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forensic radiology

Spiros Manolakos, Francy Sinatra, Leila Nikkhouy Albers, Kevin Hufford, James Alberti, Erkinjon G Nazarov, Theresa Evans-Nguyen
Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is applied to the analysis of inorganic mixtures relevant to nuclear forensics. Three primary components of potential radiological dispersal devices (RDDs): cobalt, cesium, and strontium, were studied by DMS to demonstrate rapid sample clean-up when coupled to mass spectrometry. Nanosprayed salt solutions comprised of stable analogs, as proxies to these radioisotopes, and isobaric interferents were introduced to DMS. The DMS effluent was directly coupled to a mass spectrometer to confirm the elemental identity of the separated clusters...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Cezar Capitaneanu, Guy Willems, Reinhilde Jacobs, Steffen Fieuws, Patrick Thevissen
BACKGROUND: Sex determination is an important step in establishing the biological profile of unidentified human remains. AIM: The aims of the study were, firstly, to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in permanent teeth, based on digital tooth measurements performed on panoramic radiographs. Secondly, to identify sex-related tooth position-specific measurements or combinations of such measurements, and to assess their applicability for potential sex determination...
August 17, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Annamaria Vullo, Valeria Panebianco, Giuseppe Cannavale, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Luigi Cipolloni, Paola Frati, Alessandro Santurro, Francesco Vullo, Carlo Catalano, Vittorio Fineschi
The aim of the present study is to offer our experience concerning post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) in foetal death cases and an evaluation of the differences between the findings acquired by PMMR and by forensic autopsy. Fifteen foetuses were recruited from July 2014 to December 2015. These had suffered intrauterine death in women in the 21st to 38th week of gestation who were treated in the emergency department for non-perception of foetal movements. We performed a PMMR on foetuses, 3 ± 1 days on average from the time of death, and then a complete forensic autopsy was performed...
November 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Philip A Glemser, Michael Pfleiderer, Anna Heger, Jan Tremper, Astrid Krauskopf, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Kathrin Yen, David Simons
PURPOSE: The aim of this multi-reader feasibility study was to evaluate new post-processing CT imaging tools in rib fracture assessment of forensic cases by analyzing detection time and diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty autopsy cases (20 with and 10 without rib fractures in autopsy) were randomly selected and included in this study. All cases received a native whole body CT scan prior to the autopsy procedure, which included dissection and careful evaluation of each rib...
July 22, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Asuka Araki, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Saki Takami, Nahoko Ishikawa, Chika Amano, Haruo Takeshita, Riruke Maruyama
PURPOSE: Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) has recently become important to clarify the cause of death in forensic medicine. It has also been proven to be useful for in-hospital deaths to a certain extent when interpreted by radiologists. However, accuracy of the interpretations of PMCT by non-radiologists remains to be elucidated. Nevertheless, they are often required to write death certificates based on the findings of PMCT in the absence of radiologists in Japan. We compared the interpretations of postmortem head CT (PMCT-H) by non-radiologists with the autopsy findings...
2016: SpringerPlus
Owen J Arthurs, Rick R van Rijn, Elspeth H Whitby, Karl Johnson, Elka Miller, Martin Stenzel, Andrew Watt, Ajay Taranath, David H Perry
A new task force on postmortem imaging was established at the annual meeting of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) in Graz, Austria, in 2015. The postmortem task force is separate from the child abuse task force as it covers all aspects of fetal, neonatal and non-forensic postmortem imaging. The main focus of the task force is the guidance and standardization of non-radiographic postmortem imaging, particularly postmortem CT and postmortem MRI. This manuscript outlines the starting point of the task force, with a mission statement, outline of current experience, and short- and long-term goals...
August 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Kevin R Clark
Gunshot wounds are the third-leading cause of injury-related death nationwide. Most people with gunshot injuries undergo diagnostic imaging to evaluate their injuries in the clinical or forensic setting. Radiologic technologists must be knowledgeable about common injuries associated with gunshot wounds. Digital radiography and computed tomography play essential roles in the assessment of gunshot injuries. When clinically indicated, magnetic resonance imaging also is a valuable imaging modality for evaluating these injuries...
July 2016: Radiologic Technology
Raffaella Bianucci, Robert D Loynes, M Linda Sutherland, Rudy Lallo, Gemma L Kay, Philippe Froesch, Mark J Pallen, Philippe Charlier, Andreas G Nerlich
Naturally preserved and embalmed bodies from archeological contexts represent a powerful source of information for forensic investigators. They allow one to ascertain pathology, cause of death, to enhance diagnostic methodology, and to improve the analysis of altered remains. We investigated the complete head and lung remnants of a 3,500-year-old Egyptian dignitary by radiological, microscopic, and genetic approaches. The individual, a middle-aged male, suffered from severe periodontitis, mild atherosclerosis, and experienced cardiogenic pulmonary insufficiency with recurrent mini-bleeds and pulmonary edema...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Martin Urschler, Astrid Krauskopf, Thomas Widek, Erich Sorantin, Thomas Ehammer, Martin Borkenstein, Kathrin Yen, Eva Scheurer
Determination of skeletal development is a key pillar in forensic age estimation of living persons. Radiological assessment of hand bone age is widely used until the age of about 17-18 years, applying visual grading techniques to hand radiographs. This study investigated whether Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) grading can be equally used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which would offer the huge benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. In 18 subjects aged between 7 and 17 years a radiograph and an MRI scan of the hand were performed...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Yohsuke Makino, Nozomi Itoda, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Naoko Tanaka, Hiroshi Kinoshita, Ayumi Motomura, Takashi Uno, Hirotaro Iwase
We herein introduce 3 cases illustrating a new application for pre-autopsy postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). In all 3 cases, there was insufficient background information about the victims provided to the forensic pathologists' department. PMCT showed metallic particles in the prostate gland, an indication of metallic seeds containing radioactive isotopes. In 2 of 3 cases, migrated seeds were also detected by CT imaging in the lungs and the heart. Also in 2 of 3 cases, authorities reinvestigated the victim's history before autopsy was completed, which resulted in following appropriate procedure for dealing with the seeds...
September 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
D De Angelis, D Gibelli, E Palazzo, L Sconfienza, Z Obertova, C Cattaneo
Personal identification consists of the comparison of ante-mortem information from a missing person with post-mortem data obtained from an unidentified corpse. Such procedure is based on the assessment of individualizing features which may help in providing a conclusive identification between ante-mortem and post-mortem material. Anatomical variants may provide important clues to correctly identify human remains. Areas of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO), or dense bone islands (DBIs) characterized by radiopaque areas of dense, trabeculated, non-inflamed vital bone represent one of these, potentially individualizing, anatomical features...
July 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Dong-hua Zou, Yu Shao, Jian-hua Zhang, Lei Wan, Zhi-qiang Qin, Ning-guo Liu, Ping Huang, Yi-jiu Chen
A case of a stillbirth with lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was reported. The fetus had skull fractures and craniocerebral injuries during pregnancy. Postmortem multi-sliced computed tomography (MSCT) and 3D-reconstruction were performed, followed by a medico-legal autopsy. The autopsic findings showed the typical features of type II OI, including a soft calvarium, deformed extremities, flexed and abducted hips, and uncommon features, such as white sclera, coxa vara, absence of several bones and organs, a cleft lip, and asymmetric ears...
February 2016: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Thomas Lefèvre, Patrick Chariot, Pierre Chauvin
Researchers handle increasingly higher dimensional datasets, with many variables to explore. Such datasets pose several problems, since they are difficult to handle and present unexpected features. As dimensionality increases, classical statistical analysis becomes inoperative. Variables can present redundancy, and the reduction of dataset dimensionality to its lowest possible value is often needed. Principal components analysis (PCA) has proven useful to reduce dimensionality but present several shortcomings...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Beatriz V Krentz, Leonor Alamo, Jochen Grimm, Fabrice Dédouit, Christine Bruguier, Christine Chevallier, Coraline Egger, Luiz F F Da Silva, Silke Grabherr
INTRODUCTION: Radiological techniques such as non-enhanced post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) play an increasingly important role in death investigations, especially in cases of non-medicolegal context of death, where the consent of the next of kin is required to perform autopsy. Such consent is often difficult to obtain for deceased children, and radiological methods may be an acceptable alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of PMCT explorations compared to medicolegal conventional autopsies in children and its potential usefulness in non-medicolegal situations...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Murali Gundu Rao, Dalbir Singh, Niranjan Khandelwal, Suresh Kumar Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Determination of post-traumatic interval remains one of the foremost important goals of any forensic investigation related to human crimes. The estimation of time since injury in cases of subdural haemorrhage has been studied only by a few investigators on the histological and radiological front. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the post-traumatic interval of Subdural Haemorrhage (SDH) based on Hounsfield Unit measurements (HU) on Computed Tomography (CT) in surviving victims of head injury...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Sarah Schaerli, Florian Berger, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
One of the core tasks in forensic medico-legal investigations is the identification of the deceased. Radiological identification using postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is a powerful technique. In general, the implementation of forensic PMCT is rising worldwide. In addition to specific anatomical structures, medical implants or prostheses serve as markers for the comparison of antemortem and postmortem images to identify the deceased. However, non-medical implants, such as subdermal three-dimensional (3D) art implants, also allow for radiological identification...
May 2016: Legal Medicine
Rong-qi Wu, Li-na Huang, Xin Chen
Individual stature estimation is one of the most important contents of forensic anthropology. Currently, it has been used that the regression equations established by the data collected by direct measurement or radiological techniques in a certain group of limbs, irregular bones, and anatomic landmarks. Due to the impact of population mobility, human physical improvement, racial and geographic differences, estimation of individual stature should be a regular study. This paper reviews the different methods of stature estimation, briefly describes the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and prospects a new research direction...
December 2015: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
F E Stanley, Benjamin L Byerly, Mariam R Thomas, Khalil J Spencer
Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (<10(-6)) within already limited quantities of sample. Herein, we investigate the application of static, mixed array total evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns...
June 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Jeanne Serin, Camille Rérolle, Julien Pucheux, Fabrice Dedouit, Norbert Telmon, Frédéric Savall, Pauline Saint-Martin
Forensic age estimation of living individuals is a controversial subject because of the imprecision of the available methods which leads to errors. Moreover, young persons are exposed to radiation, without diagnostic or therapeutic advantage. Recently, non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been studied in this context. The aim of this work was to study if the analysis of wrist/hand MRI enabled determination of whether a subject was 18 years old. Two observers retrospectively analyzed metaphyseal-epiphyseal fusion of the distal epiphysis of the radius and the ulna and the base of the first metacarpus in wrist/hand MRI of living people between 9 and 25 years of age...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
George K Paraskevas, Maria Tzika, Konstantinos Natsis
Sternal foramina (SF) constitute developmental defects of the sternum and are usually radiologic or postmortem accidental findings. A rare case is presented, concerning the dried sternum of Greek origin and unknown age. The manubrium, sternal body and xiphoid process were fused and ossified, while two SF of undocumented size were present. The proximal SF was located at the sternal body extending between the fourth and fifth intercostal spaces, whereas the distal SF was located at the xiphoid process being surrounded by a thin "ring-like" osseous rim...
October 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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