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forensic imaging

Sasha C Voss, Paola Magni, Ian Dadour, Christian Nansen
Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Maximilian Timme, Jürgen Michael Steinacker, Andreas Schmeling
To maintain the principle of sporting fairness and to protect the health of athletes, it is essential that age limits for youth sporting competitions are complied with. Forensic scientists have developed validated procedures for age estimation in living individuals. Methods have also been published for age estimation in competitive sports. These methods make use of the ossification stage of an epiphyseal plate to draw conclusions about an athlete's age. This article presents published work on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for age estimation in competitive sports...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Danielle Flores, Amy L Miller, Angelique Showman, Caitlyn Tobita, Lori M N Shimoda, Carl Sung, Alexander J Stokes, Jeffrey K Tomberlin, David O Carter, Helen Turner
Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Qianhui Wei, Meiqin Zhang, Božidar Ogorevc, Xueji Zhang
This review highlights the considerable advances in the chemical imaging of human fingermarks that provide more chemical information, including numerous endogenous and exogenous constituents. Despite remarkable development in DNA analysis and recognition, human fingermark analysis remains one of the priority approaches available for obtaining reliable forensic evidence. Additional information about the donor can be obtained from the chemical composition of latent fingermarks in addition to the ridge pattern, such as the age, gender, medical history, and possible drug habits...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
Kazutaka Yamada, Fumio Sato, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Tohru Higuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Naoki Sasaki, Yasuo Nambo
Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
Chih-Ying Gwo, Chia-Hung Wei
PURPOSE: Shoeprint recognition has been widely used as forensic evidence in criminal cases. The purpose of this study is to propose a shoeprint retrieval method based on core point alignment for pattern analysis. METHOD: The proposed method firstly detects contour points in a black-and-white shoeprint image. These reliable contour points are selected to simulate the left and right sidelines of the shoeprint by a curve fitting method. Subsequently, the most concave points along the left and right sidelines can determine the core point of the shoeprint, thereby partitioning the shoeprint into circular regions...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Susan Hayes
In August 2011, a 2D facial approximation was undertaken of remains discovered in Australia's Belanglo State Forrest; in October 2015, the young woman was identified. Referencing three photographs of the young woman as she appeared in life and a database of 64 sex, age, head pose and population matched images, the facial approximation is evaluated for relative shape accuracy through the application of geometric morphometrics. The results are that the facial approximation is significantly similar to the images of the young woman in facial morphology (p=0...
September 19, 2016: Forensic Science International
Jiachang Li, Xingjun Zhu, Meng Xue, Wei Feng, Rongliang Ma, Fuyou Li
Lanthanide upconversion nanophosphors (Ln-UCNPs) have attracted great attention in a variety of fields, benefiting from low background fluorescence interference and a high signal-to-noise ratio of upconversion luminescence. However, the establishment of Ln-UCNPs with dual near-infrared (NIR) emission channels still remains challenging. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of Nd(3+)-sensitized NaYbF4:Tm@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb hierarchical-structured nanoparticles that emit NIR luminescence at 696 and 980 nm under excitation at 808 nm...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Lykke Schrøder Jakobsen, Sissel Lundemose, Jytte Banner, Niels Lynnerup, Christina Jacobsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). METHODS: We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using the computer software program Mimics(®), we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
F Z Mokrane, R Colleter, S Duchesne, P Gerard, F Savall, E Crubezy, C Guilbeau-Frugier, R Moreno, A Sewonu, H Rousseau, N Telmon, F Dedouit
INTRODUCTION: Among 800 burials dated between the 15th and 18th centuries and found in the center of Rennes (Brittany, France), a collection of five heart-shaped lead urns was discovered. This material was studied using classical methods (external study, autopsy and histology), and also modern imaging like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) before and after coronary opacification. The aim of this manuscript is to describe different steps of ancient soft tissues study, especially using imaging techniques...
September 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Jannick De Tobel, Elke Hillewig, Koenraad Verstraete
BACKGROUND: Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. AIM: To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
S Schmidt, C A Henke, D Wittschieber, V Vieth, T Bajanowski, F Ramsthaler, K Püschel, H Pfeiffer, A Schmeling, R Schulz
Evaluation of the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis plays a key role in forensic age estimation, particularly in determining whether the age of 18 has been attained. A key research objective in the forensic age estimation field at present is to establish non-X-ray methods for investigating the clavicle. This paper looks at the use of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the developmental state of the medial clavicular epiphysis. Clavicle specimens obtained from autopsies of 125 female and 270 male subjects aged from 10 to 30 were examined using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner...
November 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lidia Capotosto, Giulia Elena, Francesco Massoni, Simone De Sio, Aldo Carnevale, Serafino Ricci, Antonio Vitarelli
In the past, cardiac tumors were a just clinical curiosity and the prognosis was poor. Surgical management became possible after the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass, and more recently, preoperative diagnosis was greatly improved by the development of echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The value of echocardiography for diagnosing cardiac mass lesions has become well established. Numerous advances have occurred in the last 5 decades, and the evolution of echocardiography involves the development of its many modalities...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Mio Takayama, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
We report the quantification of immunohistochemical findings for a diagnosis of dementia in autopsy cases among older decedents. Autopsy cases were selected with the following requirements: >65yo; no head injuries, thermal injuries, or heat stroke; no intracranial lesions; and within 48h of death. Among cases that met all requirements, 10 had a clinical diagnosis of dementia were included in dementia group. Non-dementia group consisted of 38 cases without any record of dementia. To compare these groups, immunohistochemically, beta-amyloid, tau protein, gephyrin, and IL-33 were examined in five regions...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Namiko Ishii, Ayaka Sakuma, Yohsuke Makino, Suguru Torimitsu, Daisuke Yajima, Go Inokuchi, Ayumi Motomura, Fumiko Chiba, Yumi Hoshioka, Hirotaro Iwase, Hisako Saitoh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of three-rooted mandibular first molars in a contemporary Japanese population using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and examine whether this characteristic root form may be useful for identification purposes. METHODS: Prior to their forensic autopsies, we obtained MDCT scans of 365 cadavers (255 males, 110 females) with mandibular first molars on both sides. Altogether, 730 mandibular first molars were examined morphologically on reconstructed CT images, and the incidence of three-rooted molars was recorded...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Shahnaz Shabbir Tambawala, Freny R Karjodkar, Kaustubh Sansare, Nimish Prakash, Amaresh Chandra Dora
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the foramen magnum (FM) dimensions could be used for sex determination using the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Two hundred and sixty six CBCT full Field Of View (FOV) scans (111 males and 115 female subjects) of the skull were retrospectively selected and the FM length, width measured on reconstructed axial cross section by two observers using the CS 3D imaging software at a slice thickness of 300 μm and the FM area subsequently calculated using two established formulae by Routal and Teixeira...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
Gábor Forrai, Éva Ambrózay, Mária Bidlek, Katalin Borbély, Eszter Kovács, Zsolt Lengyel, Katalin Ormándi, Zoltán Péntek, Erika Riedl, Éva Sebõ, Éva Szabó
Breast radiologists and nuclear medical specialists have refreshed their previous statement text during the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting. They suggest taking into consideration this actual protocol for the screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast tumors, from now on. This recommendation includes the description of the newest technologies, the recent results of scientific research, as well as the role of imaging methods in the therapeutic processes and the follow-up. Suggestions for improvement of the Hungarian current practice and other related issues as forensic medicine, media connections, regulations, and reimbursement are also detailed...
September 2016: Magyar Onkologia
Omar Ismael Al-Sanjary, Ahmed Abdullah Ahmed, Ghazali Sulong
Forgery is an act of modifying a document, product, image or video, among other media. Video tampering detection research requires an inclusive database of video modification. This paper aims to discuss a comprehensive proposal to create a dataset composed of modified videos for forensic investigation, in order to standardize existing techniques for detecting video tampering. The primary purpose of developing and designing this new video library is for usage in video forensics, which can be consciously associated with reliable verification using dynamic and static camera recognition...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Rosane Pérez Baldasso, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Cristina Saft Matos Vieira, Mário Marques Fernandes, Rogério Nogueira Oliveira
The process of forensic facial analysis may be founded on several scientific techniques and imaging modalities, such as digital signal processing, photogrammetry and craniofacial anthropometry. However, one of the main limitations in this analysis is the comparison of images acquired with different angles of incidence. The present study aimed to explore a potential approach for the correction of the planar perspective projection (PPP) in geometric structures traced from the human face. A technique for the correction of the PPP was calibrated within photographs of two geometric structures obtained with angles of incidence distorted in 80°, 60° and 45°...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
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