAH the loop segments of torn vessels have appeared relatively short...
December 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896417/age-assessment-based-on-third-molar-mineralisation-an-epidemiological-radiological-study-on-a-central-european-population
#14
Elisabeth Hofmann, Matthias Robold, Peter Proff, Christian Kirschneck
PURPOSE: The method published in 1973 by Demirjian et al. to assess age based on the mineralisation stage of permanent teeth is standard practice in forensic and orthodontic diagnostics. From age 14 onwards, however, this method is only applicable to third molars. No current epidemiological data on third molar mineralisation are available for Caucasian Central-Europeans. Thus, a method for assessing age in this population based on third molar mineralisation is presented, taking into account possible topographic and gender-specific differences...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885431/forensic-age-assessment-of-asylum-seekers-in-finland
#15
Mari Metsäniitty, Olli Varkkola, Janna Waltimo-Sirén, Helena Ranta
In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays...
January 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859228/testing-a-novel-3d-printed-radiographic-imaging-device-for-use-in-forensic-odontology
#16
Tara L Newcomb, Ann M Bruhn, Bridget Giles, Hector M Garcia, Norou Diawara
There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833335/the-role-of-dentistry-in-disaster-management-and-victim-identification-an-overview-of-challenges-in-indo-nepal-scenario
#17
REVIEW
Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Purnima Singh, Deepak Passi, Don Varghese, Sarang Sharma
BACKGROUND: Recently, natural disasters and terrorist activities have been leading to mass casualty situations unexpectedly around the globe. In addition to the traditional emergency medical services centering around medically trained and paramedic personnel, dental practitioners having vital skills and attributes may be important in responding to a mass casualty situation. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at discussing the role of dentists in disaster management and the role of forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification (DVI), its status in India and some suggestions to develop the plans for same...
December 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824494/forensic-3d-visualization-of-ct-data-using-cinematic-volume-rendering-a-preliminary-study
#18
Lars C Ebert, Wolf Schweitzer, Dominic Gascho, Thomas D Ruder, Patricia M Flach, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi
OBJECTIVE: The 3D volume-rendering technique (VRT) is commonly used in forensic radiology. Its main function is to explain medical findings to state attorneys, judges, or police representatives. New visualization algorithms permit the generation of almost photorealistic volume renderings of CT datasets. The objective of this study is to present and compare a variety of radiologic findings to illustrate the differences between and the advantages and limitations of the current VRT and the physically based cinematic rendering technique (CRT)...
February 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815629/pulmonary-artery-perforation-and-coronary-air-embolism-two-fatal-outcomes-in-percutaneous-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion
#19
J Zwirner, R Bayer, C Hädrich, A Bollmann, N Klein, J Dreßler, B Ondruschka
Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is a routinely performed method to reduce the risk of stroke in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, when an oral anticoagulation is no longer indicated due to relevant bleeding complications. Currently, the Amplatzer Amulet and the Watchman system are two equally used systems. While there is an acute success rate of more than 95 per cent for this intervention, several minor and major complications such as pericardial effusions, air embolism, vascular lesions in proximity to the heart or even death can occur...
January 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715016/differential-mobility-spectrometry-for-inorganic-filtration-in-nuclear-forensics
#20
Spiros Manolakos, Francy Sinatra, Leila Albers, Kevin Hufford, James Alberti, Erkinjon Nazarov, Theresa Evans-Nguyen
Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is applied to the analysis of inorganic mixtures relevant to nuclear forensics. Three primary components of potential radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), cobalt, cesium, and strontium, were studied by DMS to demonstrate rapid sample cleanup when coupled to mass spectrometry. Nanosprayed salt solutions comprised of stable analogs, as proxies to these radioisotopes, and isobaric interferents were introduced to DMS. The DMS effluent was directly coupled to a mass spectrometer to confirm the elemental identity of the separated clusters...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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