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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819715/automatic-detection-of-hemorrhagic-pericardial-effusion-on-pmct-using-deep-learning-a-feasibility-study
#1
Lars C Ebert, Jakob Heimer, Wolf Schweitzer, Till Sieberth, Anja Leipner, Michael Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi
Post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) can be used as a triage tool to better identify cases with a possibly non-natural cause of death, especially when high caseloads make it impossible to perform autopsies on all cases. Substantial data can be generated by modern medical scanners, especially in a forensic setting where the entire body is documented at high resolution. A solution for the resulting issues could be the use of deep learning techniques for automatic analysis of radiological images. In this article, we wanted to test the feasibility of such methods for forensic imaging by hypothesizing that deep learning methods can detect and segment a hemopericardium in PMCT...
August 18, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756305/age-assessment-in-canine-and-premolar-by-cervical-axial-sections-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#2
Hichem Nemsi, Nidhal Haj Salem, Ines Bouanene, Sami Ben Jomaa, Meriem Belhadj, Mohamed Amin Mosrati, Abir Aissaoui, Faten Ben Amor, Ali Chadly
Age estimation in adults is a challenge in both anthropological and forensic situations compared to sub-adults age estimation. The present study explored, for the first time, the cervical zone of single rooted teeth. The deposition of secondary dentin is responsible for a decrease in the volume of the dental pulp cavity with aging, and therefore is often used as an age indicator. The current study aimed at estimating the chronological age among adults by measuring the pulp/dentin area ratio (physiological ratio) by axial sections at cervical region of maxillary canine and mandibular second premolar...
July 21, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746793/easi-ims-an-expedite-and-secure-technique-to-screen-for-25i-nboh-in-blotter-papers
#3
Damila Rodrigues de Morais, Ingrid Lopes Barbosa, Kelly Francisco Cunha, Guilherme Lucas Tripodi, Célio Fernando Figueiredo Angolini, Marcos Fernando Franco, Elvis Medeiros de Aquino, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, Jose Luiz Costa
The increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and their quick worldwide spreading, often only slightly modified in the form of new derivatives and analogues, have brought the need for fast, wide-ranging and unequivocal identification methods in clinical and forensic investigations. Since it usually provides secure results, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been routinely employed as the standard technique for the detection of NPS in blotter papers. For 25I-NBOH (N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethan-1-aminium), however, GC-MS analysis of an blotter paper extract leads to incorrect results...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742485/a-new-morphological-trait-in-forensic-identification-middle-phalangeal-hair-mph
#4
Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Middle phalangeal hairs (MPH) are present on the dorsal aspect of the middle phalange of the fingers except for the thumb. The MPH have been of interest to anthropologists, human biologists, clinicians, geneticists and anatomists in the past as a morphological trait of the human body. The anthropological value of MPH is well established in studying population variations, with implications for age, ancestry and sex differences. We are of the opinion that MPH may be used significantly for forensic identification purposes along with other morphological characteristics of the human body...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738632/raman-hyperspectral-imaging-in-conjunction-with-independent-component-analysis-as-a-forensic-tool-for-explosive-analysis-the-case-of-an-atm-explosion
#5
Mariana Ramos Almeida, Lucio Paulo Lima Logrado, Jorge Jardim Zacca, Deleon Nascimento Correa, Ronei Jesus Poppi
In this work, Raman hyperspectral imaging, in conjunction with independent component analysis, was employed as an analytical methodology to detect an ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosive in banknotes after an ATM explosion experiment. The proposed methodology allows for the identification of the ANFO explosive without sample preparation or destroying the sample, at quantities as small as 70μgcm(-2). The explosive was identified following ICA data decomposition by the characteristic nitrate band at 1044cm(-1)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737525/death-by-snow-a-fatal-forensic-case-of-cocaine-leakage-in-a-drug-mule-on-postmortem-computed-and-magnetic-resonance-tomography-compared-with-autopsy
#6
Patricia Mildred Flach, Dominic Gascho, René Fader, Rosita Martinez, Michael J Thali, Lars C Ebert
This forensic case presents unique postmortem imaging of a "drug mule" with fatal intoxication due to cocaine leakage on postmortem computed and magnetic resonance (MR) tomography compared with autopsy.Imaging by postmortem computed and MR tomography was performed before autopsy, histology, and toxicology were commissioned. Forensic imaging revealed 91 hyperdense, uniformly shaped body packs with signs of leakage, which was confirmed by autopsy. Postmortem MR imaging displayed the rarely described hypointense appearance of the body packs in T1- and T2-weighted sequences...
July 22, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732316/a-user-friendly-technical-set-up-for-infrared-photography-of-forensic-findings
#7
Thomas Rost, Nicole Kalberer, Eva Scheurer
Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729524/cardiac-arrest-following-drug-abuse-with-intravenous-tapentadol-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Misbahuddin Khaja, George Lominadze, Konstantin Millerman
BACKGROUND Tapentadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, with a dual mode of action, as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Tapentadol is used for the management of musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman attended hospital for evaluation of an intractable headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative. She was found unresponsive in the bathroom on the day following hospital admission, and despite resuscitative measures, the patient died following cardiac arrest...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728049/application-of-forensic-image-analysis-in-accident-investigations
#9
REVIEW
Ellen Verolme, Arjan Mieremet
Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707524/applicability-of-cameriere-s-and-drusini-s-age-estimation-methods-to-a-sample-of-turkish-adults
#10
Hatice Boyacioglu Dogru, Nihal Avcu, Nursel Akkaya, Humeyra Ozge Yilanci, Dincer Goksuluk
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of Drusini's and Cameriere's methods to a sample of Turkish people. METHODS: Panoramic images of 200 individuals were allocated into two groups as study and test groups and examined by two observers. Tooth coronal indexes (TCI), which is the ratio between coronal pulp cavity height and crown height, were calculated in the mandibular first and second premolars and molars. Pulp/tooth area ratios (ARs) were calculated in the maxillary and mandibular canine teeth...
July 14, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697737/radiologic-evaluation-of-orbital-index-among-ghanaians-using-ct-scan
#11
Benard Ohene Botwe, Derick Seyram Sule, Abdul Mumin Ismael
BACKGROUND: Orbital index (OI) expresses the proportion of the orbital height to the orbital width and varies with race, regions within the same race and periods in evolution. This index is useful in forensic medicine, anthropology and surgery. However, the average OI among Ghanaian adults was unknown. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the orbital index of adult Ghanaians and classify them under one of the three predetermined groups. METHOD: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690283/postmortem-computed-tomographic-analysis-of-death-caused-by-oral-drug-intoxication
#12
Akihito Usui, Yusuke Kawasumi, Kiyotaka Usui, Yuya Ishizuka, Kaito Takahashi, Masato Funayama, Haruo Saito
Traditional autopsy has changed little in the past century. In Japan, the rate of forensic autopsy in cases of unusual death is very low. Therefore, multi-slice computed tomography (CT) has been used to obtain imaging data instead of or in addition to autopsy in suspicious forensic cases. In our institute, postmortem multi-slice CT has been performed since 2009, and by 2014 there were over 1,000 cases. Our extensive experience with postmortem CT shows that in many cases of death by drug overdose, stomach contents exhibit high X-ray absorption...
July 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687792/maldi-tof-ms-as-a-novel-tool-for-the-estimation-of-postmortem-interval-in-liver-tissue-samples
#13
Chengzhi Li, Zhengdong Li, Ya Tuo, Dong Ma, Yan Shi, Qinghua Zhang, Xianyi Zhuo, Kaifei Deng, Yijiu Chen, Zhenyuan Wang, Ping Huang
Estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a complicated task in forensic medicine, especially during homicide and unwitnessed death investigations. Many biological, chemical, and physical indicators can be used to determine the postmortem interval, but most are not accurate. Here, we present a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method that can be used for the estimation of PMI using molecular images and multivariate analyses. In this study, we demonstrate that both rat and human liver tissues of various PMIs (0, 2, 4, and 6days) can be discriminated using MALDI imaging and principal component analysis (PCA)...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686631/a-new-approach-for-the-analysis-of-facial-growth-and-age-estimation-iris-ratio
#14
Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Marta Regina Pinheiro Flores, Laíse Nascimento Correia Lima, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Ademir Franco, Ana Cristina Barreto Bezerra, Martin Paul Evison, Marco Aurélio Guimarães
The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face-specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio)-for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685296/methamphetamine-induced-toxic-leukoencephalopathy-clinical-radiological-and-autopsy-findings
#15
Jiao Mu, Meiyu Li, Ying Guo, Bin Lv, Mingjie Qiu, Hongmei Dong
Toxic leukoencephalopathy represents a process of structural alteration of the white matter. It is caused by substance abuse including drugs such as heroin, cocaine, toluene and ethanol. We reported the clinical, radiological and autopsy findings of a rare case of toxic leukoencephalopathy following chronic methamphetamine (MA) usage. A 34-year-old man with a 3-year history of MA abuse experienced progressive sluggish state, limb weakness, inability to stand and eating disorders, followed by rapid progression to coma and death...
July 6, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677057/forensic-age-estimation-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-knee-the-definite-relevance-in-bony-fusion-of-the-distal-femoral-and-the-proximal-tibial-epiphyses-using-closest-to-bone-t1-tse-sequence
#16
Christian Ottow, Ronald Schulz, Heidi Pfeiffer, Walter Heindel, Andreas Schmeling, Volker Vieth
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relevance of the bony fusion of the distal femoral and the proximal tibial epiphyses by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional cohort study was performed with a special focus on a reliable determination of the 14th, 16th and 18th years of life. METHODS: We scanned 658 German volunteers in the age bracket 12-24 years using a 3.0 T MR-scanner and utilising a T1 turbo spin-echo sequence representing true bone anatomy...
July 4, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675828/comparison-of-three-dimensional-facial-morphology-between-upright-and-supine-positions-employing-three-dimensional-scanner-from-live-subjects
#17
Ozgur Bulut, Ching-Yiu Jessica Liu, Fatih Koca, Caroline Wilkinson
Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTT) measurements collected from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging techniques are most commonly taken in the supine position for forensic craniofacial reconstruction. FSTT have been shown to be different in comparison to the upright position due to gravity. The variation of facial morphology between the upright and supine position of laser-scanned images taken from 44 individuals was investigated using volumetric analysis with deviation maps...
June 22, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672218/nanoscale-characterization-of-forensically-relevant-epithelial-cells-and-surface-associated-extracellular-dna
#18
Congzhou Wang, Cristina E Stanciu, Christopher J Ehrhardt, Vamsi K Yadavalli
Atomic force microscopy provides a novel morphological and physico-chemical perspective to analyze epithelial cell samples in forensic investigations. As a nanoscale, single cell tool, it allows the investigation of scarce samples in a non-destructive fashion. Using chemical force spectroscopy, it permits the identification of specific functional groups or surface molecules. Of specific interest is the presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA) on the surface of epithelial cells that line the exterior skin and interior cavities of human bodies, and can transfer onto surfaces through contact with skin and saliva...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648761/improved-jpeg-anti-forensics-with-better-image-visual-quality-and-forensic-undetectability
#19
Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh
There is an immediate need to validate the authenticity of digital images due to the availability of powerful image processing tools that can easily manipulate the digital image information without leaving any traces. The digital image forensics most often employs the tampering detectors based on JPEG compression. Therefore, to evaluate the competency of the JPEG forensic detectors, an anti-forensic technique is required. In this paper, two improved JPEG anti-forensic techniques are proposed to remove the blocking artifacts left by the JPEG compression in both spatial and DCT domain...
June 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646752/an-image-processing-methodology-for-extracting-bloodstain-pattern-features
#20
Ravishka M Arthur, Philomena J Humburg, Jerry Hoogenboom, Martin Baiker, Michael C Taylor, Karla G de Bruin
There is a growing trend in forensic science to develop methods to make forensic pattern comparison tasks more objective. This has generally involved the application of suitable image-processing methods to provide numerical data for identification or comparison. This paper outlines a unique image-processing methodology that can be utilised by analysts to generate reliable pattern data that will assist them in forming objective conclusions about a pattern. A range of features were defined and extracted from a laboratory-generated impact spatter pattern...
June 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
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