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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793156/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-scalp-in-tension
#1
Lisa Falland-Cheung, Mario Scholze, Pamela F Lozano, Benjamin Ondruschka, Darryl C Tong, Paul A Brunton, J Neil Waddell, Niels Hammer
Mechanical properties of the human scalp have not been investigated to a great extent with limited information available. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline material data for human scalp tissue of various ages, which can be applied to experimental and constitutive models, such as in the area of impact biomechanics. This study used specimens from the left and right temporal, fronto-parietal and occipital regions of the human scalp. It investigated the tensile behavior of scalp tissue using tissues harvested from unfixed, fresh cadavers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787885/exposing-splicing-forgery-based-on-color-temperature-estimation
#2
Peng Sun, Yubo Lang, Shu Fan, Zhe Shen, Lei Liu, Daguo Shan, Silong Peng
Splicing is one of the most common tampering techniques for image manipulation in many forensic cases. Normally color shift in images due to color temperature of illumination can be seen as intrinsic features relative to imaging process. In splicing forgeries, copied area and pasted target image come from different imaging process, and are likely to have different color shift. In this paper, a novel automated authentication method is presented to expose splicing manipulation and locate manipulated areas by discriminating the inconsistencies of color shift in an image...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784418/transmission-infrared-imaging-microscopy-and-multivariate-curve-resolution-applied-to-the-forensic-examination-of-automotive-paints
#3
Francis Kwofie, Undugodage Don Nuwan Perera, Matthew D Allen, Barry K Lavine
In the forensic examination of automotive paint, each layer of paint is analyzed individually by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Laboratories in North America typically hand section each layer and present each separated layer to the spectrometer for analysis, which is time consuming. In addition, sampling too close to the boundary between adjacent layers can pose a problem as it produces an IR spectrum that is a mixture of the two layers. Not having a "pure" spectrum of each layer will prevent a meaningful comparison between each paint layer or in the situation of searching an automotive database will prevent the forensic paint examiner from developing an accurate hit list of potential suspects...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784384/nuclear-proliferomics-a-new-field-of-study-to-identify-signatures-of-nuclear-materials-as-demonstrated-on-alpha-uo-3
#4
Ian J Schwerdt, Alexandria Brenkmann, Sean Martinson, Brent D Albrecht, Sean Heffernan, Michael R Klosterman, Trenton Kirkham, Tolga Tasdizen, Luther W McDonald Iv
The use of a limited set of signatures in nuclear forensics and nuclear safeguards may reduce the discriminating power for identifying unknown nuclear materials, or for verifying processing at existing facilities. Nuclear proliferomics is a proposed new field of study that advocates for the acquisition of large databases of nuclear material properties from a variety of analytical techniques. As demonstrated on a common uranium trioxide polymorph, α-UO3 , in this paper, nuclear proliferomics increases the ability to improve confidence in identifying the processing history of nuclear materials...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778926/a-computational-approach-to-estimate-postmortem-interval-using-opacity-development-of-eye-for-human-subjects
#5
İsmail Cantürk, Lale Özyılmaz
This paper presents an approach to postmortem interval (PMI) estimation, which is a very debated and complicated area of forensic science. Most of the reported methods to determine PMI in the literature are not practical because of the need for skilled persons and significant amounts of time, and give unsatisfactory results. Additionally, the error margin of PMI estimation increases proportionally with elapsed time after death. It is crucial to develop practical PMI estimation methods for forensic science. In this study, a computational system is developed to determine the PMI of human subjects by investigating postmortem opacity development of the eye...
May 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775918/determining-gender-by-taking-measurements-from-magnetic-resonance-images-of-the-patella
#6
Hacer Yasar Teke, Özge Ünlütürk, Elif Günaydin, Semra Duran, Sait Özsoy
BACKGROUND: A key step in making a positive identification in forensic medicine is the establishment of a biological profile, which involves determining factors such as gender, age, ancestry, and stature. The goal of this study was to determine if gender could be established by taking various measurements of the patella taken from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and analyzing the variations by gender. METHODS: The sample group consisted of 220 patients (110 male and 110 female) whose patella were measured using MRI images of their left knee...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772013/rapid-differentiation-of-epithelial-cell-types-in-aged-biological-samples-using-autofluorescence-and-morphological-signatures
#7
Emily R Brocato, M Katherine Philpott, Catherine C Connon, Christopher J Ehrhardt
Establishing the tissue source of epithelial cells within a biological sample is an important capability for forensic laboratories. In this study we used Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) to analyze individual cells recovered from buccal, epidermal, and vaginal samples that had been dried between 24 hours and more than eight weeks. Measurements capturing the size, shape, and fluorescent properties of cells were collected in an automated manner and then used to build a multivariate statistical framework for differentiating cells based on tissue type...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771841/integrating-a-profile-of-frontal-face-with-its-mirror-image-for-facial-reconstruction
#8
Paramjit Kaur, Kewal Krishan, Suresh K Sharma, Tanuj Kanchan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Face recognition plays an important role in the field of biometrics, bioinformatics, and forensic identification. Human faces appear bilaterally symmetric. However, asymmetry is a norm in the human body and careful morphological and metric examination of the human face gives an exact idea of the asymmetry present in the face of an individual. Most of the studies on asymmetry of human face have been carried out with regard to evaluation of expressions in psychology, anthropology, and biometrics...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771705/the-causality-nexus-between-the-tako-tsubo-syndrome-and-an-assault-a-forensic-case-report
#9
Malek Zribi, Syrine Azza Manoubi, Narjes Karray, Salma Charfeddine, Wiem Benamar, Zouhir Hammami, Samir Kammoun, Samir Maatoug
"Tako-tsubo" cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome," is one of the rarest types of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. It frequently mimics acute coronary syndrome, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes, and release of myocardial enzymes. After treatment, the patients are cured in most cases without sequelae. Tako-tsubo syndrome is rarely considered as a reason for consultation in the forensic department.Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old woman who was assaulted by her police officer neighbor...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770838/metal-oxide-nanoparticles-for-latent-fingerprint-visualization-and-analysis-of-small-drug-molecules-using-surface-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#10
Mohamed O Amin, Metwally Madkour, Entesar Al-Hetlani
We explored the applicability of different metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; ZnO, TiO2 , Fe2 O3 , and CeO2 ) for the optical imaging and mass spectrometric determination of small drug molecules in latent fingerprints (LFPs). Optical imaging was achieved using a dry method-simply dusting the LFPs with a minute amount of NP powder-and still images were captured using a digital microscope and a smartphone camera. Mass spectrometric determination was performed using the NPs as substrates for surface-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS), which enabled the detection of small drug molecules with high signal intensities...
May 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758447/experimental-sharp-force-injuries-to-ribs-multimodal-morphological-and-geometric-morphometric-analyses-using-micro-ct-macro-photography-and-sem
#11
Larissa Komo, Martin Grassberger
Tool marks on bones induced by knife blades can be analysed morphometrically in order to enable an allocation of the suspected "inflicting weapon" to the particular morphology of the bone lesions. Until now, geometric morphometrics has not been used to analyse the morphology of knife lesions on fleshed bones in detail. By using twelve experimental knives and a drop weight tower, stab/cut injuries were inflicted on untreated pig ribs. The morphology of the experimentally produced lesions was subsequently recorded with three imaging techniques (μCT, macro photography and SEM) and analysed with different morphometric software (Amira, tps and Morpheus)...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730384/the-expression-of-il10ra-in-colorectal-cancer-and-its-correlation-with-the-proliferation-index-and-the-clinical-stage-of-the-disease
#12
Łukasz Zadka, Michał J Kulus, Krzysztof Kurnol, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Natalia Glatzel-Plucińska, Tomasz Jurek, Magdalena Czuba, Aleksandra Nowak, Mariusz Chabowski, Dariusz Janczak, Piotr Dzięgiel
INTRODUCTION: Despite the widely described role of IL10 in immune response regulation during carcinogenesis, there is no established model describing the role of its receptor. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between the subunit alpha of IL10 receptor (IL10RA) in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: The study was conducted on archived paraffin blocks of 125 CRC patients, from which tissue microarrays (TMA) were made. These were subsequently used for immunohistochemistry to assess the expression of IL10RA, IL10, phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) and the Ki67 proliferation index...
May 3, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725812/postmortem-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-in-sudden-cardiac-death
#13
REVIEW
Benedetta Guidi, Giovanni Donato Aquaro, Marco Gesi, Michele Emdin, Marco Di Paolo
Postmortem imaging is increasingly used in forensic practice as good complementary tool to conventional autopsy investigations. Over the last decade, postmortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) imaging was introduced in forensic investigations of natural deaths related to cardiovascular diseases, which represent the most common causes of death in developed countries. Postmortem CMR application has yielded interesting results in ischemic myocardium injury investigations and in visualizing other pathological findings in the heart...
May 4, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718983/assessment-of-accuracy-and-recognition-of-three-dimensional-computerized-forensic-craniofacial-reconstruction
#14
Geraldo Elias Miranda, Caroline Wilkinson, Mark Roughley, Thiago Leite Beaini, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani
Facial reconstruction is a technique that aims to reproduce the individual facial characteristics based on interpretation of the skull, with the objective of recognition leading to identification. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the accuracy and recognition level of three-dimensional (3D) computerized forensic craniofacial reconstruction (CCFR) performed in a blind test on open-source software using computed tomography (CT) data from live subjects. Four CCFRs were produced by one of the researchers, who was provided with information concerning the age, sex, and ethnic group of each subject...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714682/postmortem-ct-angiography-compared-with-autopsy-a-forensic-multicenter-study
#15
Silke Grabherr, Axel Heinemann, Hermann Vogel, Guy Rutty, Bruno Morgan, Krzysztof Woźniak, Fabrice Dedouit, Florian Fischer, Stefanie Lochner, Holger Wittig, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Franziska Eplinius, Katarzyna Michaud, Cristian Palmiere, Christine Chevallier, Patrice Mangin, Jochen M Grimm
Purpose To determine if postmortem computed tomography (CT) and postmortem CT angiography help to detect more lesions than autopsy in postmortem examinations, to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and to define their indications. Materials and Methods Postmortem CT angiography was performed on 500 human corpses and followed by conventional autopsy. Nine centers were involved. All CT images were read by an experienced team including one forensic pathologist and one radiologist, blinded to the autopsy results...
May 1, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705587/probability-intervals-of-speed-estimations-from-video-images-the-markov-chain-monte-carlo-approach
#16
Arjan Mieremet, Ivo Alberink, Bart Hoogeboom, Derk Vrijdag
Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) systems often record vehicle motion prior to incidents. From the footage an estimate of the average speed of the vehicle between two frames can be calculated. In a forensic investigation not only an estimate of the average speed is needed but also an estimation of the measurement error. In earlier papers an approach was explained how to estimate the average speed and the corresponding uncertainty in terms of a confidence interval. In practice confidence intervals are often wrongly interpreted as being probability intervals...
April 13, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698915/forensic-facial-comparison-in-south-africa-state-of-the-science
#17
M Steyn, M Pretorius, N Briers, N Bacci, A Johnson, T M R Houlton
Forensic facial comparison (FFC) is a scientific technique used to link suspects to a crime scene based on the analysis of photos or video recordings from that scene. While basic guidelines on practice and training are provided by the Facial Identification Scientific Working Group, details of how these are applied across the world are scarce. FFC is frequently used in South Africa, with more than 700 comparisons conducted in the last two years alone. In this paper the standards of practice are outlined, with new proposed levels of agreement/conclusions...
April 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698560/review-and-perspectives-on-the-applications-of-mass-spectrometry-imaging-under-ambient-conditions
#18
Consuelo J Perez, Aafreen K Bagga, Shamina S Prova, Maryam Y Taemeh, Demian R Ifa
Ambient MS-based techniques are performed under ambient conditions in which the ionization and desorption occur in the open environment allowing the direct analysis of molecules on surfaces with minimal or no sample preparation. A selected group of ambient MS techniques demonstrate imaging capabilities that can provide information about the localization of molecules on complex sample surfaces such as biological tissues. 2D, 3D, and multimodal imaging have unlocked an array of applications to systematically address complex problems in many areas of research such as drug monitoring, natural products forensics, and cancer diagnostics...
April 26, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689732/a-novel-algorithm-for-thermal-image-encryption
#19
Iqtadar Hussain, Amir Anees, Abdulmohsen Algarni
Thermal images play a vital character at nuclear plants, Power stations, Forensic labs biological research, and petroleum products extraction. Safety of thermal images is very important. Image data has some unique features such as intensity, contrast, homogeneity, entropy and correlation among pixels that is why somehow image encryption is trickier as compare to other encryptions. With conventional image encryption schemes it is normally hard to handle these features. Therefore, cryptographers have paid attention to some attractive properties of the chaotic maps such as randomness and sensitivity to build up novel cryptosystems...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685302/avoiding-overstating-the-strength-of-forensic-evidence-shrunk-likelihood-ratios-bayes-factors
#20
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Norman Poh
When strength of forensic evidence is quantified using sample data and statistical models, a concern may be raised as to whether the output of a model overestimates the strength of evidence. This is particularly the case when the amount of sample data is small, and hence sampling variability is high. This concern is related to concern about precision. This paper describes, explores, and tests three procedures which shrink the value of the likelihood ratio or Bayes factor toward the neutral value of one. The procedures are: (1) a Bayesian procedure with uninformative priors, (2) use of empirical lower and upper bounds (ELUB), and (3) a novel form of regularized logistic regression...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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