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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343812/stature-estimation-in-a-contemporary-japanese-population-based-on-clavicular-measurements-using-multidetector-computed-tomography
#1
Suguru Torimitsu, Yohsuke Makino, Hisako Saitoh, Ayaka Sakuma, Namiko Ishii, Daisuke Yajima, Go Inokuchi, Ayumi Motomura, Fumiko Chiba, Rutsuko Yamaguchi, Mari Hashimoto, Yumi Hoshioka, Hirotaro Iwase
The aims of this study was to assess the correlation between stature and clavicular measurements in a contemporary Japanese population using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) images, and to establish regression equations for predicting stature. A total of 249 cadavers (131 males, 118 females) underwent postmortem CT scanning and subsequent forensic autopsy between October 2011 and May 2016 in our department. Four clavicular variables (linear distances between the superior margins of the left and right sternal facets to the anterior points of the left and right acromial ends and between the superior margins of the left and right sternal facets to the left and right conoid tubercles) were measured using 3D CT reconstructed images that extracted only bone data...
March 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343023/classification-of-footwear-outsole-patterns-using-fourier-transform-and-local-interest-points
#2
Nicole Richetelli, Mackenzie C Lee, Carleen A Lasky, Madison E Gump, Jacqueline A Speir
Successful classification of questioned footwear has tremendous evidentiary value; the result can minimize the potential suspect pool and link a suspect to a victim, a crime scene, or even multiple crime scenes to each other. With this in mind, several different automated and semi-automated classification models have been applied to the forensic footwear recognition problem, with superior performance commonly associated with two different approaches: correlation of image power (magnitude) or phase, and the use of local interest points transformed using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and compared using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC)...
March 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334006/assessing-various-infrared-ir-microscopic-imaging-techniques-for-post-mortem-interval-evaluation-of-human-skeletal-remains
#3
Claudia Woess, Seraphin Hubert Unterberger, Clemens Roider, Monika Ritsch-Marte, Nadin Pemberger, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, Petra Hatzer-Grubwieser, Walther Parson, Johannes Dominikus Pallua
Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322553/label-free-chemical-imaging-of-latent-fingerprints-with-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy
#4
Benjamin Figueroa, Yikai Chen, Kyla Berry, Andrew Francis, Dan Fu
Fingerprints have long been the gold standard for personal identification in forensic investigations. Methods for cultivating and enhancing the visualization of latent fingerprints (LFPs) are continuously evolving. One important challenge is to identify suspicious chemicals present in fingerprint residues, which requires chemical imaging capability. Recently, vibrational spectroscopy has shown that LFP analysis through tape-lift, Raman mapping, and multivariate data analysis presents a useful tool for forensic investigation...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320664/blind-forensics-of-successive-geometric-transformations-in-digital-images-using-spectral-method-theory-and-applications
#5
Jiangqun Ni, Chenglong Chen, Zhaoyi Shen, Yun-Qing Shi
Geometric transformations, such as resizing and rotation, are almost always needed when two or more images are spliced together to create convincing image forgeries. In recent years, researchers have developed many digital forensic techniques to identify these operations. Most previous works in this area focus on the analysis of images that have undergone single geometric transformations, e.g., resizing or rotation. In several recent works, researchers have addressed yet another practical and realistic situation: successive geometric transformations, e...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315820/evaluating-differential-nuclear-dna-yield-rates-and-osteocyte-numbers-among-human-bone-tissue-types-a-synchrotron-radiation-micro-ct-approach
#6
Janna M Andronowski, Amy Z Mundorff, Isaac V Pratt, Jon M Davoren, David M L Cooper
Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301022/use-of-an-alternate-light-source-to-detect-tooth-and-bone
#7
Geraldo Elias Miranda, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani, Luiz Francisquini, Eduardo Daruge
The aim of this study was to identify the combination of wavelength and filter that best detects tooth and bone, and to determine which biological materials (enamel, dental root or bone) have highest fluorescence intensity when exposed to an alternate light source (ALS). Tooth and bone samples were lighted with ALS and photographed. Adobe Photoshop™ and ImageJ™ softwares were used for image analysis. Data obtained by measuring the photograph pixels were subjected to analysis of variance. The mean values of significant effects were compared by the Tukey test...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288214/confocal-raman-imaging-and-chemometrics-applied-to-solve-forensic-document-examination-involving-crossed-lines-and-obliteration-cases-by-a-depth-profiling-study
#8
Flávia de Souza Lins Borba, Tariq Jawhari, Ricardo Saldanha Honorato, Anna de Juan
This article describes a non-destructive analytical method developed to solve forensic document examination problems involving crossed lines and obliteration. Different strategies combining confocal Raman imaging and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) are presented. Multilayer images were acquired at subsequent depth layers into the samples. It is the first time that MCR-ALS is applied to multilayer images for forensic purposes. In this context, this method provides a single set of pure spectral ink signatures and related distribution maps for all layers examined from the sole information in the raw measurement...
March 13, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284439/when-age-progressed-images-are-unreliable-the-roles-of-external-features-and-age-range
#9
William Blake Erickson, James Michael Lampinen, Charlie D Frowd, Gregory Mahoney
When children go missing for many years, investigators commission age-progressed images from forensic artists to depict an updated appearance. These images have anecdotal success, and systematic research has found they lead to accurate recognition rates comparable to outdated photos. The present study examines the reliability of age progressions of the same individuals created by different artists. Eight artists first generated age progressions of eight targets across three age ranges. Eighty-five participants then evaluated the similarity of these images against other images depicting the same targets progressed at the same age ranges, viewing either whole faces or faces with external features concealed...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278437/a-new-mathematical-modelling-based-shape-extraction-technique-for-forensic-odontology
#10
Jaffino G, Banumathi A, Ulaganathan Gurunathan, Vijayakumari B, Prabin Jose J
Forensic Odontology is a specific means for identifying a person in which deceased, and particularly in fatality incidents. The algorithm can be proposed to identify a person by comparing both postmortem (PM) and antemortem (AM) dental radiographs and photographs. This work aims to introduce a new mathematical algorithm for photographs in addition with radiographs. Isoperimetric graph partitioning method is used to extract the shape of dental images in forensic identification. Shape matching is done by comparing AM and PM dental images using both similarity and distance measures...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275708/holistic-processing-of-fingerprints-by-expert-forensic-examiners
#11
Macgregor D Vogelsang, Thomas J Palmeri, Thomas A Busey
Holistic processing is often characterized as a process by which objects are perceived as a whole rather than a compilation of individual features. This mechanism may play an important role in the development of perceptual expertise because it allows for rapid integration across image regions. The present work explores whether holistic processing is present in latent fingerprint examiners, who compare fingerprints collected from crime scenes against a set of standards taken from a suspect. We adapted a composite task widely used in the face recognition and perceptual expertise literatures, in which participants were asked to match only a particular half of a fingerprint with a previous image while ignoring the other half...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271501/preparation-of-artificial-blood-from-the-extract-of-legume-root-nodules-and-the-creation-of-artificial-latent-fingermarks-in-blood-using-artificial-blood
#12
Sungwook Hong, Chaewon Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Eunhye Lee
Distribution of homogeneous fingermarks in blood is essential for conducting proficiency tests in forensic science. Hence, the artificial blood was prepared using the root nodule extract of Glycine max plants. The reactivity of the artificial blood with widely used human blood detection reagents was tested. Artificial latent fingermarks in blood were printed using an inkjet cartridge case filled with artificial blood solution. The artificial latent fingermarks in blood were developed with amino acid-sensitive reagents and could obtain development as prominent as the image of the master fingermark saved on the computer...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267647/an-exploratory-study-of-the-potential-of-libs-for-visualizing-gunshot-residue-patterns
#13
María López-López, César Alvarez-Llamas, Jorge Pisonero, Carmen García-Ruiz, Nerea Bordel
The study of gunshot residue (GSR) patterns can assist in the reconstruction of shooting incidences. Currently, there is a real need of methods capable of furnishing simultaneous elemental analysis with higher specificity for the GSR pattern visualization. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a multi-elemental analysis of the sample, requiring very small amounts of material and no sample preparation. Due to these advantages, this study aims at exploring the potential of LIBS imaging for the visualization of GSR patterns...
February 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264570/quantifying-morphological-features-of-%C3%AE-u3o8-with-image-analysis-for-nuclear-forensics
#14
Adam M Olsen, Bryony Richards, Ian Schwerdt, Sean Heffernan, Robert Lusk, Braxton Smith, Elizabeth Jurrus, Christy Ruggiero, Luther W McDonald
Morphological changes in U3O8 based on calcination temperature have been quantified enabling a morphological feature to serve as a signature of processing history in nuclear forensics. Five separate calcination temperatures were used to synthesize α-U3O8, and each sample was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The p-XRD spectra were used to evaluate the purity of the synthesized U-oxide; the morphological analysis for materials (MAMA) software was utilized to quantitatively characterize the particle shape and size as indicated by the SEM images...
March 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263236/forensic-image-analyses-of-skin-and-underlying-muscles-as-a-tool-for-postmortem-interval-delimitation-histopathologic-examination
#15
El-Shaymaa El-Nahass, Walaa A Moselhy, Nour El-Houda Y Hassan
One of the biggest challenges for forensic pathologists is to diagnose the postmortem interval (PMI) delimitation; therefore, the aim of this study was to use a routine histopathologic examination and quantitative analysis to obtain an accurate diagnosis of PMI. The current study was done by using 24 adult male albino rats divided into 8 groups based on the scarification schedule (0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 72 hours PMI). Skin specimens were collected and subjected to a routine histopathologic processing...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251648/two-stage-keypoint-detection-scheme-for-region-duplication-forgery-detection-in-digital-images
#16
Mahmoud Emam, Qi Han, Hongli Zhang
In digital image forensics, copy-move or region duplication forgery detection became a vital research topic recently. Most of the existing keypoint-based forgery detection methods fail to detect the forgery in the smooth regions, rather than its sensitivity to geometric changes. To solve these problems and detect points which cover all the regions, we proposed two steps for keypoint detection. First, we employed the scale-invariant feature operator to detect the spatially distributed keypoints from the textured regions...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251480/detection-and-volume-estimation-of-artificial-hematomas-in-the-subcutaneous-fatty-tissue-comparison-of-different-mr-sequences-at-3-0-t
#17
Kathrin Ogris, Andreas Petrovic, Sylvia Scheicher, Hanna Sprenger, Martin Urschler, Eva Maria Hassler, Kathrin Yen, Eva Scheurer
In legal medicine, reliable localization and analysis of hematomas in subcutaneous fatty tissue is required for forensic reconstruction. Due to the absence of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is particularly suited to examining living persons with forensically relevant injuries. However, there is limited experience regarding MRI signal properties of hemorrhage in soft tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate MR sequences with respect to their ability to show high contrast between hematomas and subcutaneous fatty tissue as well as to reliably determine the volume of artificial hematomas...
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243770/sudden-aortic-death-proposal-for-a-comprehensive-diagnostic-approach-in-forensic-and-in-clinical-pathology-practice
#18
Hans H de Boer, Fabrice Dedouit, Nina Chappex, Allard C van der Wal, Katarzyna Michaud
BACKGROUNDS: Aortic rupture or dissection as immediate cause of sudden death is encountered in forensic and clinical autopsy practice. Despite a common denominator of 'sudden aortic death' (SAD), we expect that in both settings the diagnostic workup, being either primarily legal or primarily disease related, differs substantially, which may affect the eventual diagnoses. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed case records of deceased persons who fitted a diagnosis of SAD in the continuous autopsy cohorts in a forensic (Suisse) and a clinical setting (The Netherlands)...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237440/the-precision-of-micro-tomography-in-bone-taphonomic-experiments-and-the-importance-of-registration
#19
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Julien De Jonckheere, Xavier Demondion, Valéry Hédouin
Micro-computed tomography (μCT) provides micrometric 3D images and has been used in forensic studies for anthropology pubis measurement or insect description for post mortem interval estimation. Studies have suggested using registration, a superimposing images method between a reference and a target. This technique avoids positioning bias and increase the precision of μCT. However, no clear study has reported the precision with μCT analysis before or after registration in a forensic field. One fresh post mortem sample of a human cranial vault was collected...
February 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222933/photogrammetric-3d-skull-photo-superimposition-a-pilot-study
#20
Valeria Santoro, Sergio Lubelli, Antonio De Donno, Alessio Inchingolo, Fulvio Lavecchia, Francesco Introna
The identification of bodies through the examination of skeletal remains holds a prominent place in the field of forensic investigations. Technological advancements in 3D facial acquisition techniques have led to the proposal of a new body identification technique that involves a combination of craniofacial superimposition and photogrammetry. The aim of this study was to test the method by superimposing various computerized 3D images of skulls onto various photographs of missing people taken while they were still alive in cases when there was a suspicion that the skulls in question belonged to them...
February 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
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