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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933251/robust-image-hashing-using-ring-partition-pgnmf-and-local-features
#1
Ram Kumar Karsh, R H Laskar, Bhanu Bhai Richhariya
BACKGROUND: Image authentication is one of the challenging research areas in the multimedia technology due to the availability of image editing tools. Image hash may be used for image authentication which should be invariant to perceptually similar image and sensitive to content changes. The challenging issue in image hashing is to design a system which simultaneously provides rotation robustness, desirable discrimination, sensitivity and localization of forged area with minimum hash length...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930827/reasons-for-lack-of-consensus-in-forensic-pathologist-interpretation-of-photographs-of-patterns-of-injury-of-the-skin
#2
William R Oliver
In a previous study, a survey-based analysis of pathologist diagnoses of patterned injury in which participants were asked makes diagnoses from photographs in the absence of history or context. The level of consensus was low. A follow-up survey was created to ask those who responded to the first survey why they answered as they did or why they were unsure of their answers. The most common reason for lack of consensus was that the lesion was nonspecific. Responses invoking ambiguity were more common than those that indicated a confident difference in diagnosis...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924406/estimating-legal-age-based-on-fusion-of-the-proximal-humeral-epiphysis
#3
María Benito Sánchez, Sónia Codinha, Alexandra Muñoz García, José Antonio Sánchez Sánchez
The increasing demand which requires ascertaining the legal age of undocumented individuals who reach the various countries of the European Community means that new lines of research must be developed which help respond to questions posed by the Justice Administration. For this reason, this study has been designed on the basis of fusion times of the proximal humeral epiphysis. Moreover, the ultrasound scan has been used as the diagnostic method. It is a non-invasive technique, unlike the radiograph, which is used under current standards for the forensic diagnosis of age...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924404/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-distal-radial-epiphysis-a-new-criterion-of-maturity-for-determining-whether-the-age-of-18-has-been-completed
#4
M Timme, C Ottow, R Schulz, H Pfeiffer, W Heindel, V Vieth, A Schmeling, S Schmidt
To improve the accuracy of forensic age estimation where there is no legal basis for carrying out x-ray examinations, it would be useful to establish non-x-ray imaging techniques. The objective of this study was to provide reference data for the magnetic resonance imaging-based evaluation of the ossification stage of the distal radius. Furthermore, we tested a new criterion of the maturity of the distal radial epiphysis for determining whether an individual has completed the age of 18. We investigated 668 MRI scans of the distal radial epiphysis from 333 female and 335 male subjects ranging in age from 12 to 24...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907238/an-assessment-of-how-facial-mimicry-can-change-facial-morphology-implications-for-identification
#5
Daniele Gibelli, Danilo De Angelis, Pasquale Poppa, Chiarella Sforza, Cristina Cattaneo
The assessment of facial mimicry is important in forensic anthropology; in addition, the application of modern 3D image acquisition systems may help for the analysis of facial surfaces. This study aimed at exposing a novel method for comparing 3D profiles in different facial expressions. Ten male adults, aged between 30 and 40 years, underwent acquisitions by stereophotogrammetry (VECTRA-3D(®) ) with different expressions (neutral, happy, sad, angry, surprised). The acquisition of each individual was then superimposed on the neutral one according to nine landmarks, and the root mean square (RMS) value between the two expressions was calculated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907228/measurement-of-postmortem-pupil-size-a-new-method-with-excellent-reliability-and-its-application-to-pupil-changes-in-the-early-postmortem-period
#6
Luise Fleischer, Susanne Sehner, Axel Gehl, Martin Riemer, Tobias Raupach, Sven Anders
Measurement of postmortem pupil width is a potential component of death time estimation. However, no standardized measurement method has been described. We analyzed a total of 71 digital images for pupil-iris ratio using the software ImageJ. Images were analyzed three times by four different examiners. In addition, serial images from 10 cases were taken between 2 and 50 h postmortem to detect spontaneous pupil changes. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the method was excellent (ICC > 0.95). The method is observer independent and yields consistent results, and images can be digitally stored and re-evaluated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905577/infrared-spectroscopy-and-spectroscopic-imaging-in-forensic-science
#7
REVIEW
Andrew V Ewing, Sergei G Kazarian
Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications...
December 1, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900508/temperature-dependence-of-viscosity-relaxation-times-t1-t2-and-simulated-contrast-for-potential-perfusates-in-post-mortem-mr-angiography-pmmra
#8
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Bernhard Neumayer, Christine Bruguier, Sylvia Scheicher, Hanna Sprenger, Silke Grabherr, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
Developments in post-mortem imaging increasingly focus on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses, especially with regard to suspected natural deaths. Post-mortem MR angiography (PMMRA) may offer additional diagnostic information to help address such weaknesses, specifically in the context of sudden cardiac death. Complete filling of the coronary arteries and acceptable contrast with surrounding tissue are essential for a successful approach to PMMRA. In this work, the suitability of different liquids for inclusion in a targeted PMMRA protocol was evaluated...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892601/a-view-to-the-future-a-novel-approach-for-3d-3d-superimposition-and-quantification-of-differences-for-identification-from-next-generation-video-surveillance-systems
#9
Daniele Gibelli, Danilo De Angelis, Pasquale Poppa, Chiarella Sforza, Cristina Cattaneo
Techniques of 2D-3D superimposition are widely used in cases of personal identification from video surveillance systems. However, the progressive improvement of 3D image acquisition technology will enable operators to perform also 3D-3D facial superimposition. This study aims at analyzing the possible applications of 3D-3D superimposition to personal identification, although from a theoretical point of view. Twenty subjects underwent a facial 3D scan by stereophotogrammetry twice at different time periods. Scans were superimposed two by two according to nine landmarks, and root-mean-square (RMS) value of point-to-point distances was calculated...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892599/forensic-taxonomy-of-android-social-apps
#10
Abdullah Azfar, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Lin Liu
An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890113/meprocs-framework-for-craniofacial-superimposition-validation-study
#11
O Ibáñez, R Vicente, D Navega, C Campomanes-Álvarez, C Cattaneo, R Jankauskas, M I Huete, F Navarro, R Hardiman, E Ruiz, K Imaizumi, F Cavalli, E Veselovskaya, D Humpire, J Cardoso, F Collini, D Mazzarelli, D Gibelli, S Damas
Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante-mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. The lack of unified working protocols and the absence of commonly accepted standards, led to contradictory consensus regarding its reliability. One of the more important aims of 'New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS)' project was to propose a common framework for CFS, what can be considered the first international standard in the field...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889430/classification-of-teeth-in-cone-beam-ct-using-deep-convolutional-neural-network
#12
Yuma Miki, Chisako Muramatsu, Tatsuro Hayashi, Xiangrong Zhou, Takeshi Hara, Akitoshi Katsumata, Hiroshi Fujita
Dental records play an important role in forensic identification. To this end, postmortem dental findings and teeth conditions are recorded in a dental chart and compared with those of antemortem records. However, most dentists are inexperienced at recording the dental chart for corpses, and it is a physically and mentally laborious task, especially in large scale disasters. Our goal is to automate the dental filing process by using dental x-ray images. In this study, we investigated the application of a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for classifying tooth types on dental cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images...
November 12, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884158/rapid-visualization-of-latent-fingermarks-using-gold-seed-mediated-enhancement
#13
Chia-Hao Su, Chun-Chieh Yu, Fong-Yu Cheng
BACKGROUND: Fingermarks are one of the most important and useful forms of physical evidence in forensic investigations. However, latent fingermarks are not directly visible, but can be visualized due to the presence of other residues (such as inorganic salts, proteins, polypeptides, enzymes and human metabolites) which can be detected or recognized through various strategies. Convenient and rapid techniques are still needed to provide obvious contrast between the background and the fingermark ridges and to then visualize latent fingermark with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874186/lessons-learned-from-autopsying-an-unidentified-body-with-iodine-125-seeds-implanted-for-prostate-brachytherapy
#14
Nozomi Idota, Mami Nakamura, Koji Masui, Yasuhiro Kakiuchi, Kei Yamada, Hiroshi Ikegaya
We report here lessons learned from an autopsy case involving radioactive materials. We performed an autopsy of an unidentified mummified man with no available medical history whom from imaging findings we suspected had received radioactive seed implants for prostate brachytherapy. We returned the excised prostate and seeds to the body. A few days later, the body was identified by DNA matching and cremated. According to the man's medical record, he had undergone iodine-125 seeds implantation for prostate cancer 11 months earlier...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864961/sexual-dimorphism-of-maxillary-sinus-dimensions-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#15
Maryam Paknahad, Shoaleh Shahidi, Zahra Zarei
Sex determination of unknown persons plays an important role in forensic medicine. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an excellent imaging modality for accurate measurement of maxillary sinus dimensions. This study aimed to evaluate whether maxillary sinus measurements on CBCT scans can be applied for sex determination. The width, length, and height of maxillary sinuses in CBCT images of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) were measured. Student's t-test and discriminant function analysis were used to compare differences in the measured parameters between males and females...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864946/development-of-a-mobile-toolmark-characterization-comparison-system
#16
Scott Chumbley, Song Zhang, Max Morris, Ryan Spotts, Chad Macziewski
Since the development of the striagraph, various attempts have been made to enhance forensic investigation through the use of measuring and imaging equipment. This study describes the development of a prototype system employing an easy-to-use software interface designed to provide forensic examiners with the ability to measure topography of a toolmarked surface and then conduct various comparisons using a statistical algorithm. Acquisition of the data is carried out using a portable 3D optical profilometer, and comparison of the resulting data files is made using software named "MANTIS" (Mark and Tool Inspection Suite)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859515/characterizing-human-expertise-using-computational-metrics-of-feature-diagnosticity-in-a-pattern-matching-task
#17
Thomas Busey, Dimitar Nikolov, Chen Yu, Brandi Emerick, John Vanderkolk
Forensic evidence often involves an evaluation of whether two impressions were made by the same source, such as whether a fingerprint from a crime scene has detail in agreement with an impression taken from a suspect. Human experts currently outperform computer-based comparison systems, but the strength of the evidence exemplified by the observed detail in agreement must be evaluated against the possibility that some other individual may have created the crime scene impression. Therefore, the strongest evidence comes from features in agreement that are also not shared with other impressions from other individuals...
November 10, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859228/testing-a-novel-3d-printed-radiographic-imaging-device-for-use-in-forensic-odontology
#18
Tara L Newcomb, Ann M Bruhn, Bridget Giles, Hector M Garcia, Norou Diawara
There are specific challenges related to forensic dental radiology and difficulties in aligning X-ray equipment to teeth of interest. Researchers used 3D printing to create a new device, the combined holding and aiming device (CHAD), to address the positioning limitations of current dental X-ray devices. Participants (N = 24) used the CHAD, soft dental wax, and a modified external aiming device (MEAD) to determine device preference, radiographer's efficiency, and technique errors. Each participant exposed six X-rays per device for a total of 432 X-rays scored...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847394/sex-determination-of-adult-human-maxillary-sinuses-on-panoramic-radiographs
#19
Cristhiane Leao de Queiroz, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias Terada, Thais Uenoyama Dezem, Lais Gomes de Araújo, Rodrigo Galo, Christiano Oliveira-Santos, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva
The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA)...
September 2016: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832068/time-dependent-changes-in-t1-during-fracture-healing-in-juvenile-rats-a-quantitative-mr-approach
#20
Katharina Baron, Bernhard Neumayer, Eva Amerstorfer, Eva Scheurer, Clemens Diwoky, Rudolf Stollberger, Hanna Sprenger, Annelie M Weinberg
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) offers several advantages in imaging and determination of soft tissue alterations when compared to qualitative imaging techniques. Although applications in brain and muscle tissues are well studied, its suitability to quantify relaxation times of intact and injured bone tissue, especially in children, is widely unknown. The objective observation of a fracture including its age determination can become of legal interest in cases of child abuse or maltreatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is the determination of time dependent changes in intact and corresponding injured bones in immature rats via qMRI, to provide the basis for an objective and radiation-free approach for fracture dating...
2016: PloS One
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