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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106500/cortical-plasticity-of-motor-eloquent-areas-measured-by-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-patients-with-glioma
#1
Neal Conway, Noémie Wildschuetz, Tobias Moser, Lucia Bulubas, Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cerebral plasticity. Coupled with noninvasive detection of its occurrence, such an understanding has huge potential to improve glioma therapy. The authors aimed to demonstrate the frequency of plastic reshaping, find clues to the patterns behind it, and prove that it can be recognized noninvasively using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). METHODS The authors used nTMS to map cortical motor representation in 22 patients with gliomas affecting the precentral gyrus, preoperatively and 3-42 months postoperatively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104303/addressing-health-inequalities-by-using-structural-funds-a-question-of-opportunities
#2
Oana Maria Neagu, Kai Michelsen, Jonathan Watson, Barrie Dowdeswell, Helmut Brand
Making up a third of the EU budget, Structural and Investment Funds can provide important opportunities for investing in policies that tackle inequalities in health. This article looks back and forward at the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 financial periods in an attempt to inform the development of health equity as a strand of policy intervention under regional development. It combines evidence from health projects funded through Structural Funds and a document analyses that locates interventions for health equity under the new regulations...
January 7, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102957/rf-safety-assessment-of-a-bilateral-four-channel-transmit-receive-7-tesla-breast-coil-sar-versus-tissue-temperature-limits
#3
Thomas M Fiedler, Mark E Ladd, Andreas K Bitz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to perform an RF safety evaluation for a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive breast coil and to determine the maximum permissible input power for which RF exposure of the subject stays within recommended limits. The safety evaluation was done based on SAR as well as on temperature simulations. In comparison to SAR, temperature is more directly correlated with tissue damage, which allows a more precise safety assessment. The temperature simulations were performed by applying three different blood perfusion models as well as two different ambient temperatures...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101260/tracking-the-resolution-of-student-misconceptions-about-the-central-dogma-of-molecular-biology
#4
Amy G Briggs, Stephanie K Morgan, Seth K Sanderson, Molly C Schulting, Laramie J Wieseman
The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100093/p19-targeted-abd-derived-protein-variants-inhibit-il-23-binding-and-exert-suppressive-control-over-il-23-stimulated-expansion-of-primary-human-il-17-t-cells
#5
Lucie Křížová, Milan Kuchař, Hana Petroková, Radim Osička, Marie Hlavničková, Ondřej Pelák, Jiří Černý, Tomáš Kalina, Petr Malý
Interleukin-23 (IL-23), a heterodimeric cytokine of covalently bound p19 and p40 proteins, has recently been closely associated with development of several chronic autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Released by activated dendritic cells, IL-23 interacts with IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) on Th17 cells, thus promoting intracellular signaling, a pivotal step in Th17-driven pro-inflammatory axis. Here, we aimed to block the binding of IL-23 cytokine to its cell-surface receptor by novel inhibitory protein binders targeted to the p19 subunit of human IL-23...
January 19, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100011/association-mapping-of-morphological-traits-in-wild-and-captive-zebra-finches-reliable-within-but-not-between-populations
#6
Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Niclas Backström, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Simon C Griffith, Hans Ellegren, Bart Kempenaers, Wolfgang Forstmeier
Identifying causal genetic variants underlying heritable phenotypic variation is a longstanding goal in evolutionary genetics. We previously identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for five morphological traits in a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by whole-genome linkage mapping. We here follow up on these studies with the aim to narrow down on the quantitative trait variants (QTN) in one wild and three captive populations. First, we performed an association study using 672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes located in the previously identified QTL regions in a sample of 939 wild-caught zebra finches...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099326/implementation-of-a-needs-based-online-feedback-tool-for-anesthesia-residents-with-subsequent-mapping-of-the-feedback-to-the-acgme-milestones
#7
Pedro Tanaka, Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell, Kim Walker, Jennifer Zocca, Lena Scotto, Alyssa L Bogetz, Alex Macario
BACKGROUND: Optimizing feedback that residents receive from faculty is important for learning. The goals of this study were to (1) conduct focus groups of anesthesia residents to define what constitutes optimal feedback; (2) develop, test, and implement a web-based feedback tool; and (3) then map the contents of the written comments collected on the feedback tool to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) anesthesiology milestones. METHODS: All 72 anesthesia residents in the program were invited to participate in 1 of 5 focus groups scheduled over a 2-month period...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094289/analytically-determined-topological-phase-diagram-of-the-proximity-induced-gap-in-diffusive-n-terminal-josephson-junctions
#8
Morten Amundsen, Jabir Ali Ouassou, Jacob Linder
Multiterminal Josephson junctions have recently been proposed as a route to artificially mimic topological matter with the distinct advantage that its properties can be controlled via the superconducting phase difference, giving rise to Weyl points in 4-terminal geometries. A key goal is to accurately determine when the system makes a transition from a gapped to non-gapped state as a function of the phase differences in the system, the latter effectively playing the role of quasiparticle momenta in conventional topological matter...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092965/a-national-analysis-of-dental-waiting-lists-and-point-in-time-geographic-access-to-subsidised-dental-care-can-geographic-access-be-improved-by-offering-public-dental-care-through-private-dental-clinics
#9
Yevgeni Dudko, Estie Kruger, Marc Tennant
INTRODUCTION: Australia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, with a population concentrated on or around coastal areas. Up to 33% of the Australian population are likely to have untreated dental decay, while people with inadequate dentition (fewer than 21 teeth) account for up to 34% of Australian adults. Historically, inadequate access to public dental care has resulted in long waiting lists, received much media coverage and been the subject of a new federal and state initiative...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092051/sh2-binding-site-protection-assay-a-method-for-identification-of-sh2-domain-interaction-partners-by-exploiting-sh2-mediated-phosphosite-protection
#10
Joshua A Jadwin
Over the last two decades there has been a significant effort in the field to characterize the phosphosite binding specificities of SH2 domains with the goal of deciphering the pY signaling code. Although high throughput studies in various formats using most SH2 domains have collectively provided a rich resource of in vitro SH2-pTyr site specificity maps, this data can only be used approximate what is happening in the cell where protein concentrations and localization are not homogenous, as they are for in vitro experiments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091336/who-are-the-patients-that-default-tuberculosis-treatment-space-matters
#11
C Nunes, R Duarte, A M Veiga, B Taylor
The goals of this article are: (i) to understand how individual characteristics affect the likelihood of patients defaulting their pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment regimens; (ii) to quantify the predictive capacity of these risk factors; and (iii) to quantify and map spatial variation in the risk of defaulting. We used logistic regression models and generalized additive models with a spatial component to determine the odds of default across continental Portugal. We focused on new PTB cases, diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, and included some individual information (sex, age, residence area, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug use, homelessness, HIV, imprisonment status)...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089516/environmental-geometry-aligns-the-hippocampal-map-during-spatial-reorientation
#12
Alex T Keinath, Joshua B Julian, Russell A Epstein, Isabel A Muzzio
When a navigator's internal sense of direction is disrupted, she must rely on external cues to regain her bearings, a process termed spatial reorientation. Extensive research has demonstrated that the geometric shape of the environment exerts powerful control over reorientation behavior, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Whereas some theories claim that geometry controls behavior through an allocentric mechanism potentially tied to the hippocampus, others postulate that disoriented navigators reach their goals by using an egocentric view-matching strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088225/using-low-cost-drones-to-map-malaria-vector-habitats
#13
Andy Hardy, Makame Makame, Dónall Cross, Silas Majambere, Mwinyi Msellem
BACKGROUND: There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations...
January 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077268/development-of-high-resolution-3d-hyperpolarized-carbon-13-mr-molecular-imaging-techniques
#14
Eugene Milshteyn, Cornelius von Morze, Galen D Reed, Hong Shang, Peter J Shin, Zihan Zhu, Hsin-Yu Chen, Robert Bok, Andrei Goga, John Kurhanewicz, Peder E Z Larson, Daniel B Vigneron
The goal of this project was to develop and apply techniques for T2 mapping and 3D high resolution (1.5mm isotropic; 0.003cm(3)) (13)C imaging of hyperpolarized (HP) probes [1-(13)C]lactate, [1-(13)C]pyruvate, [2-(13)C]pyruvate, and [(13)C,(15)N2]urea in vivo. A specialized 2D bSSFP sequence was implemented on a clinical 3T scanner and used to obtain the first high resolution T2 maps of these different hyperpolarized compounds in both rats and tumor-bearing mice. These maps were first used to optimize timings for highest SNR for single time-point 3D bSSFP acquisitions with a 1...
January 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077191/genome-wide-analysis-in-endangered-populations-a-case-study-in-barbaresca-sheep
#15
S Mastrangelo, B Portolano, R Di Gerlando, R Ciampolini, M Tolone, M T Sardina
Analysis of genomic data is becoming increasingly common in the livestock industry and the findings have been an invaluable resource for effective management of breeding programs in small and endangered populations. In this paper, with the goal of highlighting the potential of genomic analysis for small and endangered populations, genome-wide levels of linkage disequilibrium, measured as the squared correlation coefficient of allele frequencies at a pair of loci, effective population size, runs of homozygosity (ROH) and genetic diversity parameters, were estimated in Barbaresca sheep using Illumina OvineSNP50K array data...
January 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077095/geographic-information-system-for-improving-maternal-and-newborn-health-recommendations-for-policy-and-programs
#16
Yordanos B Molla, Barbara Rawlins, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Marc Cunningham, Juan Eugenio Hernández Ávila, Corrine Warren Ruktanonchai, Kavita Singh, Sylvia Alford, Mira Thompson, Vikas Dwivedi, Allisyn C Moran, Zoe Matthews
This correspondence argues and offers recommendations for how Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to maternal and newborn health data could potentially be used as part of the broader efforts for ending preventable maternal and newborn mortality. These recommendations were generated from a technical consultation on reporting and mapping maternal deaths that was held in Washington, DC from January 12 to 13, 2015 and hosted by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) global Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074530/slice-profile-and-b1-corrections-in-2d-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting
#17
Dan Ma, Simone Coppo, Yong Chen, Debra F McGivney, Yun Jiang, Shivani Pahwa, Vikas Gulani, Mark A Griswold
PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to characterize and improve the accuracy of 2D magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) scans in the presence of slice profile (SP) and B1 imperfections, which are two main factors that affect quantitative results in MRF. METHODS: The SP and B1 imperfections are characterized and corrected separately. The SP effect is corrected by simulating the radiofrequency pulse in the dictionary, and the B1 is corrected by acquiring a B1 map using the Bloch-Siegert method before each scan...
January 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072857/quantification-of-local-warming-trend-a-remote-sensing-based-approach
#18
Khan Rubayet Rahaman, Quazi K Hassan
Understanding the warming trends at local level is critical; and, the development of relevant adaptation and mitigation policies at those levels are quite challenging. Here, our overall goal was to generate local warming trend map at 1 km spatial resolution by using: (i) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based 8-day composite surface temperature data; (ii) weather station-based yearly average air temperature data; and (iii) air temperature normal (i.e., 30 year average) data over the Canadian province of Alberta during the period 1961-2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068939/swallowing-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-dysphagia-after-head-and-neck-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-behavioural-strategies-used-to-promote-patient-adherence-to-swallowing-exercises
#19
Roganie Govender, Christina H Smith, Stuart A Taylor, Helen Barratt, Benjamin Gardner
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a significant side-effect following treatment for head and neck cancers, yet poor adherence to swallowing exercises is frequently reported in intervention studies. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) can be used to improve adherence, but no review to date has described the techniques or indicated which may be more associated with improved swallowing outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify behavioural strategies in swallowing interventions, and to explore any relationships between these strategies and intervention effects...
January 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067711/early-goal-directed-therapy-for-sepsis-a-novel-solution-for-discordant-survival-outcomes-in-clinical-trials
#20
Andre C Kalil, Daniel W Johnson, Steven J Lisco, Junfeng Sun
OBJECTIVES: Early goal-directed therapy has shown discordant survival outcomes in sepsis studies. We aim to find the reasons for this discordance. DESIGN: Random-effects and Bayesian hierarchical analyses. SETTING: Studies that evaluated early goal-directed therapy. SUBJECTS: Patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock. INTERVENTIONS: Early goal-directed therapy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 19,998 patients were included in the main analysis: 31 observational (n = 15,656) and six randomized (n = 4,342) studies...
January 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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