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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239469/combination-immunotherapy-a-road-map
#1
REVIEW
Patrick A Ott, F Stephen Hodi, Howard L Kaufman, Jon M Wigginton, Jedd D Wolchok
Cancer immunotherapy and in particular monoclonal antibodies blocking the inhibitory programed cell death 1 pathway (PD-1/PD-L1) have made a significant impact on the treatment of cancer patients in recent years. However, despite the remarkable clinical efficacy of these agents in a number of malignancies, it has become clear that they are not sufficiently active for many patients. Initial evidence, for example with combined inhibition of PD-1 and CTLA-4 in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has highlighted the potential to further enhance the clinical benefits of monotherapies by combining agents with synergistic mechanisms of action...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236115/the-clinicopathological-features-of-liponeurocytoma
#2
Li Xu, Jiang Du, Junmei Wang, Jingyi Fang, Zhaoxia Liu, Yanjiao He, Guilin Li
To discuss the clinicopathological features of liponeurocytoma, we retrospectively reviewed three liponeurocytoma cases and compared their immunophenotypes and genotypes with those of similar tumors. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature and compared the similarities and differences between cerebellar and intraventricular liponeurocytomas. Two cerebellar and one intraventricular liponeurocytomas were included in the present study. The liponeurocytomas comprised small tumor cells and lipomatous cells. The tumor cells expressed SYN, MAP-2, and NeuN...
February 24, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231290/mapping-the-sensory-perception-of-apple-using-descriptive-sensory-evaluation-in-a-genome-wide-association-study
#3
Beatrice Amyotte, Amy J Bowen, Travis Banks, Istvan Rajcan, Daryl J Somers
Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229169/electrophysiological-evidence-for-enhanced-attentional-deployment-in-spatial-learners
#4
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Kyoko Konishi, Moussa Diarra, Veronique D Bohbot, Pierre Jolicoeur, Greg L West
Visual spatial attention is important during navigation processes that rely on a cognitive map, because spatial relationships between environmental landmarks need to be selected, encoded, and learned. People who navigate using this strategy are spatial learners, and this process relies on the hippocampus. Conversely, response learners memorize a series of actions to navigate, which relies on the caudate nucleus. Response learning, which is more efficient, is thought to involve less demanding cognitive operations, and is related to reduced grey matter in the hippocampus...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227375/motion-invariant-contrast-enhancement-of-optical-imaging-data-in-the-gradient-domain
#5
Philipp Flotho, Alejandro Romero-Santiago, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Jacek Szczygielski, Matthias Hulser, Lars Haab, Daniel J Strauss, Philipp Flotho, Alejandro Romero-Santiago, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Jacek Szczygielski, Matthias Hulser, Lars Haab, Daniel J Strauss, Daniel J Strauss, Alejandro Romero-Santiago, Jacek Szczygielski, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Philipp Flotho, Lars Haab
Functional optical imaging (OI) of intrinsic signals (like blood oxygenation coupled reflection changes) and of extrinsic properties of voltage sensitive probes (like voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD)) forms a group of neuroimaging techniques that possess up to date highest temporal and spatial resolution on a meso-to macroscopic scale. An inherent problem of OI is a very low signal to noise ratio (SNR), which restricts the recordings to be completely motionless and requires detailed knowledge of the properties of the different noise sources...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226810/decoding-movement-direction-using-phase-space-analysis-of-hemodynamic-responses-to-arm-movements-based-on-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#6
Nicoladie Tam, Luca Pollonini, George Zouridakis, Nicoladie Tam, Luca Pollonini, George Zouridakis, Luca Pollonini, Nicoladie Tam, George Zouridakis
In this study we applied phase-space analysis on the hemodynamic signals recorded from the motor cortex of human subjects using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to decode the direction of intentional hand movements. Our goal is to develop a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based on optical imaging that can control a wheelchair. To establish the relationship between the hemodynamic response and movement direction, participants were asked to perform repetitive arm movements in two orthogonal directions (right-left and front-back) on a horizontal plane, while the time course of the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) responses were recorded...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224349/mapping-the-health-information-landscape-in-a-rural-culturally-diverse-region-implications-for-interventions-to-reduce-information-inequality
#7
A Susana Ramírez, Erendira Estrada, Ariana Ruiz
The media is an important source of health information, especially critical in rural communities with geographically-dispersed populations that are harder to reach through other channels. Yet health information is unequally distributed; these information disparities are compounded in rural areas, which may contribute to health disparities. We identify and describe health-related news in a culturally-diverse rural California county characterized by high levels of poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and over half of Mexican-origin...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223012/3d-measurements-in-conventional-x-ray-imaging-with-rgb-d-sensors
#8
Francisco Albiol, Alberto Corbi, Alberto Albiol
A method for deriving 3D internal information in conventional X-ray settings is presented. It is based on the combination of a pair of radiographs from a patient and it avoids the use of X-ray-opaque fiducials and external reference structures. To achieve this goal, we augment an ordinary X-ray device with a consumer RGB-D camera. The patient' s rotation around the craniocaudal axis is tracked relative to this camera thanks to the depth information provided and the application of a modern surface-mapping algorithm...
February 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220201/eye-movements-show-similar-adaptations-in-temporal-coordination-to-movement-planning-conditions-in-both-people-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy
#9
Alexander R Payne, Beryl Plimmer, Andrew McDaid, T Claire Davies
The effects of cerebral palsy on movement planning for simple reaching tasks are not well understood. Movement planning is complex and entails many processes which could be affected. This study specifically sought to evaluate integrating task information, decoupling movements, and adjusting to altered mapping. For a reaching task, the asynchrony between the eye onset and the hand onset was measured across different movement planning conditions for participants with and without cerebral palsy. Previous research shows people without cerebral palsy vary this temporal coordination for different planning conditions...
February 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219972/venomics-integrative-venom-proteomics-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Juan J Calvete
Venoms are integrated phenotypes that evolved independently in, and are used for predatory and defensive purposes by, a wide phylogenetic range of organisms. The same principles that contribute to the evolutionary success of venoms, contribute to making the study of venoms of great interest in such diverse fields as evolutionary ecology and biotechnology. Evolution is profoundly contingent, and nature also reinvents itself continuosly. Changes in a complex phenotypic trait, such as venom, reflect the influences of prior evolutionary history, chance events, and selection...
February 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219347/aquaculture-genomics-genetics-and-breeding-in-the-united-states-current-status-challenges-and-priorities-for-future-research
#11
EDITORIAL
Hisham Abdelrahman, Mohamed ElHady, Acacia Alcivar-Warren, Standish Allen, Rafet Al-Tobasei, Lisui Bao, Ben Beck, Harvey Blackburn, Brian Bosworth, John Buchanan, Jesse Chappell, William Daniels, Sheng Dong, Rex Dunham, Evan Durland, Ahmed Elaswad, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Kamal Gosh, Ximing Guo, Perry Hackett, Terry Hanson, Dennis Hedgecock, Tiffany Howard, Leigh Holland, Molly Jackson, Yulin Jin, Karim Kahlil, Thomas Kocher, Tim Leeds, Ning Li, Lauren Lindsey, Shikai Liu, Zhanjiang Liu, Kyle Martin, Romi Novriadi, Ramjie Odin, Yniv Palti, Eric Peatman, Dina Proestou, Guyu Qin, Benjamin Reading, Caird Rexroad, Steven Roberts, Mohamed Salem, Andrew Severin, Huitong Shi, Craig Shoemaker, Sheila Stiles, Suxu Tan, Kathy F J Tang, Wilawan Thongda, Terrence Tiersch, Joseph Tomasso, Wendy Tri Prabowo, Roger Vallejo, Hein van der Steen, Khoi Vo, Geoff Waldbieser, Hanping Wang, Xiaozhu Wang, Jianhai Xiang, Yujia Yang, Roger Yant, Zihao Yuan, Qifan Zeng, Tao Zhou
Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product quality, and profitability in support of the commercial sector and for the benefit of consumers. In order to achieve these goals, it is important to understand the genomic structure and organization of aquaculture species, and their genomic and phenomic variations, as well as the genetic basis of traits and their interrelationships...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218967/representation-of-critical-natural-capital-in-china
#12
Yihe Lü, Liwei Zhang, Yuan Zeng, Bojie Fu, Charlotte Whitham, Shuguang Liu, Bingfang Wu
Traditional means of assessing representativeness of conservation value in protected areas depend on measures of structural biodiversity. The effectiveness of priority conservation areas at representing critical natural capital (CNC) (i.e., an essential and renewable subset of natural capital) remains largely unknown. We analyzed the representativeness of CNC-conservation priority areas in national nature reserves (i.e., nature reserves under jurisdiction of the central government with large spatial distribution across the provinces) in China with a new biophysical-based composite indicator approach...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214528/adaptive-independent-vector-analysis-for-multi-subject-complex-valued-fmri-data
#13
Li-Dan Kuang, Qiu-Hua Lin, Xiao-Feng Gong, Fengyu Cong, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Complex-valued fMRI data can provide additional insights beyond magnitude-only data. However, independent vector analysis (IVA), which has exhibited great potential for group analysis of magnitude-only fMRI data, has rarely been applied to complex-valued fMRI data. The main challenges in this application include the extremely noisy nature and large variability of the source component vector (SCV) distribution. NEW METHOD: To address these challenges, we propose an adaptive fixed-point IVA algorithm for analyzing multiple-subject complex-valued fMRI data...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213446/acetylcholine-release-in-prefrontal-cortex-promotes-gamma-oscillations-and-theta-gamma-coupling-during-cue-detection
#14
W M Howe, H J Gritton, N Lusk, Erik A Roberts, Vaughn L Hetrick, Joshua D Berke, Martin Sarter
The capacity for using external cues to guide behavior ("cue detection") constitutes an essential aspect of attention and goal-directed behavior. The cortical cholinergic input system, via phasic increases in prefrontal acetylcholine release, plays an essential role in attention by mediating such cue detection. However, the relationship between cholinergic signaling during cue detection and neural activity dynamics in prefrontal networks remains unclear. Here we combined sub-second measures of cholinergic signaling, neurophysiological recordings, and cholinergic receptor blockade to delineate the cholinergic contributions to prefrontal oscillations during cue detection in rats...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211582/what-can-genome-wide-association-studies-tell-us-about-the-evolutionary-forces-maintaining-genetic-variation-for-quantitative-traits
#15
REVIEW
Emily B Josephs, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright
Contents 21 I. 21 II. 22 III. 24 IV. 25 V. 29 30 References 30 SUMMARY: Understanding the evolutionary forces that shape genetic variation within species has long been a goal of evolutionary biology. Integrating data for the genetic architecture of traits from genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) along with the development of new population genetic methods for identifying selection in sequence data may allow us to evaluate the roles of mutation-selection balance and balancing selection in shaping genetic variation at various scales...
April 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202756/a-glycosylation-benchmark-profile-for-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-production-based-on-eleven-env-trimers
#16
Eden P Go, Haitao Ding, Shijian Zhang, Rajesh P Ringe, Nathan Nicely, David Hua, Robert T Steinbock, Michael Golabek, James Alin, S Munir Alam, Albert Cupo, Barton F Haynes, John C Kappes, John P Moore, Joseph G Sodroski, Heather Desaire
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) glycosylation is important because individual glycans are components of multiple broadly neutralizing antibody epitopes, while shielding other sites that might otherwise be immunogenic. The glycosylation on Env is influenced by a variety of factors, including the genotype of the protein, the cell line used for its expression, and the details of the construct design. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based approach to map the complete glycosylation profile at every site in multiple HIV-1 Env trimers, accomplishing two goals: 1) We determined which glycosylation sites contain conserved glycan profiles across many trimeric Envs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202046/highly-predictive-snp-markers-for-efficient-selection-of-the-wheat-leaf-rust-resistance-gene-lr16
#17
Mulualem T Kassa, Frank M You, Colin W Hiebert, Curtis J Pozniak, Pierre R Fobert, Andrew G Sharpe, James G Menzies, D Gavin Humphreys, Nicole Rezac Harrison, John P Fellers, Brent D McCallum, Curt A McCartney
BACKGROUND: Lr16 is a widely deployed leaf rust resistance gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that is highly effective against the North American Puccinia triticina population when pyramided with the gene Lr34. Lr16 is a seedling leaf rust resistance gene conditioning an incompatible interaction with a distinct necrotic ring surrounding the uredinium. Lr16 was previously mapped to the telomeric region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2B. The goals of this study were to develop numerous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the Lr16 region and identify diagnostic gene-specific SNP marker assays for marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195030/extra-terra-incognita-martian-maps-in-the-digital-age
#18
Lisa Messeri
Science and technology studies (STS) and critical cartography are both asking questions about the ontological fixity of maps and other scientific objects. This paper examines how a group of NASA computer scientists who call themselves The Mapmakers conceptualizes and creates maps in service of different commitments. The maps under construction are those of alien Mars, produced through partnerships that NASA has established with Google and Microsoft. With the goal of bringing an experience of Mars to as many people as possible, these maps influence how we imagine our neighbouring planet...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190557/moving-the-needle-toward-high-quality-pediatric-surgical-care-how-can-we-achieve-this-goal-through-prioritization-measurement-and-more-effective-collaboration
#19
REVIEW
Shawn J Rangel
Over the past decade, the American College of Surgeons Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP-Pediatric) has greatly improved upon our ability to measure, benchmark and compare outcomes as they relate to pediatric surgical care. Several factors have served to mold the program's evolution and data collection paradigm over time. These have included a broader understanding of what quality measures should be captured and compared from the perspectives of different stakeholders, identification of conditions where quality and process improvement efforts may have the greatest relative impact from a public health perspective, and increasing evidence in support of collaborative networks to accelerate quality improvement through the dissemination of best practices...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188765/predicting-the-potential-distribution-of-main-malaria-vectors-anopheles-stephensi-an-culicifacies-s-l-and-an-fluviatilis-s-l-in-iran-based-on-maximum-entropy-model
#20
Kamran Pakdad, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Ahmad Raeisi, Abdolreza Salahi Moghaddam, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
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