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forensic imaging

Dana Crooks, Nathaniel E Anderson, Matthew Widdows, Nia Petseva, Michael Koenigs, Charles Pluto, Kent A Kiehl
Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a neuroanatomical variant of the septum pellucidum that is considered a marker for disrupted brain development. Several small sample studies have reported CSP to be related to disruptive behavior, persistent antisocial traits, and even psychopathy. However, no large-scale samples have comprehensively examined the relationship between CSP, psychopathic traits, and antisocial behavior in forensic samples. Here we test hypotheses about the presence of CSP and its relationship to psychopathic traits in incarcerated males (N=1432)...
March 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Volker Vieth, Ronald Schulz, Walter Heindel, Heidi Pfeiffer, Boris Buerke, Andreas Schmeling, Christian Ottow
PURPOSE: To explore the possibility of determining majority via a morphology-based examination of the epiphyseal-diaphyseal fusion by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional study developing and applying a new stage classification was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 344 male and 350 female volunteers of German nationality between the ages of 12-24 years were scanned between May 2013 and June 2015. A 3.0 T MRI scanner was used, acquiring a T1-weighted (T1-w) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE) and a T2-weighted (T2-w) TSE sequence with fat suppression by spectral pre-saturation with inversion recovery (SPIR)...
March 13, 2018: European Radiology
Emily Simonds, Charlotte Wilson, Joe Iwanaga, Tyler Laws, Gary Holley, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Medical imaging techniques have led to great advances in clinical anatomy and forensic pathology. New and emerging technologies allow healthcare professionals to view and understand the human body from different perspectives. This gives way to new and improved interventions, treatment plans, and an overall understanding of the human body. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of the various medical imaging equipment used in cadaveric studies along with their individual strengths and limitations.
January 7, 2018: Curēus
Susan C Shelmerdine, John Ciaran Hutchinson, Safa Al-Sarraj, Nat Cary, Tim Dawson, Daniel Du Plessis, Paul G Ince, Siobhan McLaughlin, Liina Palm, Colin Smith, Neil Stoodley, Rick van Rijn, Owen J Arthurs, Thomas S Jacques
AIMS: To develop an expert consensus statement regarding appropriate clinical and forensic post-mortem neurological imaging. METHODS: An expert panel of clinicians were recruited from registered members of the British Neuropathological Society (BNS) and the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging (ISFRI) with post-mortem expertise. Following a focus group meeting, 16 core statements were incorporated into an online modified Delphi survey and each panellist was asked to score their level of agreement...
March 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Christian Kirschneck, Peter Proff
In dentistry, methods for determining age and the degree of dental and skeletal development play an important role, in particular in the assessment of developmental disorders of the dentition as well as in the planning of orthodontic interventions. Dentistry is also important in the field of forensics due to the possibility of age determination based on the dentition. In addition to anthropometric and morphologic methods, numerous biochemical, histologic, radiologic, and radiation-free imaging methods exist to determine the chronologic, but also dental and skeletal age of a person or a patient...
2018: Quintessence International
Arianna Cerquiglini, Johann Henckel, Harry Hothi, Niccoló Rotigliano, Michael T Hirschmann, Alister J Hart
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to correlate highly accurate CT measurements of pre-revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implant position with findings of retrieval analysis post-revision, to understand the clinical relevance of TKA orientation. METHODS: This study involved 53 retrieved TKA implants with pre-revision 3D-CT scans used to determine coronal (varus-valgus), sagittal (tibial slope) and rotational (internal rotation-external rotation) TKA orientation as well as tibiofemoral leg axis...
March 8, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Peter Mahoney, Debra Carr, Karl Harrison, Ruth McGuire, Alan Hepper, Daniel Flynn, Russ J Delaney, Iain Gibb
Six synthetic head models wearing ballistic protective helmets were used to recreate two military combat-related shooting incidents (three per incident, designated 'Incident 1' and 'Incident 2'). Data on the events including engagement distances, weapon and ammunition types was collated by the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The models were shot with 7.62 × 39 mm ammunition downloaded to mean impact velocities of 581 m/s (SD 3.5 m/s) and 418 m/s (SD 8 m/s), respectively, to simulate the engagement distances...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Flor A Espinoza, Victor M Vergara, Daisy Reyes, Nathaniel E Anderson, Carla L Harenski, Jean Decety, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Barnaly Rashid, Robyn L Miller, Michael Koenigs, David S Kosson, Keith Harenski, Kent A Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest...
March 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Stefania Zerbo
The commonest cause of blunt cardiac injuries is from traffic accidents followed by violent falls, sport activities, accidents or a fight but rupture of the heart is rare and lethal. The precise incidence of cardiac injury after a blunt chest trauma is unknown as rates vary greatly in the literature from between 7% and 76% of cases. Autopsy studies have shown that the right ventricle is the most frequently ruptured, followed by the left ventricle, right atrium, intraventricular septum, left atrium and interatrial septum with decreasing frequency...
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
Bhuvaneshwari Karunakaran, Joseph Tharion, Arvind Ramrao Dhawangale, Debjani Paul, Soumyo Mukherji
Miniature lenses can transform commercial imaging systems, e.g., smartphones and webcams, into powerful, low-cost, handheld microscopes. To date, the reproducible fabrication of polymer lenses is still a challenge as they require controlled dispensing of viscous liquid. This paper reports a reproducible lens fabrication technique using liquid mold with programmable curvature and off-the-shelf materials. The lens curvature is controlled during fabrication by tuning the curvature of an interface of two immiscible liquids [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glycerol]...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Dilan Seckiner, Xanthé Mallett, Claude Roux, Didier Meuwly, Philip Maynard
As a result of the worldwide deployment of surveillance cameras, authorities have gained a powerful tool that captures footage of activities of people in public areas. Surveillance cameras allow continuous monitoring of the area and allow footage to be obtained for later use, if a criminal or other act of interest occurs. Following this, a forensic practitioner, or expert witness can be required to analyse the footage of the Person of Interest. The examination ultimately aims at evaluating the strength of evidence at source and activity levels...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
T H Hu, L Wan, T A Liu, M W Wang, T Chen, Y H Wang
Deep learning and neural network models have been new research directions and hot issues in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence in recent years. Deep learning has made a breakthrough in the applications of image and speech recognitions, and also has been extensively used in the fields of face recognition and information retrieval because of its special superiority. Bone X-ray images express different variations in black-white-gray gradations, which have image features of black and white contrasts and level differences...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Stephan A Bolliger, Doris Tomasin, Jakob Heimer, Henning Richter, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
Due to slowing or even inhibition of postmortem processes, freezing may make an estimation of the time-since-death very difficult. This is also true in previously frozen and subsequently thawed bodies. Knowledge of prior freezing is important, as it may lead to a different assessment of the time since death. Twelve pig heads were frozen at -20 °C, and 6 heads were either kept at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) or in a cooling cell (approximately 5 °C). The frozen brains and cadavers were thawed at either room temperature or in a cooling cell...
February 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Stefanie Pleik, Bernhard Spengler, Dhaka Ram Bhandari, Steven Luhn, Thomas Schäfer, Dieter Urbach, Dieter Kirsch
In forensic science, reconstructing the timing of events occurring during a criminal offense is of great importance. In some cases, the time when particular evidence was left on a crime scene is a critical matter. The ability to estimate the fingerprint age would raise the evidentiary value of fingerprints tremendously. For this purpose the most promising approach is the analysis of changes in the chemical compositions of fingerprint residues in the course of aging. The focus of our study is the identification of human specific compounds in fingerprint residues, characterized by a significant aging behavior that could analytically be used for the age determination of fingerprints in future...
February 12, 2018: Analyst
T M R Houlton, M Steyn
June 16, 1976, marks the Soweto Youth Student Uprising in South Africa. A harrowing image capturing police brutality from that day comprises of 18-year-old Mbuyisa Makhubu carrying a dying 12-year-old Hector Peterson. This circulated international press and contributed to world pressure against the apartheid government. This elevated Makhubu's profile with the national security police and forced him to flee to Botswana, then Nigeria, before disappearing in 1978. In 1988, Victor Vinnetou illegally entered Canada and was later arrested on immigration charges in 2004...
February 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Dominic Gascho, Stephan A Bolliger, Markus Enders, Michael J Thali, Barbara Fliss
Suitcases or other containers are occasionally involved in forensic investigations. If there is a suspicion that human remains are hidden inside such a container, medico-legal examinations are required. However, these containers are occasionally locked. Forced opening of a locked suitcase or container may cause damage to its contents. Additionally, the safety of the investigator has to be considered as such containers may be booby-trapped or contain other hazardous material. An overview of the contents before opening is desirable in order to avoid the possibility of encountering a Pandora's box...
February 8, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
C Harris, A Alcock, L Trefan, D Nuttall, S T Evans, S Maguire, A M Kemp
BACKGROUND: Bruising is a common abusive injury in children, and it is standard practice to image and measure them, yet there is no current standard for measuring bruise size consistently. We aim to identify the optimal method of measuring photographic images of bruises, including computerised measurement techniques. METHODS: 24 children aged <11 years (mean age of 6.9, range 2.5-10 years) with a bruise were recruited from the community. Demographics and bruise details were recorded...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
V N Gridin, Yu I Pigolkin, M I Trufanov, S V Leonov, A S Mosoyan, I A Dubrovin
The objective of the present work was to develop the method for the visualization of the shape of the bone surface in the region of its traumatic damage based on the results of the analysis of a single X-ray image for the solution of the problems facing forensic medical expertise and traumatology. The three-dimensional models of the fractures of the long tubular bones constructed with the use of the visualization technique were shown to adequately reproduce the morphological picture of the injury. It allowed to enhance the potential of the forensic medical analysis and the accuracy of the diagnostic methods employed for the purposes of forensic medical expertise...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Yu I Pigolkin, M P Poletaeva, G V Zolotenkova
The objective of the present study was the development of the diagnostic model for determining the human age based on the results of the comprehensive examination of the 230 thyroid cartilages (TC) obtained from the corpses of men and women of different age. TC were examined with the use of the anthropometric, X-ray, and histological methods. The anthropometric investigations confirmed the gender-related differences in the structure of human TC. Various characteristics of TC were shown to correlate with the age but these relationships were rather weak even if formally significant...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
A V Kovalev, M D Ametrin, G V Zolotenkova, A N Gerasimov, D V Gornostaev, M P Poletaeva
The objective of the present study was to determine the biological age of the unrecognized individuals based on the analysis of CT-scanograms of the skull and the craniovertebral region in the sagittal projection. We investigated the structure of the spongy substance of the clinoid plate of the sella turcica and the clivus of the cranium, involution of the vertebrae configuration in the medial atlantoaxial articulation, frontal and sphenoidal sinuses. A total of 80 skulls of Caucasoid individuals at the age ranging from 4 to 84 years belonging to an Eastern Slavonic population (free from the pathological lesions in the above cranial structures) were available for the examination...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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