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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806361/health-disparities-in-veterans-a-map-of-the-evidence
#1
Karli Kondo, Allison Low, Teresa Everson, Christine D Gordon, Stephanie Veazie, Crystal C Lozier, Michele Freeman, Makalapua Motu'apuaka, Aaron Mendelson, Mark Friesen, Robin Paynter, Caroline Friesen, Johanna Anderson, Erin Boundy, Somnath Saha, Ana Quiñones, Devan Kansagara
BACKGROUND: Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. RESEARCH DESIGN: We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806143/whose-preferences-matter-a-patient-centered-approach-for-eliciting-treatment-goals
#2
Nananda F Col, Andrew J Solomon, Vicky Springmann, Calvin P Garbin, Carolina Ionete, Lori Pbert, Enrique Alvarez, Brenda Tierman, Ashli Hopson, Christen Kutz, Idanis Berrios Morales, Carolyn Griffin, Glenn Phillips, Long H Ngo
BACKGROUND: Patients facing a high-stakes clinical decision are often confronted with an overwhelming array of options. High-quality decisions about treatment should reflect patients' preferences as well as their clinical characteristics. Preference-assessment instruments typically focus on pre-selected clinical outcomes and attributes chosen by the investigator. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a patient-centered approach to elicit and compare the treatment goals of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthcare providers (HCPs)...
August 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805172/the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-and-sustainable-development-goals-mapping-the-way-forward
#3
N Kajee, E Sobngwi, A Macnab, A S Daar
In this paper, meant to stimulate debate, we argue that there is considerable benefit in approaching together the implementation of two seemingly separate recent developments. First, on the global development agenda, we have the United Nations General Assembly's 2015 finalized list of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Several of the SDGs are related to health. Second, the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has garnered enough compelling evidence demonstrating that early exposures in life affect not only future health, but that the effects of that exposure can be transmitted across generations - necessitating that we begin to focus on prevention...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804906/efficacy-of-a-mephentermine-based-product-as-a-vasopressor-and-a-cardiac-performance-enhancer-when-given-intramuscularly-to-cattle
#4
D N Q Cunha, C L Del Rio, B L Youngblood, E L Ferris, G E Geist, Y Ueyama, L C Franz, S Mathur, R L Hamlin
The goal of this study was to confirm the vasopressor and cardiac effects of POTENAY(®) INJETÁVEL (POT), a mephentermine-based product, given to cattle with induced vascular/cardiac depression. Ten healthy Holstein cattle (206 ± 13 kg) followed a randomized-complete-block design (RCBD) utilizing crossover study design. Each animal randomly received (1 ml/25 kg, IM) of either POT (n = 10) or volume-matched placebo control (0.9%NaCl, CP, n = 10). A subset of animals (n = 5) received POT first (day 0) while the remaining (n = 5) received CP; after a six-day washout period, cattle received the opposite compound...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#5
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801715/spiritual-care-in-the-icu-perspectives-of-dutch-intensivists-icu-nurses-and-spiritual-caregivers
#6
Suzan Willemse, Wim Smeets, Evert van Leeuwen, Loes Janssen, Norbert Foudraine
Since there are no scientific data available about the role of spiritual care (SC) in Dutch ICUs, the goal of this quantitative study was twofold: first, to map the role of SC as a part of daily adult ICU care in The Netherlands from the perspective of intensivists, ICU nurses, and spiritual caregivers and second, to identify similarities and differences among these three perspectives. This study is the quantitative part of a mixed methods approach. To conduct empirical quantitative cohort research, separate digital questionnaires were sent to three different participant groups in Dutch ICUs, namely intensivists, ICU nurses, and spiritual caregivers working in academic and general hospitals and one specialist oncology hospital...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801661/statistical-characterization-of-therapeutic-protein-modifications
#7
Tsung-Heng Tsai, Zhiqi Hao, Qiuting Hong, Benjamin Moore, Cinzia Stella, Jeffrey H Zhang, Yan Chen, Michael Kim, Theo Koulis, Gregory A Ryslik, Erik Verschueren, Fred Jacobson, William E Haskins, Olga Vitek
Peptide mapping with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an important analytical method for characterization of post-translational and chemical modifications in therapeutic proteins. Despite its importance, there is currently no consensus on the statistical analysis of the resulting data. In this manuscript, we distinguish three statistical goals for therapeutic protein characterization: (1) estimation of site occupancy of modifications in one condition, (2) detection of differential site occupancy between conditions, and (3) estimation of combined site occupancy across multiple modification sites...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800473/public-health-risk-of-mercury-in-china-through-consumption-of-vegetables-a-modelling-study
#8
Ka-Ming Wai, Jiulan Dai, Peter K N Yu, Xuehua Zhou, Charles M S Wong
Sample measurement of mercury (Hg) contents is a common method for health risk assessment of Hg through vegetable consumption in China. In the present work, we undertook the first modelling study which produced consistent health-risk maps for the whole eastern China. Regional maps of Probable Daily Intake (PDI) of Total mercury (THg) and Methylmercury (MeHg) over the studied area were produced, which were important for the researchers and policy-makers to evaluate the risk and to propose mitigation measures if necessary...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797690/stem-cells-distribution-cellular-proliferation-and-migration-in-the-adult-austrolebias-charrua-brain
#9
Maximiliano Torres-Pérez, Juan Carlos Rosillo, Ines Berrosteguieta, Silvia Olivera-Bravo, Gabriela Casanova, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Anabel Sonia Fernández
Our previous studies demonstrated that Austrolebias charrua annual fish is an excellent model to study adult brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis due to the presence of active and fast neurogenesis in several regions during its short lifespan. Our main goal was to identify and localize the cells that compose the neurogenic areas throughout the Austrolebias brain. To do this, we used two thymidine halogenated analogs to detect cell proliferation at different survival times: 5-chloro-2́-deoxyuridine (CldU) at 1 day and 5-iodo-2́-deoxyuridine (IdU) at 30 days...
August 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795835/explicit-goal-driven-attention-unlike-implicitly-learned-attention-spreads-to-secondary-tasks
#10
Douglas A Addleman, Jinyi Tao, Roger W Remington, Yuhong V Jiang
To what degree does spatial attention for one task spread to all stimuli in the attended region, regardless of task relevance? Most models imply that spatial attention acts through a unitary priority map in a task-general manner. We show that implicit learning, unlike endogenous spatial cuing, can bias spatial attention within one task without biasing attention to a spatially overlapping secondary task. Participants completed a visual search task superimposed on a background containing scenes, which they were told to encode for a later memory task...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794638/an-analysis-of-journey-mapping-to-create-a-palliative-care-pathway-in-a-canadian-first-nations-community-implications-for-service-integration-and-policy-development
#11
Jessica Koski, Mary Lou Kelley, Shevaun Nadin, Maxine Crow, Holly Prince, Elaine C Wiersma, Christopher J Mushquash
Providing palliative care in Indigenous communities is of growing international interest. This study describes and analyzes a unique journey mapping process undertaken in a First Nations community in rural Canada. The goal of this participatory action research was to improve quality and access to palliative care at home by better integrating First Nations' health services and urban non-Indigenous health services. Four journey mapping workshops were conducted to create a care pathway which was implemented with 6 clients...
2017: Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793198/preregistered-replication-of-affective-flexibility-evaluative-processing-goals-shape-amygdala-activity
#12
Daniel S Lumian, Kateri McRae
The human amygdala is sensitive to stimulus characteristics, and growing evidence suggests that it is also responsive to cognitive framing in the form of evaluative goals. To examine whether different evaluations of stimulus characteristics shape amygdala activation, we conducted a preregistered replication of Cunningham, Van Bavel, and Johnsen's (2008) study demonstrating flexible mapping of amygdala activation to stimulus characteristics, depending on evaluative goals. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while viewing famous names under three conditions: They were asked to report their overall attitude toward each name, their positive associations only, or their negative associations only...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790937/observation-of-interactions-in-adolescent-group-therapy-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Eulàlia Arias-Pujol, M Teresa Anguera
Group psychotherapy is a useful clinical practice for adolescents with mental health issues. Groups typically consist of young people of similar ages but with different personalities, and this results in a complex communication network. The goal of group psychoanalytic psychotherapy is to improve participants' mentalization abilities, facilitating interactions between peers and their therapist in a safe, containing environment. The main aim of this study was to analyze conversation turn-taking between a lead therapist, a co-therapist, and six adolescents over the course of 24 treatment sessions divided into four blocks over 8 months...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790824/pivotal-response-treatment-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Jiedi Lei, Pamela Ventola
Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an evidence-based behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis principles aimed to improve social communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PRT adopts a more naturalistic approach and focuses on using a number of strategies to help increase children's motivation during intervention. Since its conceptualization, PRT has received much empirical support for eliciting therapeutic gains in greater use of functional social communication skills in individuals with ASD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789555/a-machine-learning-approach-to-graph-theoretical-cluster-expansions-of-the-energy-of-adsorbate-layers
#15
Emanuele Vignola, Stephan N Steinmann, Bart D Vandegehuchte, Daniel Curulla, Michail Stamatakis, Philippe Sautet
The accurate description of the energy of adsorbate layers is crucial for the understanding of chemistry at interfaces. For heterogeneous catalysis, not only the interaction of the adsorbate with the surface but also the adsorbate-adsorbate lateral interactions significantly affect the activation energies of reactions. Modeling the interactions of the adsorbates with the catalyst surface and with each other can be efficiently achieved in the cluster expansion Hamiltonian formalism, which has recently been implemented in a graph-theoretical kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) scheme to describe multi-dentate species...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783761/classification-of-the-pospiviroidae-based-on-their-structural-hallmarks
#16
Tamara Giguère, Jean-Pierre Perreault
The simplest known plant pathogens are the viroids. Because of their non-coding single-stranded circular RNA genome, they depend on both their sequence and their structure for both a successful infection and their replication. In the recent years, important progress in the elucidation of their structures was achieved using an adaptation of the selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) protocol in order to probe viroid structures in solution. Previously, SHAPE has been adapted to elucidate the structures of all of the members of the family Avsunviroidae, as well as those of a few members of the family Pospiviroidae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780683/title-v-workforce-development-in-the-era-of-health-transformation
#17
Lewis Margolis, Amy Mullenix, Alexsandra A Apostolico, Lacy M Fehrenbach, Dorothy Cilenti
Purpose The National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center at UNC Chapel Hill (the Center), funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, provides Title V state/jurisdiction leaders and staff and partners from other sectors with opportunities to develop skills in quality improvement, systems mapping and analysis, change management, and strategies to enhance access to care to leverage and implement health transformation opportunities to improve the health of women and children. Description Since 2013, the Center has utilized a variety of learning platforms to reach state and jurisdiction Title V leaders...
August 5, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780664/unique-sequence-organization-and-small-rna-expression-of-a-selfish-b-chromosome
#18
Yue Li, Xueyuan A Jing, John C Aldrich, C Clifford, Jian Chen, Omar A Akbari, Patrick M Ferree
B chromosomes are found in numerous plants and animals. These nonessential, supernumerary chromosomes are often composed primarily of noncoding DNA repeats similar to those found within transcriptionally "silenced" heterochromatin. In order to persist within their resident genomes, many B chromosomes exhibit exceptional cellular behaviors, including asymmetric segregation into gametes and induction of genome elimination during early development. An important goal in understanding these behaviors is to identify unique B chromosome sequences and characterize their transcriptional contributions...
August 5, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771342/yeast-terminator-function-can-be-modulated-and-designed-based-on-predictions-of-nucleosome-occupancy
#19
Nicholas Morse, Madan Gopal, James Wagner, Hal S Alper
The design of improved synthetic parts is a major goal of synthetic biology. Mechanistically, nucleosome occupancy in the 3' terminator region of a gene has been found to correlate with transcriptional expression. Here, we seek to establish a predictive relationship between terminator function and nucleosome positioning to design synthetic terminators in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In doing so, terminators improved net protein output from these expression cassettes nearly 4-fold over their original sequence with observed increases in termination efficiency to 96%...
August 3, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770996/mapping-elastic-properties-of-heterogeneous-materials-in-liquid-with-angstrom-scale-resolution
#20
Carlos A Amo, Alma P Perrino, Amir F Payam, Ricardo Garcia
Fast quantitative mapping of mechanical properties with nanoscale spatial resolution represents one of the major goals of force microscopy. This goal becomes more challenging when the characterization needs to be accomplished with subnanometer resolution in a native environment that involves liquid solutions. Here we demonstrate that bimodal atomic force microscopy enables the accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of surfaces in liquid with a spatial resolution of 3 Å. The Young's modulus can be determined with a relative error below 5% over a 5 orders of magnitude range (1 MPa to 100 GPa)...
August 3, 2017: ACS Nano
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