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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222933/photogrammetric-3d-skull-photo-superimposition-a-pilot-study
#1
Valeria Santoro, Sergio Lubelli, Antonio De Donno, Alessio Inchingolo, Fulvio Lavecchia, Francesco Introna
The identification of bodies through the examination of skeletal remains holds a prominent place in the field of forensic investigations. Technological advancements in 3D facial acquisition techniques have led to the proposal of a new body identification technique that involves a combination of craniofacial superimposition and photogrammetry. The aim of this study was to test the method by superimposing various computerized 3D images of skulls onto various photographs of missing people taken while they were still alive in cases when there was a suspicion that the skulls in question belonged to them...
February 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220303/estimation-of-stature-from-femur-length-measured-using-computed-tomography-after-the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-characteristics-of-femur-bone-in-korean-cadavers
#2
Sookyoung Lee, Ho-Hyeon Gong, Jin-Young Hyun, Hyung-Nam Koo, Han-Young Lee, Nak-Eun Chung, Young-Shik Choi, Kyung-Moo Yang, Byung Ha Choi
Estimation of stature is a basic and important forensic procedure in identifying decomposed or skeletonized bodies. Due to advances in radiologic equipment, forensic science frequently uses computed tomography (CT) and software to apply these findings to investigations. Technical developments have increased the accuracy of the measurement of various bones. However, there are still some inaccuracies, such as defining correct landmarks in three-dimensional (3D) images. Femur length is frequently used for calculation of stature, but because it is a 3D structure, the digital image may not always correlate with the femur length measured with an osteometric board...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215933/gender-determination-from-diagnostic-factors-on-anteroposterior-pelvic-radiographs
#3
Azadeh Memarian, Kamran Aghakhani, Shahrokh Mehrpisheh, Foroozan Fares
BACKGROUND: Gender determination from skeletal remains is one of the primary factors in forensic medicine. This study aimed to identify the gender of patients referred to the radiology ward of the Rasoul Akram Hospital of Tehran using anteroposterior pelvic radiography. METHODS: A total of 200 patients (100 male and 100 female) referred to the radiology ward of the Rasoul Akram Hospital for anteroposterior pelvic radiography during 2013-2014 were included in this study...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215550/evaluation-of-unenhanced-post-mortem-computed-tomography-to-detect-chest-injuries-in-violent-death
#4
I Sifaoui, C Nedelcu, G Beltran, V Dupont, J Lebigot, A Gaudin, C Ridereau Zins, C Rouge Maillard, C Aubé
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the performances of unenhanced post-mortem computed tomography (CT) to detect thoracic injuries in violent death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, we conducted a review of unenhanced CT scans of 67 victims of violent deaths with thoracic injuries and compared CT findings with the results of clinical autopsy. Our gold standard was a comparison of CT scans with autopsy discussed in a monthly forensic radiology multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM)...
February 16, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#5
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205230/forensic-identification-of-bipartite-patella-misdiagnosed-as-patella-fracture
#6
Jingyuan Ma, Fang Shi, Chongya Huang, Shanzhi Gu
Bipartite patella is recognized as a developmental anomaly of ossification. Most of them are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally. Bipartite patella is sometimes misdiagnosed as a patella fracture, because the x-ray images of both these conditions may appear very similar. In this case, the patient complained of left knee pain after x-ray films revealed a fracture-like line in the left patella. The patient was then diagnosed as having a patella fracture. In China, the injury degree is categorized as serious injury, minor injury, and trivial injury...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194988/personal-information-from-latent-fingerprints-using-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-machine-learning
#7
Zhenpeng Zhou, Richard N Zare
Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) was applied to latent fingerprints to obtain not only spatial patterns but also chemical maps. Samples with similar lipid compositions as those of the fingerprints were collected by swiping a glass slide across the forehead of consenting adults. A machine learning model called gradient boosting tree ensemble (GDBT) was applied to the samples that allowed us to distinguish between different genders, ethnicities, and ages (within 10 years)...
January 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185072/the-geometrical-precision-of-virtual-bone-models-derived-from-clinical-computed-tomography-data-for-forensic-anthropology
#8
Kerri L Colman, Johannes G G Dobbe, Kyra E Stull, Jan M Ruijter, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Rick R van Rijn, Alie E van der Merwe, Hans H de Boer, Geert J Streekstra
Almost all European countries lack contemporary skeletal collections for the development and validation of forensic anthropological methods. Furthermore, legal, ethical and practical considerations hinder the development of skeletal collections. A virtual skeletal database derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) scans provides a potential solution. However, clinical CT scans are typically generated with varying settings. This study investigates the effects of image segmentation and varying imaging conditions on the precision of virtual modelled pelves...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144846/virtoscan-a-mobile-low-cost-photogrammetry-setup-for-fast-post-mortem-3d-full-body-documentations-in-x-ray-computed-tomography-and-autopsy-suites
#9
Sören Kottner, Lars C Ebert, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Marcel Braun, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
Injuries such as bite marks or boot prints can leave distinct patterns on the body's surface and can be used for 3D reconstructions. Although various systems for 3D surface imaging have been introduced in the forensic field, most techniques are both cost-intensive and time-consuming. In this article, we present the VirtoScan, a mobile, multi-camera rig based on close-range photogrammetry. The system can be integrated into automated PMCT scanning procedures or used manually together with lifting carts, autopsy tables and examination couch...
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123285/sexual-dimorphism-in-foramen-magnum-dimensions-in-the-south-indian-population-a-digital-submentovertex-radiographic-study
#10
Neha Ajit Raikar, Manasa A Meundi, Chaya M David, Mahesh Dathu Rao, Sanjay Chikkarasinakere Jogigowda
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Personal identification is a vital arena of forensic investigation, facilitating the search for missing persons. This process of identification is eased by the determination of age, sex, and ethnicity. In situations where there are fragmented and mutilated skeletal remains, sex determination is relatively difficult, and it becomes important to establish the accuracy of individual bones. AIM: This study aims to evaluate sexual dimorphism in foramen magnum (FM) dimensions in the South Indian population using digital submentovertex (SMV) radiograph...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123272/identifying-murder-victims-with-endodontic-radiographs
#11
Rhonan Ferreira Silva, Ademir Franco, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho Mendes, Fernando Fortes Picoli, Fernando Gomes Nunes, Carlos Estrela
Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123269/age-estimation-by-pulp-to-tooth-area-ratio-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography-a-preliminary-analysis
#12
Arpita Rai, Ashith B Acharya, Venkatesh G Naikmasur
BACKGROUND: Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. AIMS: The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120394/comparing-the-scoring-of-human-decomposition-from-digital-images-to-scoring-using-on-site-observations
#13
Gretchen R Dabbs, Joan A Bytheway, Melissa Connor
When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118398/identification-of-skin-electrical-injury-using-infrared-imaging-a-possible-complementary-tool-for-histological-examination
#14
Ji Zhang, Wei Lin, Hancheng Lin, Zhenyuan Wang, Hongmei Dong
In forensic practice, determination of electrocution as a cause of death usually depends on the conventional histological examination of electrical mark in the body skin, but the limitation of this method includes subjective bias by different forensic pathologists, especially for identifying suspicious electrical mark. The aim of our work is to introduce Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics as a complementary tool for providing an relatively objective diagnosis. The results of principle component analysis (PCA) showed that there were significant differences of protein structural profile between electrical mark and normal skin in terms of α-helix, antiparallel β-sheet and β-sheet content...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111739/forensic-evidence-and-criminal-investigations-the-impact-of-ballistics-information-on-the-investigation-of-violent-crime-in-nine-cities
#15
William R King, Bradley A Campbell, Matthew C Matusiak, Charles M Katz
We explore the impact of information from ballistics imaging hit reports on the investigation into violent crimes. Ballistics imaging hits link two crimes involving the same firearm by forensically matching tool marks on the fired bullets or cartridge cases. Interview data collected from detectives who received a hit report were used to explore the relationship between the presence of a hit report and outcomes in 65 gun-related violent crime investigations in nine U.S. police agencies. Findings indicate hit reports rarely contribute to identification, arrest, charging, or sentencing of suspects, because of delays in producing hit reports...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107727/neural-correlates-of-subliminally-presented-visual-sexual-stimuli
#16
Martina Wernicke, Corinna Hofter, Kirsten Jordan, Peter Fromberger, Peter Dechent, Jürgen L Müller
In the context of forensic psychiatry, it is crucial that diagnoses of deviant sexual interests are resistant to manipulation. In a first attempt to promote the development of such tools, the current fMRI study focusses on the examination of hemodynamic responses to preferred, in contrast to non-preferred, sexual stimuli with and without explicit sexual features in 24 healthy heterosexual subjects. The subliminal stimulus presentation of sexual stimuli could be a new approach to reduce vulnerability to manipulation...
January 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102433/advanced-forensic-validation-for-human-spermatozoa-identification-using-sperm-hy-liter%C3%A2-express-with-quantitative-image-analysis
#17
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu
Identification of human semen is indispensable for the investigation of sexual assaults. Fluorescence staining methods using commercial kits, such as the series of SPERM HY-LITER™ kits, have been useful to detect human sperm via strong fluorescence. These kits have been examined from various forensic aspects. However, because of a lack of evaluation methods, these studies did not provide objective, or quantitative, descriptions of the results nor clear criteria for the decisions reached. In addition, the variety of validations was considerably limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092535/super-resolution-person-re-identification-with-semi-coupled-low-rank-discriminant-dictionary-learning
#18
Xiao-Yuan Jing, Xiaoke Zhu, Fei Wu, Ruimin Hu, Xinge You, Yunhong Wang, Hui Feng, Jing-Yu Yang
Person re-identification has been widely studied due to its importance in surveillance and forensics applications. In practice, gallery images are high resolution (HR), while probe images are usually low resolution (LR) in the identification scenarios with large variation of illumination, weather, or quality of cameras. Person re-identification in this kind of scenarios, which we call super-resolution (SR) person re-identification, has not been well studied. In this paper, we propose a semi-coupled low-rank discriminant dictionary learning (SLD(2)L) approach for SR person re-identification task...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071601/applications-of-nuclear-physics
#19
A C Hayes
Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion...
February 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068573/guidelines-for-reproducing-geometrical-aspects-of-intra-oral-radiographs-images-on-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#20
Janaina Paiva Curi, Thiago Leite Beaini, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani, Israel Chilvarquer, Edgard Michel Crosato
Human identification requires comparison of individual traits of a person, depending on the availability and reproduction of antemortem (AM) records. If there is no presumed identity or AM exams are not available for comparison, the production of postmortem (PM) records is impaired. The purpose of this research is to describe and test standards to enable the comparison of antemortem periapical radiographs to images extracted from the manipulation of postmortem CBCT exams in multiple identification simulations in a randomized blind study...
December 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
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